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JOURNAL OF THE 

GYPSY LORE 

SOCIETY 



NEW SERIES 



VOLUMF IX PART 1 



PRINTED PRIVATELY FOR THE MEMBERS 
OF THE GYPSY LORE SOCIETY, GRINDLETON 
VICARAGE. CLITHEROE, BY T. AND A. 
CONSTABLE, PRINTERS TO HIS MAJESTY 
AT THE EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY PRESS 






CONTENTS 



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JOURNAL OF THE 

GYPSY LORE SOCIETY 



NEW SERIES 



JOURNAL OF THE 



GYPSY LORE 



SOCIETY 



NEW SERIES 



VOLUME IX 
{1915—1916) 



PKLXTED PRIVATELY FOR THE MEMBERS OF THE GYPSY 

LORE SOCIETY, BY T. .t A. CONSTABLE LTD. AT THE 

EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY PRESS 












\V 



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u^* 



II' 



CONTENTS^ 
PAET 1. 



PAQE 



I. Report on the Gtpsy Tribes of North-east Bulgaria. By 

'Petulknoro' ...... 1 

Review ........ 54 

Notes and (Queries ...... 64 

PART 2. 

I. Report ok the Gtpsy Tribes oV North-kast Bulgaria. By 

'Petulenoro' ...... 65 

Editorial ........ 10!) 

Notes and (Queries . .111 

PART8 3 AND 4. 

1. Vale et Ave I By John Sampson . .113 

II. Studies IN Romani Philology. By Alfkeh L. Woolner. I. . 119 

III. The Norwood Gypsies and their Vocabulary. By Eric Otto 

WiNSTEUT ....... 129 

IV. Bkioiit's Anglo-Romam Vocabulary. By Ale.xander Russell 165 
V. An American-Romani Vocabulary. By George F. Black, Ph.D. 185 

Notes and Queries ...... 222 

Index. By Alexander Russell ...... 225 

Frontispiece. Boiikmiene disant la bonne avantcre. By Cara- 
vAGoio. (Presented by A. Russell.) 

* Complete Lists of the Reviews and of the Notes and Queries will be found 
in the Index under these headings. 



ERRATA 

Pajre 80, line 6, for Sieb^nburgen read Siehmburgen. 

„ 130, lines 9-16, for At the Qiu^n— There reinaint the read One of the ttoo fimt 
guggettions it probaltly right. Hut thrre it just a. 

„ 164, line 2 from the bottom, for kair read ktr. 



K 



The Gypsy Lore Soeiet\ 

GRINDLETON VICARAGE, CLITHEROE 



r 



J'ad J'resiileuts- 



President — John Sampson, D.Litt. 

Charles Godfrey Leland, 1888-92. 
David MacRitchie, 1907-8. 
Henry Thomas Crofion, 1908-9. 
Theodore AVaits-Dunton, 1909-10. 
The Mari^uis Adriano Colocci, 1910-11. 
AiiTHiR Theslekf, 1911-12. 
Geheimr.\t Prof. Ekn.st Ki'hn, 1912-13. 
Lady Arthur (trosvenor, 1913 14. 
iPrincipal Sir Donald MacAli.stek, K.C.H., 1914-ir). 



LIST OF MEMBERS' 

\st Juhi 1014— .'^O/A ,Jun> 1921 

LI RR ARIES AND SOCIETIES 

[219] Aberdeen, Scotland, The Univcreity Library, King's College. 
[293] Aberystwyth, Wales, The National Library of AVales, care of 

Sydney V. Galloway, Pier Street, Aberystwyth. 
[33G] Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A., The University Institute Library, 

care of Henry Sotheran it Co., 140 Strand, London, W.C. 2. 
[332] Baltimore, U.S.A., The Peabody Institute, care of Edward G. Allen 

& IJion, Ltd., 12 and 14 Grape Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, 

London, W.C. 2. 
[331] Berkley, California, L^.S.A., University of California, care of B. F. 

Stevens \- Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, London, ^^'.C. 2. 
[148] Berlin, Germany, Anthropologische Gesellschaft, Koniggrjitzer- 

strasse 120. 
[18] Berlin, Germany, Preussische Staats-Bibliothek, Behrenstrasse 

40, W. 64. 
[26] Birmingham, England, Free Reference Library, Ratcliffe Place. 
[162] Boston, Mass., L-.S.A., The Athcna.'uni, care of Edward G. Allen 

& Son, Ltd., 14 Grape Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, London, 

W.C. 2. 

' The numbers printed in brackets before the names indicate the order in which 
members joined the Society, as determined by the dates of the receipts for their 
first subscriptions. The first new member who joined after the revival of the 
Gypsy Lore Society in the spring of 1907 was No. 92, and lower numbers, of which 
there are twenty-seven, distinguish those who were members during the first period 
of the Society's activity, which ended on June 30, 1892. 

h 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[39] Boston, Mass., U.S.A., The Public Library, care of G. E. Stechert 
& Co., 2 Star Yard, Carey Street, Chancery Lane, London, 
W.C. 2. 



[326 
[319 
[200 

[284 

[260 

[330 

[181 

[251 
[27 

[151 
[161 

[145 

[265 

[163 
[261 

[252 

[268 

[203 
[204 

[89 
[156 

[49 

[141 

[212 
[255 



Breslau, Germany, Staats- und Universitiits-Bibliothck. 

Brighton, England, The Public Library. 

Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A., The Public Library, Montague Branch, 

197 Montague Street. 
Brussels, Belgium, P)il)liothequc Royale de Belgique, 5 Place du 

Musee. 
Budapest, Hungary, Magyar Nemzeti Muzeum, Szechenyi orsz. 

KonyvtAra, care of Gusztav Raiischburg, Budapest iv., Franzis- 

kanerplatz 2. 
Buffalo, N.Y., The Grosvenor Library, care of B. F. Stevens & 

Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, London, ^V.C. 2. 
Calcutta, India, The Asiatic Society of Bengal (57 Park Street), 

care of Luzac it Co., 46 Great Russell Street, London, W.C. 1. 
Cambridge, England, The University Library. 
Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., Harvard University Library, care of 

Edward G. Allen & Son, Ltd., 11 Grape Street, Shaftesbury 

Avenue, London, W.C. 2. 
Cardiff, South Wales, Central Public Library. 
Chicago, 111., U.S.A., The Newberry Library, care of B. F. Stevens 

& Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, London, W.C. 2. 
Chicago, 111., U.S.A., The University Library, care of B. F. 

Stevens & Brown, t Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, London, 

W.C. 2. 
Christiania, Norway, Universitets-Bibliothcket, care of Camnier- 

meyers Boghandel (Sigurd Pedersen og Eistein Ka;ibe), Karl 

Johans Gade 41 og 43, Kristiania, Norway. 
Copenhagen, Denmark, The Royal Library, care of Francis 

E<1 wards, 83 High Street, Marylebone, London, \\'. 1. 
Dresden, Germany, Sachsischf Lan<le.=;-r)ibli()thok. Kai.'^or Wilhclm 

Platz 11. 
Dublin, Ireland, The Library of Trinity College. 
Dulilin, Ireland, The National Library of Ireland, care of Hodges, 

Figgis it Co., Lt<l , 20 Nassau Street, Dublin. 
Edinburgh, Scotland, The Advocates' Library. 
Edinburgh, Scotland, The Philosophical Institution, 4 Queen 

Street. 
Edinburgh, Scotland, The Public Library, George iv. Bridge. 
Edinburgh, Scotland, The Royal Scottish Museum, care of James 

Thin, 54 South Bridge, Edinburgh. 
Edinburgh, Scotland, The Signet Library, care of George P. 

Johnston, 37 George Street, Edinburgh. 
Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Freiherrlich Carl von Roth- 

schild'sche otfentliche Bibliothek, Untermainkai 15. 
Glasgow, Scotland, The Mitchell Library, 21 Miller Street, Glasgow. 
Glasgow, Scotland, The University Library, care of James 

MacLehose & Sons, 61 St. Vincent Street, (.ila.sgow. 



LIST OF MEMBERS XI 

[236] Hamburg, Germany, Museum fiir Volkerkunde, Binderstrasse 14. 
[285] Harrisburg, Pa., U.S.A., The State Library of Pennsylvania. 
[146] Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A., Cornell University Library, care of Edward 
G. Allen & Son, Ltd., 14 Grape Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, 
London, W.C. 2. 
[323] Krakow, Galizien, Poland, C. K. Biblioteca Uniwersytetu Jagiel- 
loiiskiego w Krakowie {per G. Gebethner i Sp.), care of William 
Dawson & Sons, Ltd. (Low's Export Department), St. Dunstan's 
House, Fetter Lane, London, E.G. 4. 
[269] Leeds, England, The Central Free Public Library. 
[43] Leiden, The Netherlands, The L^niversity Library (Legaat Warner), 
care of S. C. van Doesburgh, Breetstraat 14, Leiden. 
[283] Leipzig, Germany, Universitiits-Bibliothek, care of J. C. Hinrichs, 

Grimmaischestrasse 32, Leipzig, Germany. 
[214] Liverpool, England, The Public Library, William Brown Street. 
[243] London, England, The British Museum, Department of Printod 

Books, W.C. 1. 
[232] London, England, The London Library, St. James's Square, 

S.W. 1. 
[328] Los Angeles, Cal., U.S.A., Los Angeles I'ublic Library, care of 
B. F. Stevens Sc Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, 
London, W.C. 2. 
[279] Manchester, England, The .lohn Rylands Library, Deansgate. 
[28] Manchester, England, Public Free Reference Librar\', King 
Street. 
[321] Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, The Public Library, care of Henry 

Sotherun & Co., 43 Piccadilly. London. W. 1. 
[216] Milan, Italy, Keale Biblioteca Nazionalc di Brera, care of Hoepli it 

Co., Galleria de Christoforis 59, Milano, Italy. 
[327] Minneapolis, Minn., U.S.A., The Minneapolis Athenaeum. 

[59] Miinchen, Bavaria, Bayer. Staats-Bibliothek. 
[335] Newark, N.J., U.S.A., The Free Public Lil)rary, care of G. E. 
Stechert & Co., 2 Star Vard, Carey Street, Chancery Lane, 
London, W.C. 2. 
[147] New Haven, Conn., L'.S.A., Yale LTniversity Library, care of 
Edward G. Allen S: Son, Ltd., 14 Grape Street, Shaftesbury 
Avenue, London, W.C. 2. 
[275] New York, L^.S.A., Columbia L'niversity Library, care of G. E. 
Stechert & Co., 2 Star Yard, Carey Street, Chancery Lane, 
London, W.C. 2. 
[135] New York, U.S.A., The Public Library, 476 Fifth Avenue, care 
of B. F. Stevens <t Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cro.ss, 
London, W.C. 2. 
[244] Newcastle upon-Tyne, England, The Public Library, New Bridge 

Street. 
[143] Northampton, Mass., U.S.A., The Forbes Library, care of Henry 
Sotheran & Co., 140 Strand, London, W.C. 2. 
[13] Oxford, England, The Bodleian Library. 
[171] Oxford, England, The Meyrick Library, Jesus College. 



Xll LIST OF MEMBERS 

[218] Paris, France, Bibliotheque Nationale, care of Librairic C. Klinck- J 

sieck, 11 rue de Lille, Paris (vii**), France. ' 

[272] Petrograd, Russia, Imperial Public Library, care of Ellis, 29 New 

Bond Street, London, W. 1. 
[277] Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A., The Free Library, Thirteenth and LocuRt 

Streets. 
[329] Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A., University' of Penn.sylyania, care of 

G. E. Stechert <\: Co., 2 Star Yard, Carey Street, Chancery 

Lane, London, W.C. 2. 
[342] Princeton, N.J., U.S.A., The University Library, care of G. E. 

Stechert A: Co., 2 Star Yard, Carey Street, Chancery Lane, 

London, W.C. 2. 
[324] Sacramento, Cal, U.S.A., California State Library, care of G. E. 

Stechert tV Co., 2 Star Yard, Carey Street, Chancery Lane, 

London, W.C. 2. 
[133] St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A., The Mercantile Library, care of G. E. 

Stechert iK: Co., 2 Star Yard, Carey Street, Chancery Lane, 

London, ^V.C. 2. 
[233] St. Jjouis, Missouri, ['.S.A., The Public Library, care of B. F. 

Stevens Sc Brown, I Trafalgar Square, London, W.C. 2. 
[209] Stockholm, Sweden, The Royal Library, care of Wheldon «^- Wesley, 

28 Essex Street, Strand, London, W.C. 2. 
[266] Strassburg, i. Els., Germany, Kai.serliche Universitiits- und Landes- 

Bibliothek. 
[286] Upp.sala, Sweden, Kurigl. Universitcts Bibliotek. 
[322] ITtrecht, The Netherlands, I'niversitcits Bibliotheek. 
[270] Vienna, Austria, K. K. Hofliibliothek, Josefsplatz 1. 
[292] Vienna, Austria, K. K. Universitats-Bibliothek. 
[345] Washington, D.C., U.S.A., The Library of Congress, care of 

Bernard Qnaritch, Ltd., 11 (irafton Street, New Bond Street, 

London, W. 1. 
[155] Wa.shington, D.C, TT.S.,\.. The Piiblir Librarv ..f the District of 

Columbia. 
[273] Weimar, Germany, (jrossherzoglichc Bililiothek. 



IXDIVIDUALS 

[119] Ackerley, The Rev. Canon Frederick George (Hon. Secretary), 

Grindlctoii Vicarage, near Clitheroe. Lanca.«shire. 
[157] Adams, Alfred, 493^ and 495 Collins Street (W.), Melbourne, 

Victoria, Australia. 
[115] Aldersey, Hugh, of Aldersey, Handley, near Chester. 
[341] Allison, Miss Molly, Rye Close, King's Congleton, Alcester, 

Warwickshire. 
[337] Appleby, Major G. P., Farcham, Hampshire. 
[259] Atkinson. Frank Stanley, 3 Avondale Road, Karlsdon. Coventry. 
[312] Baker, the late Captain L. G., Army and- Navy Club, Pall Mall, 

London, S.W. 1. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



XUl 



Bartlett, The Rev. Donald Mackenzie Maynard, St. Wilfrid's 

Vicarage, Harrogate. 
Bathgate, Herbert J., Superintendent, The Borstal Institution, 

Invercargill, New Zealand. 
Berry, Mrs. Kiley Maria Fletcher, Box 17, R.F.D. 2, Sanford, 

Florida, U.S.A. 
Bigge, John A. Selby, 7 Wilbraham Place, London, S.AV. 1. 
Bilgrami, Syed Hossain, C.S.I., Nawal» Imad-ul-Mulk Bahadur, 

Kocklands, Saifabad, Plyderabad, I^eccan, India. 
Black, George F., Ph.D., New York Public Library, 476 Fifth 

Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 
Blaikie, Walter Biggar, LL.D., F.K.S.E., 11 Thistle Street, Edin- 
burgh. 
Borenius, C. Einar, Ph.D., Councillor, Finnish Legation, Stockholm, 

Sweden. 
Bramiey-.Moore, Mi.ss Eva, May Bank, Aigburth, Liverpool. 
Hroadwood, Miss Lucy Etheldred, 3c Montagu Mansions, London, 

W. 1. 
Brown, Irving 11., Ph.D., Department of Komance Languages, 

The University, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Butterworth, Charles F., Waterloo, Poynton, Cheshire. 
Canziani, Miss Rstclla, 3 Palace Green, Kensington, London, W. 8. 
Casey, John, care of Notarius Pokrovsky, Moskovskaya Ulitza 22, 

Penza, Ku.ssia. 
Clugnet, the late Leon, Licencie es lettres, Villa Miryam, " rue 

Carrierc, Mark'', Bourg-la-Keino, Seine, France. 
Colocci, The Marquis Adriano Amerigo, Palazzo Colocci, Piazza 

Angclo Colocci, Jesi, Italy. 
Crofton, Henry Thoma.s \\\\a. Mauvarre, Cannes, France. 
Dawkins, Richard .NPGillivray, M.A., Plas Dulas, Llanddulas, 

North Wales. 
DelDiicle, Franrois, deputi', 59 rue de la Tour, Paris (vi"), France. 
Domville, Miss Stella li. B., Shutes, Syiiiondsbury, Bridport, Dorset. 
Ehrenborg, Harald, Opphem, Sweden. 
Eve, The Honourable Mr. Justice Harry Trelawney, Royal Courts 

of Justice, Strand, London, W.C. 2. 
Farrell, Frank James, M.Sc, Montagu House, Beccles, Suffolk. 
Feleky, Charles, 508 West 114th Street, New York, L'.S.A. 
Fergu.son, James, Manor F'arm, Tytherington, near Macclesfield. 
Ferguson^ the late Professor John, LL.D., The University, Glasgow. 
Ferguson, William, Manor Hoiise, Tvtherington, near Maccles- 
field. 
Fisher, the late Charles Dennis. M.A., Christ Church, Oxford. 
Francis, Henry James, Hollycroft, Hinckley, Leicestershire. 
Fvffe, Colin C. H., 1406 New York Life Building, Chicago, III, 

U.S.A. 
Gibbs, Ben R., 16 Bloomfield, Blackwood, Monmouthshire. 
Gilliat-Smith, Bernard Joseph, The British Consulate, Varna, 

Bulgaria. 



XIV LIST OF MEMBERS 

[197] Gilliiigton, Miss Alice E., The Caravans, Lilliput Hill, Parkstone- 

on-sea, Dorset. 
[250] Goddard, Miss Amelia, Lark's Gate, Thorney Hill, Bransgore, Hants. 
[15] Greene, Herbert Wilson, M.A., B.C.L., 4 Stone Buildings, Lincoln's 

Inn, London, W.C. 2. 
[92] Grosvenor, Lady Arthur, Broxton Lower Hall, Handley, near 

Chester. 
[98] Hall, the late lie v. George, Ruckland Rectory, Louth, Lincolnshire. 
[339] Hewitt, Reginald Mainwaring, M.A., University College, Notting- 
ham. 
[168] Hewlett, John H., Queensgate, Harrow-on-the-Hill. 
[303] Hitchcock, Roger F., Switterfield, Stowupland,Stowni;ukct, Suffolk. 
[213] Humphreys, A. L., York I>o(lge, Baker Street, Reading. 
[90] Huth, the late Captain Frederi<k II., Beckford House, 20 Lansdown 

Crescent, Bath. 
[169] Huth, Sydney Franci-s, Culnistock, Cullonipton, Devon. 
[144] Imlach, Miss G. M., M.A., 8 Blenheim Road, Wavertree, Liverpool. 
[334] James, Alfred, o Portcanna Place, William Street, Cardiff. 
[.{02] Jacob, Lieut. -Col. H. F., cmre of Llovfl's Bank, Ltd., p^i.stbnurne. 
[193] John, Augustus E.. A.R.A., 28 Mallnrd Street, Chelsea, Lonchdi. 

S.W. :i. 
[281] Kendal, Richard P. J., Brandrcth House, Parbold, near Wigan. 
[178] Kershaw, Philip, Shobley, Ringwood, Hants. 
[51] Kuhn, the late Geheimrat Professor Ernst, Ph.D., Hess-Strasse 5, 

Munich, (4ermaiiy. 
[298] Lockyer, the late James Edward, A.M.I.C.E., Tackct Wood House, 

Kingsbridge, South Devon. 
[96] Lothian, the late ^L•lurice John, Kilravock, Blarkfonl Avenue, 

Ld in burgh. 
[130] Lovell, Miss Fenella, 203 BouUvard Raspail, Paris. 
[106] Lyster, Miss M. Eileen, 9 Linudalc Road, West Kirby, (.^hcshire. 
[75] MacAlister,Prineij)arSir Donald. K f P . M \,M D. f » (VL.,LL.D., 

The University, Glasgow. 
[220] Macalister, Professor Robert Alexander Stewart, M.A., F.S.A., 

18 P^denmount Road, Donny brook, Co. Dublin, 
[93] M'^Cormick, Andrew, 60 Victoria Street, Newton-St«wart, Wigtown- 
shire. 
[223] ^Lacfie, Miss Alison Bland Scott, Rowton Hall, Chester. 
[158] Macfie, Charles Wahab Scott, Rock Mount, 13 Tiiverpool Road, 

Chester. 
[112] Macfie, John William Scott, M.A., B.Sc, M.B., Ch.B., Rowton 

Hall, Chester. 
[108] Macfie, Robert Andrew Scott, M.A., B.Sc., 34 Moorfields, Liverpool. 
[262] MacGilp, The Rev. John D., M.A., The Crown Manse, Inverness, 

Scotland. 
[125] M'Kie, Norman James, M.D., 14 Arthur Street, Newton-Stewart, 

AVigtownshire. 
[206] Maclaren, J. Stewart, Hartfell House, Moffat, Dumfriesshire, 

Scotland. 



LIST OF MEMBERS XV 

[240] MacLeod, William, 10 Rhode Island Avenue, Newport, Rhode 
Island, U.S.A. 
[1] MacRitchie, Da\'id, F.S.A.Scot., 4 Archibald Place, Edinburgh. 
[136] >PWhir, James, M.B., Ch.B., Swinton, Duns, Berwickshire. 
[9')] Maitland, Mrs. Ella Fuller, 131 Sloane Street, London, S.W. 1. 
[97] Malleson, the late Rev. Herbert Harry, Manston Vicarage, Cross- 
gates, near Leeds. 
[153] Marston, Miss Agnes, B.A., 13 Denman Drive, Newsham Park, 

Liverpool. 
[113] Merrick, William Percy, Woodleigh, Shepperton, Middlesex. 
[318] Milroy, Mrs. M. E., The Oast House, near Farnham, Surrey. 
[1S8] Mitchell, William, 14 Forbesfield Road, Aberdeen. 
[333] Montague, Mrs. Amy. 

[172] Moreton, the late Lord, Sarsden House, Chipping Norton, Oxon. 
[247] Moriarty, J. R., 119 Mecklenburg Street, St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, Canada. 
[217] Muir, Professor John Ramsay Bryce, M.A., The University, Man- 
chester. 
[105] .Myers, John, 24 Dewsland Park Road, Newport, Monmouth. 
[211] Owen, David Charles Lloy<i. M D., Bron-y-Graig, Harlech, North 
Wales. 
[76] Owen, Miss Mary Alicia, 306 North 9th Street, St. Joseph, M<j.. 

U.S.A. 
[11] Pennell, Mrs. Elizabeth Robins, Hotel Margaret, 95-97 Columljia 
Heights, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 
[310] Phillimore, the late Honble. Robert C, Itidlett, Herts. 
[308] Pohl, H., 78 Cecil Street, Greenheys, Manchester. 
[80] Prideaux, the late Colonel W. F., C.S.I., Hopeville, St. Peter's-in- 
Thanet, Kent. 
[-27] (.^uevedo, the late Sonor I'rofessor Don Samuel A. Lafone (391 San 
Martin, Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic), care of Henry 
Young & Sons, 12 South Castle Street, Liverpool. 
[278] Quinn, John, 31 Nassau Street, New York, U.S.A. 
[88] Rae, Mrs. John, Glenelly, Chislehurst, Kent. 

[56] Riinking, Devey Fearon de I'Hoste, LL.D., 9 Overstrand Mansion.s, 
Battersea Park, London, S.W. 11. 
[280] Ranking, Colonel G. S. A., Beech Lawn, Park Town, Oxford. 
[103] Reynolds, Llywarch, B.A., Old Church Place, Merthyr Tydfil, 

Wales. 
[314] Richardson, Hubert N. B., 16 Mcrchiston Avenue, Edinburgh. 
[107] Robertson, Donald Struan, Trinity College, Cambridge. 
[309] Russell, The Right Honble. the Countess, Telegraph House, 

Chichester. 
[126] Russell, the late Alexander, M.A., John Street, Stromness, Orkney. 
[87] Saltus, the late J. Sanford, Salmagundi Club, 47 Fifth Avenue, 

New York, L^.S.A. 
[16] Sampson, John, D.Litt., M.A., The Univerity, Liverpool. 
[264] Scott, Charles Payson Gurley, 49 Arthur Street, Yonkers, New 
York, U.S.A. 



XVI LIST OF MEMBERS 



Shaw, Fred., 7 Macdonald Road, Friern Barnet, London, N. 11. 
Sidebotham, Henry, Wood View, 27 Robin Lane, Pudsey, near 

Leeds. 
Slade, C. F., 38 Moor Road, Headingley, Leeds. 
Slade, Edgar A., ' Dodpitts,' near Yarmouth, Isle of Wight. 
Sowton, Miss 8. C. M., Avington, Guildford, Surrey. 
Spalding, Dr. James A., 627 Congress Street, Portland, Maine, 

U.S.A. 
Strachey, Charles, 32 Abbey Road, St. John's Wood, London, 

N.W. 8. 
Strang, Ian, 27 Whitehead's drove, London, S.W. 3. 
Sykes, Brig.-General P. Molosworth, C.M.G.,C.I.E.,ThL' Athena-uni, 

London, S.W. 1. 
Symons, Arthur, 13 Queens Gardens, London, W. 2. 
Taylor, E. R., Can Hatch, Burgh Heath, Epsom. 
Thesleff, the late Arthur, Stockholm, Sweden. 
Thompson, Thomas William, M.A., Reptori, Derby. 
Valentine, .Milward, 'J Maniiering Road, Sefton Park, Liverpool. 
Wackernagel, Professor Jacob, Ph.D., Gartenstrasse 1)3, Basel, 

Switzerland. 
Wall, Mrs. James, 2 Thurloo Street, Rusholme, Manchester. 
Wear, John, Felton Mills, Felton, U.S. (3., Northumberland. 
Well.stood, Frederick Christian, M.A., Shakespeare's Birthi)lace, 

Stratford -on- Avon. 
White, John G. (Williamson Building, Cleveland, (Jhio, U.S.A.), 

care of Bernard Quaritch, Ltd., 11 Grafton Street, New Bond 

Street, London. \\' I . 
Winstedt, Enc Otto, M.A., B.Liii., Isi lllley Koad, Oxford. 
Woollier, Profe-s.sor .\lfred C, M.A., l^rim-iiKil of the Oriental 

College, Lahore, India. 
[117] Yates, Miss Dora Esther, M.A., 27 Marmion lioad, Liverpool. 



[253 
[325 

[128 
[122 
[296 
[187 

[83 

[294 
[246 

[199 
[317 
[257 
[258 

[9 
[142 

[271 
[301 
[225 

[230 



[121 
[149 



Honorary Secretary : Rev. Canon F. G. Ackerley, 
Grindleton Vicarage, Clitheroe. 

Note. — No names have been removed from the last printed List 
of Members, thou<,'h in many ca,ses subscription lias not ln'on made 
for either of tiie years l!)14-15, 1015-16. The etlective membership 
of the Society dropped between 1914 and 1921 to a little over one 
hundred. 



SEP I 



JOURXAL OF THE 



GYPSY LOEE 

SOCIETY 



NEW SERIES 



Vol. IX YEAU 1913-10 No. 1 

I -RErOUT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST 

BULGARIA 

By ' Petc'lengbo ' 

PUELIMINAKY KeMARK.S 

> KFOKK setting forth the results of my researches during 



B 



nearly four years' residence in Varna, I wish particularly to 
insist upon a fact which I may have occasion to illustrate more 
than once in the course of this report, namely, the unreliability 
of second-hand information, whether gathered from Bulgarians, 
Turks, or Gypsies themselves. The last-named race are indeed 
surprisingly ignorant with regard to anything and everything 
aSecting any other tribe than the one to which they belong. 
They frequently do not even know the name of a neighbouring 
tribe, applying one particular denomination, which as often 
as not turns out to be a nickname, to two different tribes. I do 
not mean to say that information gathered from this source is 
altogether valueless. But it must be carefully sifted and checked 
by personal observation. As for the Turk, the only piece of 
information which I ever obtained from one of that race was to 
the effect that in order to light a match it was quite unnecessary 

VOL. IX. — NO. I. A 



2 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

to possess a matchbox, provided that a Gypsy female were in the 
vicinity: you had merely to approach her person, and lo ! the 
match would flare ! 

Bulgarians, the lords of the land, might be expected to know 
something more concerning the Gypsies, who are, after all. in 
Bulgaria, numerically no negligible cjuantity. Such is, however, 
not the case. To them every Gypsy man is just a gypsy, a dirty 
scoundrel, while every Gypsy woman is the fitting subject for some 
coarse joke. At the best some lawyer may give ^ou a belated 
copy of a futile bye-law, which never interested an}' one save J 
perhaps its author, and has remained a dead letter since its 
unfortunate birth. I would add that the Bulgarians' ignorance i 
on this subject is only surpassed by their inability to understand 
that there is anything in it worth learning. I should not deem 
it necessary to mention these things but for the tendency, in 
England, to rely implicitly upon information obtained from 
persons ' on the spot,' who are therefore considered to be qualified 
to report upon the most puzzling questions. 

Finally there is the testimony of English and other European 
travellers, showing fre([uently great insight and power of observa- 
tion. But their statements are too often in the nature of 
generalizations, as though some Chinese explorer visiting London 
and Amsterdam might conclude, on the strength of certain 
outward similarities, that the inhabitants of those two cities 
belonged to one and the same race. In the interesting description 
of Bulgarian Gypsies given in their book, A ReaicLna' in Btdijtirin 
(quoted in J. G. L. S., vii. 158-lGO), it is not difHcult to recognize 
that Captain S. G. B. St. Clair and Charles Brophy must have 
come across and yet treated as a whole numerous widely difiering 
tribes, of whom some were professional thieves, and others 
comparatively honest. It is doubtful whether the Bulgarian 
peasants really did close their doors and 'keep a close watch 
upon their poultry, pigs, and other movable goods' at the 
approach of the Gypsy horde with a long string of oxen and 
buffaloes, for, as wo shall see, these were in all probability the 
honest spoon-makers whom the police even now allow to camp 
for several days at a stretch on the plain to the north of Varna, 
near the State Hospital, where no ordinary Gypsy would be 
allowed to remain for an hour, thereby in practice belying the 
Bulgarian dictum that all Gypsies alike are thieves, and vagabond, 
good-for-nothing fellows. Actual experience of the honesty of 



REPORT ON' THE CYPSV TKIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 6 

this tribe has forced the authorities to draw a line of distinction 
in their favour. 

The whole question of Biilt,'arian Gypsies is summarily dealt 
with in a single paragraph in Mr. Arthur Thesleff' s ' Report on the 
Gypsy Problem ' (./. G. L. S., v. 86). We shall see that the laws 
to prevent nomadizing and horse-stealing have largely remained 
without effect. It is true that 'the Christian Gypsies have the 
reputation [my italics] of being more orderly ' (ibid., p. 86), but 
this good r».putation is scarcely deserved. The professional horse- 
thieves are Christians. 

Paul Bataillard, in his L'8 derniers travaux relatifs aiix 
Bohemiens dans VEurope Orimtale, observes, in a note on 
page 34, that it is a pity that Paspati did not study the Gypsies 
with special reference to their trades, which appear to divide 
them into various tribes. Later, on page 45, he insists upon the 
necessity of classifying the tribes to be met with in the Balkan 
Peninsula, and he mentions a class of ver}' wild Gypsies, formerly 
found in Wallachia, called Xetots, about which little or nothing is 
known. Paspati himself lays the greatest stress upon the distinc- 
tion between Sedentary and Xomad dialects, and also between 
those of Christians and Moslems. Apart from this distinction, 
and from occasional references to the wild tribe of Moslem 
Nomads known as Zaparis ur 1 )japaris, and to certain terms known 
only to some hordes, which he describes as ' Les Nomades de la 
Haute Bulgarie,' he treats all the materials at his disposal as 
forming one language. 

A residence of four years at Varna has convinced me of the 
necessity of classification according to trades, in accordance with 
Bataillard's view. It is a classification recognized by the Gypsies 
themselves, as having an important bearing upon their language. 
Nothing is more common than to hear a Gypsy sieve-maker say 
of a particular word or phrase that it is used, not by his tribe, 
but by the Tinners. In discussing the different Gypsy tribes 
inhabiting the Balkan Peninsula, the following points must be 
borne in mind: — (1) the district; (2) the religion; (3) the mode 
of life, whether sedentary or nomad; (4) the occupation or 
trade. 

With regard to the first point, I propose to examine the 
tribes to be met with in North-East Bulgaria, that is, roughly, 
in the district south of the Danube and Cape Caliacra, having 
for boundarv on the east the Black Sea, on the south the Balkan 



4 REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

range, and on the west a line drawn from Rustcliuk to the 
Shipka Pass. I luay have occasion to mention tribes beyond 
these boundaries, as it is impossible to draw an absolutely 
accurate ethnic frontier. "With regard to the fourth point, it 
is necessary to remark that those Gypsies who bear the distinctive 
name of a given trade do not necessarily all of them practise 
that trade at the present day. Their forefathers must have 
followed the occupation denoted by their trade-name for many 
generations, and they must have kept to themselves to a con- 
siderable extent, marrvinij within their own tribe. lutermarriag'e 
between the different tribes, especially between Sedentaries liv- 
ing side by side in the same Mahala, has become of recent 
years very frequent. I know a member of the Tinner tribe 
married to a man of the Sieve-maker clan, who has learnt his 
wife's language, and speaks it, or Turkish, at home, for he says 
he found it easier to learn his wife's language than to make her 
learn his, 

I cannot claim to have discovered all the tribes of this district. 
New subdivisions are for ever cropping up when one hopes one 
has come to the end of the subject. The following divisions and 
subdivisions are, however, accurate, as far as they go. 

Division of Tribes 
A. Sedentaries. 
1. Moslems. 

{(i) Kalburdjis or sieve-makers: habitat — Varna. Dobritch, 

and surrounding villages. Chief centre Dobritch. 
(6) Kalaidjis or tinners: habitat — Baltchik, Kavarna, Varna. 
Rustchuk. Chief centre Baltcliik. 

(c) Demirdjis or workers in iron, of which two sub- 

divisions, the Hrst known as the Yerlis, or 'locals,' 
speaking no Gypsy, the second referred to as Ustalar, 
the ' artisans,' speaking Gypsy. 

(d) Sepetdjis or basket-makers of Shumla, to which are 

closely allied the rush-carpet makers or Hasirdjis. 
(^) Calgidjis or musicians, whose ancestors were wool 
cleaners, known as Dri'ndaris, found in Kotel and sur- 
rounding villages, in Dobritch. Varna, Shumla, Shvna. 
Eski-Djumaya, and generally at all fairs. Centre 
Kotel. 
(/) Demirdjis or iron workers of Kazanlik. 



REPORT ON THE GYPSV TRICES OF NORTn-EAST BULGARIA 5 

(tj) Dawuldjis and Mehteris, or drum and pipe players. 
Speak no Gypsy. 

2. Christians. 

(«) Sieve-makers of Dobritch and environs. 

(7/) Djezvedjis or coffee-pot makers of Shumla. 

{<:) Riistchuk Sedentaries (originally a tribe of Rumanian 

Gypsies, formerly Nomads). Highly criminal tribe 

(ruIeB- 2 (a) and (/>)). 
(d) Nalbandjis or horse-shoe makers. 

B. Xomads. 
1. Moslems. 

(a) Sieve-makers, now mostly horse-dealers. Half seden- 
tary. Original centre Silistria. Wander in summer 
from village to village along the river Kamtchia. 
Same race as Sedentary sieve-makers (A. 1 (a)). 

(/») Zagundjis, origin of appellation unknown. Carrion 
caters; no trade: converts to Islam two generations 
ago. Chief centres Varna, Rustchuk, and Burgas, and 
chief beat the intervening district. 

(/■) Demirdjis or Nomad iron workers, speaking the purest 
dialect. yet recorded in the Balkans, and indistinguish- 
able from the best Nomad dialects recorded by Paspati. 
Wander in the Eastern Balkans. Called by other 
tribes and perhaps by them.selves Aidia. Claim Slivna 
as their chief centre. 

{(I) Dinikovliirs. Rear buffaloes, by ■which their carts are 
drawn. Men, horse-dealers. Women, great thieves : 
"wear the predza. Have no tents. Sleep in carts 
covered or tilted with rush matting. Found along the 
Danube. 

2. Christians. 

(a) Grebenaris or comb-makers. Beat — the Avhole of 
Eastern Bulgaria. No chief centre. Winter in villages, 
rarely the same one for two successive winters. Most 
criminal tribe in Bulgaria. Chiefly horse-thieves along 
the Rumanian frontier. Known to other tribes as 
Zavrakeia. 

(/') Recent Rumanian invasion of a tribe practically identical 
with the comb-makers, and equally criminal. 

{c) Burgudji's or gimlet-makers, known to other tribes 



6 REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

as Piirpulia. Make also shepherds' crooks.. Speak 
an exceedingly pure dialect, and are otherwise interest- 
ing, owing to the strangely elaborate form of their 
tents. Are honest. 
(d) Kashikdjis or spoon-makers, who call them.selves 
Rud:iris, i.e. makers of small articles in wood, known 
also to the Bulgarians as makers of wooden trouijhs, 
Kopanaris or Koritaris. Rear hutlaloes. Speak no 
Gypsy. Native language Rumanian, but know also 
Bultrarian and Turkish. The most honest tribe in 
Bulgaria, and perhaps the most numerous. Of very 
pure blood, and exceedingly dark. 

[N.B. — Bulgarians have told me that there is a tribe of 
Kopanaris who rear horses as well as buffaloes, and are great 
thieves. I have not yet met them. See also notice of 'Turciti,' 
Turkish Gypsies in Rumania from across the Danube, tinkers 
and rearers of buffaloes. — /. G. L. S., vi. 154. They are probably 
the Dinikovlars. S»'f B. 1 (<J).] 

The following notice of each tril»e, together with an account of 
my dealings with them in so far as I have come into contort with 
them, may prove of interest to Gypsyologists. 

The Sedentauv Moslem Silve-makeus (i-. A. 1 («)) 

They call themselves Kalburdjia, the word being Turkish for 
sieve-maker, with the plural ending according to their dialect. This 
tribe is thoroughly sedentary, and they have no tradition of ever 
having been nomad.s. They also seem to think that they were always 
Moslems. But this is not the case. Their ancestors nmst have been 
converts to Islam, though sufficiently long ago for the present genera- 
tion to have forgotten the event of their conversion. Or they njay 
have been Moslems when still in Rinnania. Anyhow, the point 
of interest is that they are called Vlachs by the tinners, and that 
they call the latter Turkish Gypsies. The sieve-maker calls his 
own language Romanei^, i.e. G3'psy, and the tinner's language 
Xoraxit^ies or Turkish, meaning Moslem, and the Turkish langua<:o 
gadzikanes, or the speech of non-Gypsies. For the Bulgarian 
language he, like all other tribes, has got the word Da.-^ihxnies. 
The sieve-makers' dialect is in a splendid state of preservation, 
but the number of Rumanian words, to be found in it makes it 
absolutely certain that they at one time lived among a Rumanian- 



REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 7 

speaking population. They even refer to themselves at times as 
Vlachs, though apparently not knowing that they were ever in 
Rumania. I have often tried, without any success, to induce 
them to explain this to mo themselves, ' You are yourselves 
Moslems,' I say to them, 'how is it that you call the tinners 
Moslems ? ' ' Yes, but we are different,' comes the answer ; ' we are 
sieve-makers, they call us Ylachs, and we count in the Greek 
way.' The latter statement refers to the fact that they know 
that their words for seven, eight, and nine are Greek. This know- 
ledge is not surprising, considering the large population of Greeks 
still living along the coast. They refer also to the more curious 
fi\ct that the tinners, who are considered to be more Moslem than 
the sieve-makers, cannot count in Gypsy at all, while otherwise 
possessing a pure enough dialect. It is quite possible, and would 
be rather characteristic if it were so, that the Turks formerly 
forbade the tinners, who are likewise often well-to-do horse- 
dealers, to count in their own language ! 

The sieve-makers, as also the poorer tinners, work in the towns 
as porters and carriers (hamals) : and the women of both tribes 
seek rough work in the houses, as charwomen, washer-women, etc. 
They are honest, clean, and work tidily. They are employed by 
all, and yet no one has a good word for the poor Gypsy. My own 
family is not behind the Bulgars in upbraiding them, and never- 
theless employs them regularly in order to clear away the dirt 
produced by servants of otlier races. 

The sieve-makers* houses, too, are clean, and consist of one 
room, rarely of two. The floor is the earth, beaten hard, portions 
of which are covered with rush-matting made by the tribe of 
mat-makers (vide A. 1 {d)). The walls are rarely of brick, generally 
a mixture of mud, laths, and reeds. The roofs are sometimes 
made of tin boxes, flattened out and padded with mud. The 
chimney is generally a concavity in the wall, topped by a hole in 
the roof. Cushions and eiderdowns are piled up along the wall, 
and a few cooking utensils stand round the hearth. The women 
of this tribe do not as a general rule wear the feredza or mantle for 
outdoor use worn by Moslem women. No cloak of any kind 
hides the multicoloured shalvars. 

Once a year they leave iheir tidy little homes, and temporarily 
give up their rather humdrum, thrifty, homely Turkish mode of 
life. This is at the time of the harvest, when they camp out in the 
fields under the open sky, without any tent. More than half the 



8 REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

women, however, remain at home. The population in Bulgaria is 
scarce, and at this time all possible hands are required for the 
work of reapinj^, etc. It is at this time that all the tribes we are 
considering meet for a few weeks in the fields, and get to know 
somethinsf of each other's different mode of life. But their know- 
ledge on these points is of the vaguest. 

The Moslem sieve-maker to whom I am most indebted for my 
knowledge of this dialect is a little witch-like old woman about 
four feet high, almost black, with sharply-cut features and eyes 
which sparkle with mischief when she knows that she has an 
appreciative public. She sits on the carpet in my study, her legs 
tucked up underneath her in Turkish fashion, occupying an 
incredibly small space, and rocking herself with glee provoked by 
her own jokes and conceits, until she at times falls over on her 
side, but quickly rights herself and becomes serious for an instant, 
interpolating such a sentence as this into her conversation : 
' Much thank-sgiving to the Old Golden God (may I eat his little 
eyes), for that he has allowed me to sit and hold discourse with 
you,' passing her shrivelled old hand downwards over her forehead 
and chin, as do the Moslems after prayer. 

Her name is Kara Hati, i.r. Black Hati. She was born at 
Dobritch, the centre of her tribe, which town was generally known 
in her day by its Turkish name of Pazardjik. This name has 
been olHcially revived since the Rumanian occupation. She 
came to Varna ' with the Cossacks,' that is, during the Russo- 
Turkish war. She was then aged about twelve, the daughter of a 
rich Dobritch horse-dealer, and herself very fond of riding, with- 
out saddle, bridle, or stirrups, upon her father's horses, her long 
black hair streaming behind her. so she says. She married at an 
early age, as all of them do, and soon settled down to the routine 
of working for a lazy husband and bearing him many, many 
children. When her father died, her brothers quarrelled over the 
inheritance and gave her nothing. But they did not prosper for 
all their wickedness. When the Turks left Varna they carried 
away with them what remained of the fortune in dispute, and the 
brothers died paupers. Kara Hati's husband likewise died after 
some time, and she was twice married after that. The last 
husband appears to have been the worst, for at his death he left 
her, as .she puts it, with but two hens and a cock. All her children 
save one are married or dead. The remaining one had smallpox 
at an early age, as a result of which malady his arms are withered 



REPORT OX THE GYP.SY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST 15UI.GARIA 9 

from the shoulder to the elbow, and he is unmarried; for, says 
his mother, no girl will have him, as he cannot hold her in 
his arms. 

In discussing and comparing the different dialects, I shall give 
specimens of the sieve-makers' speech from examples I possess 
taken down from Kara Hati, which, besides being good examples 
of Romani, are excellent examples of terseness and wit. Often 
they are quite epigrammatic. This is due to the influence of the 
Turkish language upon this dialect. 

The Christian Sedentary sieve-makers, speaking exactly the 
same dialect as their Moslem brethren, inhabit chiefly Dobritch 
and the surrounding villages {vide A. 2 (a)). They are not so 
clean as the Moslems, dress like the Bulgarians, and build their 
houses on the Bulgarian model. Many of those inhabiting towns 
dress as town folk, more or less in European fashion Closely 
allied to them in point of language appear to bo the Christian 
sedentary coflee-pot makers of Shumla (A. 2 {b)). In fact, most of 
the Christian sedentary Gypsies of Xorth-East Bulgaria, whatever 
their trade, appear to bo linguistically allied very closely to the 
sedentary Moslem sieve-makers. There is therefore little more 
to report on the subject. It must be remembered that a seden- 
tary life tends to abolish the points of divergence which may 
formerly have been more apparent as between the tribes. It is 
rather among the nomads that wo should expect to find the 
greatest contrasts, and this, we shall see, is actually the case. 



The Sedentary Moslem Tinners (v. A. 1 (b)) 

They call themselves Kalaidjides, the word being Turkish for 
one who tins copper vessels, with the plural ending according to 
their dialect. Their present-day occupations and mode of life 
are identical with those of the sieve-makers. They practise their 
distinctive trade even less than do the Kalburdjis theirs. Their 
language is, however, as we shall see in a later section, of an 
altogether different order. As already mentioned, they are 
considered to be more Moslem than the sieve-makers. This may 
mean that they are the descendants of the original converts to 
Islam when the Turks first conquered the country, whereas the 
sieve-makers, emigrants at a more or less remote date from 
Christian lands vdiere Rumanian was spoken, perhaps only then 



10 KEPORT ON THE GYP.SV TRIP.ES OF NORTH-EA.ST BULfiAlUA 

adopted Islam, individual conversions to which faith have appar- 
ently continued until quite lately, as we shall see in the case 
of the nomad sieve-makers. The women wear the feredza or oIki 
when out of doors. 

In type the tinners are on an average not so dark as the sieve- 
makers. They are often well-to-do, appear to be.no longer of 
pure stock, having mixed greatly with the Turkish population, 
and are often ashamed of their language. Indeed many of them 
have entirely forgotten it. The clan or tribal spirit, which makes 
Sedentary loathe Nomad and Moslem despise Christian, is found 
to exist even between the sieve-makers and the tinner.s, tliough 
intermarriage is frequent. They mock each other's language, and 
each tribe claims that its speech is the clear, pure, straightforward, 
original lan£:uas:e. It is dithcult to decide which claim is on the 
whole better founded, as will be evident when I emphasize the 
lines of divergence between the two. I may mention here that 
Turkish is the lincrua franca between all Moslem tribes. 



The l>HiND.\in>> ' - A 1 ^rW 

This tribe is. linguistically, one of ihe most interesting in the 
Balkan Peninsula. I have describc<l their dialect at length on 
another occasion. They are exceedingly numerous, and may be 
found in ever}' town within the district wo are considering, 
especially around Dobritch. They are, however, numerous in 
Shumla, and south of the Balkans in Slivna, and probably 
elsewhere. The Marquis Coloeci's ' Lessico Italiano-Tchinghiane ' 
(see Appendix II. to his Gli Zingari) is largely made up of thi.s 
dialect, and as he tells me that he collected it from Nomads, we 
may infer that portions of this tribe were, when he wrote, and 
probably still '"^ro, in a nomad state, wandering in the region of the 
Rhodope Mountains. The north-eastern centre of the Sedentary 
portion of this tribe is the town of Kotel, about twenty miles 
north-east of Slivna, 

Throuirhout the best months of the summer one mav meet 
with numerous hordes of these Gypsies wandering from village to 
village all over North-East Bulgaria, and especially in the district 
between Dobritch and the old Rumanian frontier prior to 1913. 
During that year I was travelling in those parts and came across 
hundreds of them, often in bands of about sixty individuals, 
counting the women and children. Although Moslems, their 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF XORTH-EAST BULGARIA 11 

^ omen generally ^v'eal' skirts. They often present a very ragged 
ppearance, less so, however, than the men, who wear every 
imaginable kind of coat and trousers that come into their posses- 
ion, not even shunning bowler hats, though as Moslems many of 
aein wear the red fez. The girls are said to dance in the villages to 
the accompaniment of music made by the men, who may be seen 
with great brass horns slung across their shoulders or violins 
under their arms, sauntering at a leisurely pace behind their 
donkeys, on which are packed their belongings. They have no 
tents, but in the fine weatlier they camp out in the open near a 
barn or on the banks of a ditch outside a village, where they may 
be seen at midday, munching bits of dry bread and lounging in 
the sun. There is about them a certain etlrontery and an 
atmosphere of abandon associated with all members of the 
dancing profession in the East. One is surprised to see their 
•women dressed as Christians. A large number of them were until 
lately beaters and cleansers of wool. Hence their name of 
Drindari, perhaps from the sound drin drin made by the 
instruments when the hammer or tidunk, as they call it, beats 
the strings of the card in carding or teasing the wool. But they 
are, perhaps, more generally known as Calgidjis, or musicians, 
and they are in fact the musicians par excellence among the 
Balkan (lypsies. The Bulgars call them K6tlenski TaUjani. 
The profession of music has been the cause of many of them 
leaving their tribe, settling down in towns where they are in 
demand in the Icuveks or low dancing-saloons, and in the 
chantants or music-halls. The Gypsy women are not found 
in these places. Here the men play nightly from 7 p.m. to 
3 A..M., or to a less late hour if martial law happens to be in 
force, while the lowest of low houris of Bulgarian, Armenian, 
Rumanian, and Greek nationality perform variations of the danse 
chi ventre or more European dances. Such Gypsies often inter- 
marry with the Turkish population, and the offspring of such 
unions speak no Romani. Great numbers of this tribe still find 
work in the fields up in the Eastern Balkans, especially as 
mowers, to such an extent that one of the names by which they 
are known is that of Kosaeis, i.e. mowers. Among so large a 
tribe one meets with many who have accumulated a certain 
wealth. Others are miserably poor and indescribably dirty. In 
the summer of 1914, after visiting their capital, the town of Kotel, 
I was obliged to return to Varna by forced marches, travelling day 



12 KEPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

and night, having been recalled by an urgent telegram. Owing to 
the atrocious weather, and also in order to let our horses rest, we 
frequently halted at some Turkish village along the northern 
slopes of the Balkans, and took shelter in barns and other poor 
du'ellings, where we found many families of this tribe huddled on 
the floor under, to us, loathsomely dirty bed-coverings, swarming 
with vermin. I especially noticed one young man who was so 
sleepy that he lay down again almost immediately after we had 
catered, for which ho was severely reproved by the woman at his 
side, who said to him in their own language : ' Are you not 
ashamed to lie by my side in front of strangers ? ' These people 
did not know that I understood their speech, for I spoke to them 
in Bulgarian, preferring in this way to overhear their conversation. 

In the villages of Jeravna and Gradets, in the neighbourhood 
of Kotel, there arc a number of Christian Gypsies whom I have 
not included in the above division of tribes, who speak practically 
the Drindari dialect. Many of the younger generation, however, 
have entirely forgotten all Komani save a few swear-words and 
obscene expressions. 

The tribe of Drindaris is looked down upon by other tribes, to 
whom Drindari is incomprehensible, and does not mix with them. 
Still they are by no means, as a whole, the poorest Gypsies in the 
country, and the contempt in which they are held is due, no 
doubt, to their profession. Those who have regular employment 
in the towns as music-hall musicians are often strict Mo.slems. 
visiting the mosques regularly every Friday. 

These have raised themselves above the rank and tile of their 
tribe. They are often neither black-eyed nor dark-skinned, and 
that, combined with the respectability of their dress, makes it 
difficult to recognize that they are Gypsies at all. They are clad \ 
in ordinary black 'European' clothes, and often sport a cabman's 
greatcoat with an astrakhan collar to it, a watch chain, and well 
brushed leather shoes. One might easily take them for well-to-do 
Turkish cabmen, tailors, or cobblers in their Sunday best. They 
keep their wives closely veiled, indeed the women scarcely ever 
leave their homes, and I have never yet met any of them. Their 
playing is the best obtainable in Bulgaria, except, of course, that 
of the military bands. They never play out of tune as do the 
Bulgarian town bands, which latter are far worse than our so- 
called ' German ' bands. These Gypsy musicians' voices, however, 
are harsh and nasal, and quite unmodulated, and are unpleasing 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 13 

to the ears of most Europeans, who dislike Turkish music. The 
instruments used are violins, clarinets, and flutes, apparently all 
from Dresden, and native big-bellied Turkish guitars. From such 
as these I obtained all the necessary data for my sketch of the 
dialect of the Dri'ndaris (./. G. L. S., vii. No. 4). 



The Zaoundjis (v. B. 1 (6)) 

In language apparently closely allied to the thrifty, poor-but- 
honest, clean, sedentary sieve-makers, are ihe lowest caste of 
Gypsies to be met with, perhaps, in the whole of Bulgaria. They 
are nomads, but not being thieves, for which occupation as a 
regular profession they are nmch too timid, they do not wander 
far nor more frequently than is absolutely necessary. They are 
eaters of carrion, and known to higher tribes as Zagundjis. This 
is said to imply that they eat ' dead meat,' as they themselves call 
it. But no Bulgarian or Turk whom I have met has been able to 
identify the word, which is, indeed, quite unknown outside Gypsy 
circles. They at times admit that they are Zagundjis, but they do 
not like the appellation. They prefer to call themselves, like all 
other tribes, simply Roma,^ i.e. Gypsies. They are Moslems in 
dress if in nothing else. They never enter a mosque, and do not 
make a pretence of fasting at Ramazan. They keep the more 
important Christian festivals, but never fast as do the Bulgars. 
They say they do not eat pork, but I think it probable that this is 
not true. However, I am less in a position to prove this than 
other things, not having sutHciently assimilated their ways to 
partake of their food, as I do with all other nomad tribes, 
fearing that were I to feast on any but very great red-letter days 
with them, I might, perhaps unawares, be consuming ' dead meat ' ! 
The grandparents of the present elders of the tribe were Chris- 
tians, and bore Christian names. They have no distinctive trade, 
unless begging be called a trade, which is almost their sole means 
of subsistence. In the summer months, like most other tribes, 
they obtain a few weeks' work harvesting in different parts of the 
country. On Mondays in the market-place they will offer to carry 
one's purchases home. On such occasions they look rather 
attractive : their movements are not ungraceful, and their attire, 
both scanty and ragged, is often pleasingly bright in colour, in 

^ The ^ becomes an r grassay^ in their dialect, i.e. an r produced by trilling the 
epiglottis. I represent it by r. 



14 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIHES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

spite of its dirt. But it is not thus that they must be seen, bui 
rather whilst practising their trade of begging. When 1 say theyj 
in connexion with begging, I refer to the women, for the me: 
rarely condescend to go round the town begging. Outside thi 
camp it is the women, the bread-winners, that we must observe. 

Their appearance when bent on begging is truly repulsive, an 
apparently it is meant to be so. They put about their perso 
the most filthy and noisome rags, in order to excite pity, 
greasy, colourless skirt hides the bright Turkish bloomers. OL 
rags ^ are woimd round the feet. Another rag completely hide 
the hair and forehead, is wound round the neck, and ends u 
across the mouth, so that only the nose and eyes are visible, 
often as not they wear a man's tattered cast-awa)* coat. Thui 
gagged and bound and mutHed, the Zagundji girl or hag — one i 
almost indistinguishable from the other — sallies forth with a 
dirty old sack slung across her shoulder and a thin stick in Ikt 
hand, with which she knocks at doors and drives off dogs an 1 
children. She often drags about with her a deformed child of lit r 
own tribe (not a stolen child!), whom she makes beg. She i- i 
most persistent beggar. She will stand from three to five minup s 
at the door of a house who.se inmates do not imuiediately satisiy 
her wants or drive her away. The formula is generally: 'Give 
me a little bit of bread, lady ; see, I am barefooted and bare-headt 1. 
kind lady (which she is not!); see what a way I have come ;i:i 1 
my little heart has fainted, lady !' always ending up on that i • o 
word 'lady,' the voice maintaining a highly unpleasant uniform 
one-noted whine until the two last syllables are reached, wIj. a 
it drops five notes or so in a sort <^f peevish complaint. She 
receives old bits of bread, or two centime pieces, and goes 
away without thanking. She scavenges the dust-bins, especially 
outside butchers' shops, thereby exceedingly annoying lier fellow- 
scavengers the dogs. She extracts bones, old bits of meat not t > > 
fresh, the rotting halves of half-sucked oranges, dead chick. i;s 
which have met with an accident and been killed in the slrt. i. 
(This is no calumny: I have seen them do it; I am only putting 
down in this report what I have myself seen.) She does not daro- 
to steal, and is not often molested by the police. She very sensibly 
works different quarters of the town in this way on different days, 
so that one quarter may remain free from her visits for weeks at a 

' Called patav^, cf. perhaps ' puttees.' 



REPURT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 15 

Stretch. But this, of course, also means that they work in bands, 
which is often a disadvantage, for they are too careless to portion 
out the house-to-house visits equally among them, with the result 
that three or four visits within half an hour to one and the same 
house frequently exasperate the inmates and lessen the chances 
of obtaining the required provisions. 

While the women are thus engaged the men are lazily, lounging 
in their tents outside the town, or if thev feel in the mood for 
earning anything they mostly congregate outside a certain iron- 
monger's store, where they are employed for a few piastres a da)'- 
in moving and loading and unloading iron bars, zinc sheets, etc. 

The women return to the camp in the early afternoon, discard 
their begging rags, appearing in graceful, if not too clean, coloured 
bloomers and red or yellow shirts, and spend the rest of their time 
in attending to the children and preparing the evening meal, 
which they call zumi, and which is a more or less savoury stew, 
consisting of a judicious mixture from the contents of the filthy 
begging-bag. This is the only regular meal of the day, partaken of 
generally at sunset or somewiiat earlier. With regard to their 
eating 'dead meat,' as they call it, they either deny it or allege, by 
way of justitication, that what Gud has killed is better than what 
man has slaughtered. 

A subject of great interest in the Balkans in connexion with 
Gypsies is the nature of the tent used by dit!erent nomad tribes. 
In this respect the Gypsies are, as in all other matters, intensely 
conservative, and each tribe appears to cling to its time-honoured 
tent. One never finds, for instance, a gimlet-makers' tent, the 
most elaborate I have yet discovered, in an encampment of 
Zagundjis. The Ziigundji tent is generally very ragged, the 
original goats'-hair cloth being patched up with old bits of sack- 
ing or even with petticoats. For the rest, it consists of the usual 
beraiid or ridge-pole, two pairs of cakals or crossed poles 
supporting the berand, and the bell, or perpendicular post at the 
back, strengthening the whole structure. There is no vurdon, 
that is, taliga or cart, as in the case of the comb-makers, built into 
the back of the tent, which is closed with a simple flap of cloth. 
The tent is of course pitched with its back to the wind, but unless 
the wind changes round completely, so as to blow right into the 
tent, they do not trouble to move it continually, as do the comb- 
makers, but they add a flap, or several flaps, to the front, stretched 
over minor cakals, and in rainy weather the front is often com- 



16 REPORT ON THE GYPSV TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

pletely closed in this way, save for a crack through which to let 
out the smoke of the fire. Often two friendly tents combine face 
to face, and in bad weather are so completely closed that it is 
difficult to find an entrance. 

It must be noted that no two Zagundji tents are alike: in 
theory they should be as above described. In practice they dirt'er 
according to the degree of poverty, indolence, or eccentricity of 
the inmates. A vakal may be shorter than its fellow. The 
berand may be almost broken half-way across, and mended with a 
string or a shred of cloth, the btli may be so small as to necessi- 
tate the undue spreading out of the liind-raA-a/s in order to bring 
the ridge-pole, already half broken, down to the level of the brl'. 
The result of all this is a queer, nondescript, tattered structure, 
which when two friendly families combine, presents an appearance 
not unlike that of a wrecked Ze[)pelin, from the top of which 
proceeds the thinnest little spiral of blue smoke, accompanied by 
the sound of outlandish curses, yells, and peals of laughter. 

The encampment, which they occasionally refer to as thana, 
reminding one of the Anglo- Romani tan, and which here in Varna 
consists of from twenty-five to thirty tents, is spread about in the 
wildest confusion, but the position of the tents is determined 
largely by the sympathy or antipathy which the inmates cherish 
towards their neighbours. The constant recurring of quarrels 
which s})ring up on the slightest pretext, makes it advisable to 
pitch the tents at a convenient distance from one another. Only 
at the Feast of the HcderUz} the Bulgarian Geoiyior Den, i.e. St. 
George's Day, on the 23rd April (old style, our 6th May), or on the 
Feast of the Assumption (Bulgarian Sreta Bo<jurudilm, loth 
August old style), which the Zagundjis call Boi/in'itmho, and which 
though Moslems they observe with as much pomp as the Christian 
Gypsies, do they bury their feuds for a few hours, and as.semble to 
feast in brotherly love. On such occasions tent hugs tent, and 
the encampment looks like a Red Indian wigwam village. Thi.-- 
however, is of short duration. Feasting would not be feasting for 
them without drunkenness, and though such drunkenness is far 
removed from the English sodden variety, it nevertheless produces 
among a race so excitable, fearfully riotous results, so that before 
twenty-four hours are up it is generally thought advisable to 
spread out the encampment as before the feast. 

' Turkish, from Arabic Khadr Eliai>, St. Elijah, who in the Orient is confmcl 
with St. George the Dragon-killer. 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 17 

There is no sight more fascinating than a Zagundji quarrel. 
The Zagundji has plenty of time for quarrelling, having no trade 
or occupation. His quarrels appear to take the place, say, of an 
Englishman's outdoor games. In them he finds both relaxation 
from the occasional work of lifting the ironmonger's iron, and 
■welcome exercise of muscle and limb when he has been sitting 
all day in his tent waiting for something to happen. For the 
Zagundji is the most typical Gypsy in that he has no trade what- 
soever. He is proud of the fact, and often alludes to it boastfully : 
' We have no business, we just sit like a Cokoi} Gypsydom is 
splendid ! ' 

The rows among the women often arise over the question as to 
who is to fetch water from the spring, often half a mile to a 
mile distant from the camp, or as to who is to go a-gathering 
firewood. Such may be the original cause of a feud kept up on 
and off for several days. In the course of mutual vituperati<m it 
may suddenly become apparent to an infuriated female that her 
child is unwell, and instantly she will accuse her opponent, in all 
sincerity, of having given the infant the evil-eye, of having made 
him jakhalo. They do not often come to blows. The tents are, 
as above mentioned, pitched at a distance calculated to prevent 
such a contingency. But they advance slowly from their respec- 
tive tents, their pent-up rage causing them to take sharp queer 
little stiff steps, as if they were walking on a narrow curb-stone, 
the bloomered thighs swaying as if to balance the body. Their 
arms are stretched out before them, imprecations How in torrents 
from their mouths in harsh, half men's voices, while their eyes 
look straight before them in the direction of the enemy, with a 
fixed and evil intensity. No one not having seen this would 
suspect that these wild furies were the same pitiable whining 
beggars, mufHed in tilthy rags, who are to be met with in the 
town. Often the two opponents are separated by the distance of 
half the encampment, several peaceful neutral tents intervening, 
but they always manage sooner or later to get that bee-line for 
the hostile gaze, which nothing can divert. I have often crossed 
and recrossed the line, endeavouring to draw their attention from 
the concentrated fury which is consuming them. They appear 
totally oblivious of my presence, seeming to see their opponent 
through me. I have even photographed them at such moments, 
but have not obtained good results owing to a bad lens and the 

1 Landed proprietor : a Rumanian word. 
VOL. IX. — NO. I. B 



18 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

impossibility of choosing a suitable background. Occasionally 
the outstretched hands descend to earth, the arms still stretched 
out as in some gymnastic exercise. A handful of earth, pebbles, 
and grass is picked up : ' May your child wither like this grass, 
may my curse pursue you to the throne of God, — and beyond it!' 
Sometimes they will tear their garments, baring and beating their 
breasts, or, turning round violently, strike their posterior parts to 
enhance their mutual contempt. Having considerably spent their 
fury, they return to their respective tents, often without having 
actually come within fifty yards of each other. To complete this 
picture, I must add that the imprecations often begin before either 
party issues from the tent. The etVect is thus most ludicrous, 
no enemy being seen, only the volleys of words being heard. If 
one walks up to the entrance of the tent, one will find a woman 
sitting on the ground, rocking lierself and gesticulating while 
apparently addressing her remarks to the ground in front of her. 
At times she will cease for an instant, the better to hear the 
return volley, and in order to regulate her reply accordingly. 

The rows between the men are more violent, though tliey by 
no means always come to blows. They invariably announce their 
intention of doing so, however, and when they are forcibly re- 
strained by their friends, they tear their clothes, strip naked to 
the waist, seat themselves on the ground, and rocking themselves 
from side to side, bemoan their fate. Their language is, on the 
whole, much less violent than their actions, and consists of a 
simple statement of fact that their enemy has cursed them, 
coupled with the fear that ho will give them the evil-eye. Fre- 
quently they shed tears in great profusion. If the row continues, 
they will tear down their own tent, never that of the enemy, the 
inmates having already cleared out, anticipating the event. The 
ridge-pole is then used as a weapon with which to strike the earth 
in token of rage, or to hurl at, and fortunately miss, the enemy, 
during which proceeding it is frequently badly damaged, so that 
when the tent is again pitched it will have lost a little more of its 
already doubtful symmetry. 

The majority of Zagundjis possess no carts, and seldom horses. 
When they move from one encampment to another they pack 
their tents and belongings upon the backs of donkeys, by the sides 
of which they proceed on foot, the whole tribe in Indian file. In 
this they resemble all nomad tribes save the criminal ones, who 
find it necessary to move from one district to another at a greater 



REPORT ON THE GVPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 19 

speed, and are generally provided with good horses and strong 
light native carts, called taligas, and capable of travelling at a 
great rate. The Zagundjis do not steal chickens while on the 
move, as do the comb-makers, but they beg in the villages as in 
the towns. They do not cultivate any musical talent, and at 
marriajies and feasts are obliged to hire members of the drum and 
flute tribe (vide A. 1 (g)), whose music they consider sufficient for 
their entertainment, never dreaming of obtaining the services of 
the Oalgidji tribe of musicians {vide A. 1 {e}). Like all Gypsies 
they at times deal in horses, but they appear to be too indolent 
to pursue the trade at all seriously. They are the most happy- 
go-lucky set imaginable, and in their rags and poverty appear to 
be the happiest of all Gypsies to be met with in the Balkans. The 
young men and women alike are for ever singing and dancing, 
laughing and poking fun at one another. Their jokes are childish 
and their tears turn to laughter in the space of a few minutes. 
Thev are content to live in rags, which would be cast aside as 
useless and altogether unwearable by Gypsies of any other tribe. 
But with respect to food they are perhaps not so poor as many 
others, for by begging they can always obtain at least a little 
bread, and I have rarely seen the flesh-pots of these ' Egyptians ' 
empty towards sunset, whereas the nomad gimlet-makers (vide 
B. 2 {€)), who neither steal nor beg at all regularly, often go to bed 
hungry, as I know to my cost by personal experience on several 
occasions. The Zagundjis, though superstitious, are entirely 
free from the trammels, both social and religious, which beset 
members of other tribes of Gypsies, not to speak of the inhabitants 
of this town. The suggestion that they should go to the mosque 
on Fridays appears to tickle them very much, and still more so 
that they should go to church on Sundays. ' We have not money 
enough for ourselves, let alone for the priest. And we are not liter- 
ate. What should we do there ? Climb on to the roof like Celebi 
Mustapha, the Cat in the Fairy Tale ? ' At the very mention of 
that cat, roars of laughter. ' But why do you not keep Ramazan ?' 
' We keep Ramazan, brother, all the year round, save when God 
throws before us a little bit of meat.' They marry at an early 
age, and several years before the women are old enough to 
bear children. They divorce during this period with the greatest 
ease, the cause being frequently the inability of the parents of the 
youth to pay the sum fixed upon for the purchase of the girl. A 
certain sum is paid down, the remainder to follow by instalments 



20 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

after the marriage. When these instalments are not forthcoming 
the parents of the girl reclaim her, and filial obedience bids her 
return to the paternal tent, at least for a few days, when her 
husband, if he loves her, will elope with her, or, as the saying is, 
nashalel la, literally causes her to run away.' Other causes of 
divorce are the inability or refusal of either contracting party to 
provide his or her share of the means of subsistence, or simply, as 
the Americans put it, incompatibility of temper. When once chil- 
dren appear, usually two or even three years after an early marriage, 
they do so in great profusion, almost yearly, and divorce becomes 
much less frequent. Prostitution is almost unknown in this tribe, 
and I must warn the reader against assertions on this score made 
by persons who have no means of proving them, and little desire 
to do so. Such persons, rather than say, ' I don't know,' will tell 
almost any lie. 

No doctor is called in at the birth of a child. A mother 
rarely dies in giving birth to her child, but perhaps more than half 
the children born do not survive the first .six weeks. If they do 
survive they are of a mightily strong constitution, and will bo 
rarely ill for the rest of their lives. There appears to be nothing 
characteristically Zagundji about the ceremonies attending mar- 
riage or death. They are according to the Moslem rites, and in 
Varna are celebrated by one Ali-Hodja. a Gypsy hodja of the tribe 
of tinners. 

The Ziigundjis, presenting such a contrast to other nomad 
tribes, have always attracted me in a special way. Neither thieves 
nor artisan.s, they have reduced the wants of existence to a mini- 
mum. Their detractors might contend that they are merely the 
dreg.s. the outcasts of more civilized tribes. In this they might 
appear to have judged rightly, inasnuich as the Zagundjis occasion- 
ally admit members of other tribes into their midst. I once saw a 
young Kalaidji girl, not more than fifteen years old, who had been 
bought, in order to be the wife of a youth of the same age. She 
looked clean and neat, and sadly out of place among the wild horde 
which had adopted her. But the contention that the Zagundjis 
are merely the riti'-ratf of other tribes, if ever seriously advanced, 
is effectually disposed of after an examination of their dialect, 
which, though allied to that of the sieve-makers, possesses sufficient 
peculiarities to warrant classification apart. Other tribes do not 
like associating with them. They are looked upon as unclean, as 
verily they are. When the)' feel themselves to be free from the 
restraints imposed upon them by their surroundings, while begging 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 21 

or in the market, that is, when they are back in the tents, their 
rowdiness is almost unbelievable. The camp din continues well 
on into the night. The police move them from one camping- 
ground to another for this reason onl}'. If you inquire why they 
moved from one corner of the low plain between Varna and the 
Quarantine Station, where they had been encamped for several 
weeks, they will tell you that the neighbours complained that they 
could not sleep owing to the noise made by the boys ; and by 
neighbours, thev mean some factorv hands living in buildings 
situated at least a quarter of a mile from their camp. 

The period of greatest din is just after sunset, when all strag- 
glers have returned to the tents and the evening meal, the one 
meal of the day, has just been dispatched, and the life-force is at 
its highest. Often when returning at nightfall from some lengthy 
expedition, I have been attracted by the twinkling of camp-fires 
and by the noise arising from the wilderness of the sandy plain 
where there are no houses. Ascending a small sand-dune, I have 
seen spread before mo a scene so unlike anything to be met with 
in Varna that the fancy would come to rae that I had been 
transported by magic to some other land which nurtured a differ- 
ent race of mankind. Black ridge-poles point skywards like the 
bowsprits of wrecked ships, tattered sackcloth flaps in the seaward 
breeze, twenty-five or more fires I descry in various stages of com- 
bustion, some smouldering so low as scarcely to admit of my 
recof'nizing the crouching figures around them, others flarin«r 
high and throwing into strong relief a half naked, gesticulating, 
shouting rabble. Then there is a sudden rush to one spot, and 
amid indescribable confusion I behold the collapsing of a tent, 
all of a sudden, and the delirious joy of the youngsters at the 
sight of their elders' strife. And as the fire burns low the excite- 
ment vanishes, only to reappear at some other point of the long, 
straggling encampment. 

The attraction of the tent life appears to be quite irresistible. 
It is not that they practise some trade requiring them to leave 
their winter quarters, as might be said of the comb-makers. In 
the spring of 1915 they had most of them paid for their houses up 
to Easter, at the beginning of April, but they were out already in 
February, and the severe snowstorms and sleet hurricanes at the 
end of that month did not drive them back to their houses. Some 
of the houses had been rented up to 23rd April (old style, our 6th 
May), the orthodox St. George's Day. 



22 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

Before considering other tribes I should like to underline the 
fact of the Ztigundji s honesty, both in the English and the Fren* h 
acceptance of the word. There is no love lost between them ai.d 
other tribes, but according to my own experience, and what is just 
as important, according to the testimony of members of other 
tribes, they are above reproach with regard to these two points. 
They are lazy to a degree, and great brawny men. some of who'u 
have been known as champion wrestlers, will complain of a bacic- 
ache after chopping wood for five minutes ; but they do not sto:il 
as a rule, nor are their women of loose morals. Yet Bulgarians 
Avill laugh at you if you absolve the Zagundji as to the first 
accusation, and they will shrug their shoulders as to the second. 
Such is the bad reputation enjoyed by all Gyp.sies alike owing to the 
delinquencies of other thievish tribes on the one hand, and, on the 
other, owing to a purely superficial and apparent shamelessness of 
a race singularly free from the trammels which beset pre-eminently 
the middle clas.ses in all human societies. I prefer to accept the 
testimony of all other tribes, honest and criminal, with regard to 
the Z{\gundjis, for while it is impossible to suspect the sieve- 
makers, tinners, or comb-makers, to select widely dificring tribes, 
of a desire to whitewash the Zjigundjis whom they despise as 
unclean, one may safely credit them with greater knowledge of 
the subject than the Bulgarians whose attitude towards this race 
I have tried to sum up in the opening paragraphs of this report. 

The Comb-Makers 

Of a very different order of Gypsies are the Christian Nomad 
Comb-Makers {vide B. 2 (")). Their language, as a whole, is 
intelligible to the Zagundjis, but the accent is so different, the 
number of Riniianian loan words so great, the almost total 
absence of Turkish loan words so noticeable, that the Zagundjis 
often address them in Turkish or Bulgarian rather than in Gypsy. 
Their voice and accent seems to me to be one of their chief 
characteristics. The accent is softer, and the voice more musical, 
than those of any other Balkan race I have yet met with, and presents 
a marked contrast to the guttural and nasal Drindari, the bullying 
or whining Zagundji, or the rugged Bulgarian. The tone or ring 
of the voice is musical to a degree, and the manner of delivery is 
never coarse, as with the Zdgundjis, who shout at each other like 
Armenian porters or English bargees. To hear the comb-makers 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 23 

gently discussing the aftairs of the day, or the prospects of the 
morrow, around their camp-fires of an evening, is like listening 
to the warbling of birds. They rarely raise their voices above a 
normal pitch, excepting when excitement or a desire to persuade 
makes them intersperse their syllables with falsetto notes. Their 
laughter veritably ripples. This applies equally to both sexes. 
Whether the women are fortune-telling, or the men are seeking 
a victim on whom to practise the famous Hokano Baro or Great 
Deceit, the voice is always the same, one of gentle and refined 
persuasiveness. I am inclined to think that we have here an 
altogether different category of Gypsy from the other tribes to 
be found in Bulgaria. They themselves tell mo that they were 
formerly in Rumania, but not for many generations, and that 
again before that they were in Bulgaria. They have a knowledge 
of the tradition that they originally came from Egypt, which 
tradition does not seem to be generally known to Balkan Gypsies. 
They have more of the pride of race found among Gypsies farther 
West than is to bo met with among other Balkan Gypsy tribes 
within my experience, though even among the comb-makers, 
as with all peoples in the Near East, including, of course, the 
Bulgarians, the greatest compliment you can make to a mother 
is to tell her that her child is beautiful and white. It is only 
among the Gypsies described in B. 2 (6) that one finds that pride 
of the dark race colour. 

The men of this tribe are rarely seen in the towns, whither 
they come only for a few hours on market days, in order to buy, 
sell, or exchange a horse. They would scorn the work of porters 
and carriers, and never ofter their services as such. When business 
brings them near a town, the women will occasionally go a-begging 
from house to house, but they do not dress in rags, nor do they 
whine as do the Zagundjis. They beg in couples, and while one 
is demanding a piece of bread, the other is most likely taking an 
Q^^ from the hen-coop or a handkerchief or cloth which may be 
hanging up to dry in the yard. Similarly, both men and women 
seldom enter a shop to buy a trifle without taking something, as 
they say for a keepsake, from the counter. They have told me 
that it is a disgrace to leave a shop without stealing something. 
The thins: taken is often of little or no value to them, but the idea 
appears to be that the theft must be at least attempted, perhaps 
to keep them in training. I had a visit in the autumn of 1914 
from a woman of this tribe who had that day been released from 



24 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

the Varna prison, where she had been detained for over a year 
for theft. She asked me if I had news of her brother's where- 
abouts, as she wished to rejoin him, and she said how good it was 
to be free once more. ' And,' she added, ' I have already a 
chicken in the bag,' saying which she opened the inner, concealed 
portion of the begging-bag, the mouth of which lies under the 
armpit, and disclosed a fat and somewhat ruffled hen. I asked 
her if it were not tempting Providence to start that sort of thing 
the very day she had left prison for theft, and whether she was 
not just a bit afraid. She said she was not, and that it was all 
a matter of Kismet, adding, ' Don't you know our Romany ways ? ' 
I once witnessed the stealing of a chicken. I had followed a 
party, three women and a man, who were all Avell known to me, 
at a distance, so that they could not know of my presence, desiring 
to ascertain in what direction lay their encampment. \Vhcn they 
were about two kilometres out of the town, along the high road to 
Dobritch, and myself about half a kilometre behind ihem, I saw 
the women stop within a hundred yards of some houses, while the 
man continued walking on ahead. One of the women stooped 
down, throwing something on the ground, while the other two 
stood guard, looking up and down the road. Then I noticed what 
at the distance looked like a rat darting across the road, at which 
the crouching woman made a grab. Away it darted, soon to 
return once more. Again she failed to seize it. A third time it 
approached, and she got it. There was a flutter, a little dust arose 
from the road, and the women proceeded to overtake the man, 
who was waiting for them on the roadside, seated on a heap of 
stones. Quickening my steps I soon caught them up. ' Uohre 
tumen'/ I said. ' iVa is /mAy,' they answered. After Avhich tribal 
greeting I asked whether the chicken was a fat one. ' God : You 
saw it ? ' was their astonished reply. ' It is as dry as bones, but we 
have others, and fat ones. Come to the tents, and you shall taste 
them to-night,' saying which they opened the inner pocket of the 
bags and showed me two fine plump hens which they had picked 
up on the outskirts of Varna. The birds were somewhat choked, 
for the Gypsy women are in the habit of holding their necks tight 
under their arms to prevent their making a noise and betraying 
their presence to passers-by. In this way they are able to carry 
several chickens concealed. They never kill them themselves, for, 
according to their tribal custom, which is not shared by other tribes 
which I have met, the flesh of an animal killed by a woman may 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 25 

not be eaten. The killing is done by the men when they reach 
the tents. I cannot imagine why the hens return to the charge 
when the Gypsy woman has missed them the first time. Mr. 
Mactie witnessed a better instance of hen stealing on the part 
of this tribe. The woman sat sewing in camp out on a common, 
and allowed the village chickens to stray within her grasp. Mr. 
Macfie was a little sleepy, having travelled a long way with the 
tribe that day, but he noticed a little scutHing, after which the 
number of chickens diminished, diminished by one, that is, after 
each scutHe. And all the time the woman sat sewing unconcernedly. 
The members of this tribe are comb-makf^rs, in Bulgarian 
Grebenaris, in Turkish Tarakdzis. They are known to other 
tribes as ZavrakOis. They buy the horns of slaughtered animals 
at the slaughter-houses in largo towns, or elsewhere in the 
villages, and skilfully work them into combs, bending them 
straight by making them hot, and polishing them and cutting 
the teeth by means of special instruments. They work at ir- 
regular intervals, sometimes remaining idle for months at a 
time. Indeed, their trade is merely a blind, a sort of curtain of 
respectability to hide their real occupations. They are probably 
the most thievish tribe in Bulgaria, and there is scarcely a man 
among them who has not been in prison at some period of his life 
for horse-stealing. This latter form of theft they practised on quite 
a large scale along the old Rumanian frontier prior to 1913, and 
the trade will doubtless continue to flourish now as heretofore. 
They collaborated with Rumanian Gypsy bands of about the 
same iribo as themselves, only if anything more criminal, from 
whom they received, and to whom they remitted, stolen horses, 
sometimes as many as from ten to fifteen in a batch. Of course, 
owing to the stringent Bulgarian and Rumanian laws, according 
to which horses are entered on a registration roll, their owners 
receiving a corresponding numbered and dated ticket describing 
the age and appearance of the horse, the name and residence of 
the buyer and seller, and also the price of the animal, it would be 
impossible for the Gypsies to practise their trade without the help 
of disreputable Bulgarian scribes and petty practitioners, who for 
a small consideration supply spurious tickets to the Gypsy horse- 
thieves. Armed with such documents they set out to find the 
animal answering vaguely to the description on the ticket, and 
having found a likely animal, though not at first sight the one to 
which the ticket belongs, they proceed to tamper both with the 



26 REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

animal's appearance and ■with the data on the ticket, until the twu 
are made to correspond. I do not know much about this art of 
horse-faking, but I imagine it is much the same among Gyps}- 
horse-dealers all the world over. With regard to the tickets, I 
may mention that I have never yet met one of the tribe of horse- 
thieves who could read or write. They get to know the tickets ;t> 
they do the horses, by their appearance, as a bird-fancier can 
distinguish one from the other scores of birds which to outsiders 
are indistinguishable one from another. They also know the 
contents of the tickets by heart, having caused them to be read 
over to them on so many occasions. 

The most usual method of tampering with a ticket is to get 
some one who can write to alter the specified age of the animal. 
This is easily done, as the age is not put down in letters. For 
instance, they know full well, although they cannot read, that in 
order to 'rejuvenate' a ticket describing a horse as being fifteen 
years old, it is sufficient to erase the ' stick,' as they call the first of 
the two figures, in order to be the proud possessor of a five-year- 
old. Times out of number they have requested me to remove 
the stick, but I have told them that the most I could do for them 
■was to teach them to write them.selves. They have always been 
too lazy to avail themselves of these opportunities for learning. 

The stealing of horses on a large scale is carried out in the 
summer months, when large Hocks of horses are left to graze 
all night on the extensive pasture ground extending for miles 
along the borderland between Bulgaria and Rumania. Here 
hundreds of horses roam day and night, with here and there at a 
great distance a solitary watchman to guard them. As the night 
wears on and the stars change their position, the watchman, who 
generally manages to keep awake until midnight, grows weary v\' 
his own laments upon the kaval, or native fiute, and lays himself 
down on the lee-side of a tuft of grass. Why should he not rest ^ 
No one is about, as far as the eye can see in the moonlight. It 
would be a different matter if the night were moonless. Extra 
watches might then be required. He is soon a motionless heap, 
snoring under his thick shepherds cloak, which he has pulled over 
his head, for the Judas hours are chilly out on the border plateau, 
even in June, And Avell may he continue snoring thus, while three 
dark and silent men, armed with heavy wooden cudgels, approach 
stealthily and squat upon the grass, forming a triangle around 
him. Not a word is spoken. The night breeze whistles in the 



REPORT ON THE GYPSV TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 2' 

grass, an occasional snort is heard to proceed from some contented 
steed, for the grass is at its best and grazing is a delight. Thus 
half an hour passes, and then the three dark men who have 
watched the watchman depart as silently as they came. But 
could the sleeper be endowed with second sight, he would assuredly 
see, some two miles off, fifteen accursed Gypsy men, mounted upon 
as many horses, making their way with all possible haste com- 
patible with safety and with being unobserved towards the Ru- 
manian frontier, where they are met by fifteen other men of their 
tribe, from whom they receive money and to whom they give 
up the horses. And while the newly mounted cavaliers depart 
' within,' as they call it, meaning into Rumanian territory, the 
fifteen whu have remained 'without' disperse and rejoin their 
several camps before daybreak. Had the sleeping watchman 
awakened, he would have been told : ' Lie down, sleep, or we will 
knock your brains out,' and he would have perforce complied. 

This tribe deplores the present-day strict laws against horse 
thieving, and the less restless among them recognize that it might 
be better for them to give up the custom. Vlacano, my guide, has 
even expressed the wish that the laws bo made even more stringent 
in order to cure his people of the habit, which entails years of 
imprisonment for the perpetrator of the deed, much misery to his 
family, and not infrequently the breaking up of a home, as is the 
case when a man's long imprisonment causes his wife, who is the 
mother of several children, to accept the courtship of another in 
order to provide a home for herself and her offspring. 

It is natural that the feeling of the peasantry towards these 
Gypsies is one of exasperation. Their property is never safe when 
the tribe is about the neighbourhood. They surprise a village by 
the suddenness of their appearance, and at an hour when all hands 
are busy in the fields several miles around the village, the gang 
descends upon the unprotected houses, bribes the watchdogs, and 
plies its dangerous trade under cover of selling combs. In a 
surprisingly short time they can put a good twenty miles between 
themselves and the scene of their nefarious exploits, for each taliga 
is drawn by a couple of wiry horses accustomed to being driven at 
a gallop when speed is thought to be advisable, and they know all 
the ways and cross ways and ' black ways ' across country, and are 
experts at doubling back parallel to their flight down some 
unfrequented ravine or across some lonely moor, separating, if 
need be, for greater safety, in order to reunite a couple of days 



28 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

later, when each little band will of a certainty have some interesting 
notes to compare concerning fresh exploits, good stuft' for low- 
voiced conversation at sunset, when the dish of chicken broth and 
rice has been disposed of, and the women have poured water on 
the men's hands, and the men have rinsed their mouths and rolled 
and lit their cigarettes, and the tent-cloth has been rolled up to 
the first horizontal pole in order to admit the evening breeze. 

The attitude of the authorities towards these nomads is no 
more lenient than that of the peasantry. A whole camp is at 
times arrested and severely punished on the flimsiest of charges, 
but it is doubtful whether strict justice is thereby violated, for the 
tribe has assuredly been guilty, on the very day of their apprehen- 
sion, of some vmdiscovered crime quite as serious as the charge 
which has brought about their arrest. On the evening of the day 
upon which I witnessed the theft of the chicken as above described, 
when towards sun.set I was sitting by the camp-fire lazily watching 
the roastinjr of one of the five chickens which constituted the day's 
bag, and drowsily thinking how much more pleasant it would be 
to remain in that high and breezy camp for the night than 
to return on foot fourteen kilometres to Yarna, there arose a 
great hullabaloo upon the roadside at about a hundred yards 
distance. Before we had time to intervene an irate peasant had 
felled with one blow of liis heavy stick a young Gypsy lad, by 
name Ristem, who had carelessly allowed his horse to stray into a 
ueighbourinc: cornfield. Ristem was carried unconscious to the 
tents, where his wrinkled old stepmother had already started 
chanting a lamentation, and she proceeded to bleed him in the 
nape of the neck with a kitchen knife. Meanwhile the peasant, 
doubtless fearing he had killed the boy, gave the alarm in the 
neighbouring village of Dervent, saying that there was a dangerous 
gang of Gypsies up on the hill, who had threatened him with 
revolvers and had boasted that the Rumanians would soon annex 
that part of the country as far as Varna. The accusation was 
serious, as at that time martial law forbade the carrying of firearms. 
A band of peasants came up to the camp and began searching for 
revolvers, pulling the screaming women and girls by the legs out 
of the tents, to the accompaniment of the ever-increasing wails and 
lamentations of old Totana, Ristem 's stepmother. Altogether a 
tremendous uproar, owing to the shrieks of the women and the 
shouting of the Bulgarians. The male comb-makers were gently 
argumentative, as ever. Of course, no revolvers were found. I 



REPORT 0\ THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 20 

believe there were none. In any case, the peasant's accusation 
that they threatened him was a lie told in order to screen himself. 
However, the news was conveyed to Yarna by the owner of a 
bicycle shop in the town who happened to be passing, and about 
an hour later, when at length supper was ready and I had just 
received a ' drum-stick,' a lump of bread, and a little heap of salt, 
a detachment of armed patrols silently surrounded the encamp- 
ment and arrested its inmates, including myself. It was only 
after some hours, at about midnight, that I was able to establish 
my identity, and was offered profuse apologies and a bicycle to 
return to Varna. Even then, the Gypsies were still considered 
suspect, and the whole camp, including horses and dogs, were 
taken to Varna, the men passing the remainder of the night in the 
prison, and the women camping in the market-place surrounded 
by police. I was able to procure their liberation on the following 
day. This nuich I have told to illustrate the attitude of the 
authorities and peasantry towards the tribe of comb-makers, an 
attitude which on the whole seems to me to be quite natural, for 
the whole tribe consists of gangs of restless ne'er-do-wells and 
professional thieves, who, whether they enter a shop and contrive 
to filch some trivial article of little value — as a keepsake, as they 
are in the habit of saying (Bulgarian za spomen, Gypsy lippri- 
rnaske) — or whether they are to all appearances harmlessly making 
combs, are in reality coumiitting, or planning to commit, some 
act of ' devilry.' 

It will, therefore, easily be understood why they are constantly 
getting into trouble with the police, and why every prison on both 
sides of the frontier can boast of one or more representatives of 
the comb-making fraternity, of both sexes. Indeed, the prison of 
Costantsa, in Rumania, and those of Varna, Razgrad and Shumla 
in Buljjaria, are used bv the comb-makers as the most convenient 
postes restantes for correspondence. Such letters are written in 
Bulgarian or Rumanian, according to the knowledge of the 
amanuensis at hand. The male members of the tribe, in Bulgaria, 
speak four languages: Gypsy, Bulgarian, Rumanian, and Turkish. 
I have had such letters dictated to me in Gypsy on the under- 
standing that I would cause them to be sent in Bulgarian. 

[ Individual members of the tribe at times travel by train in order 
to fetch such letters, or when a lawsuit brings them alone to a 
town, and they occasionally use the telephone, speaking Bulgarian, 

i owing to a naive idea that the ' machine ' might not work if Gypsy 



80 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

were used. Prison life in Bulgaria is tedious, but not at all harsh. 
Mr. Scott Macfie told me that when at Razgrad the comb-makers 
took him to the prison to visit one of their comrades incarcerated 
for horse-stealing, and that the delinquent received them in a 
pleasant courtyard, bright with roses, and that the jailer himself 
served Turkish coffee while they smoked their cigarettes. 

The tents of the comb-makers, unlike those of the Zagun- 
djis, are always made of good, strong goats'-hair cloth. Besides the 
cakala, berand and heli (vide description of Zagundji tent), they 
have two horizontal poles attached about half way up the rakals 
(called vrozdia) which run the length of the tent under the cloth 
and end in the taliga, which is always built into the tent crossways, 
so that the breadth of the tent is the length of the taliga. The 
extra poles add greatly to the strength of the structure. One of them 
is frequently the shaft of the taliga, turned round at right angles 
to the latter. The taliga is hidden from view by carpets and 
hanEfins: cloths which form a wall at the back of the tent and 
prevent the wind from reaching the interior from between the 
wheels. But the taliga is itself covered by the tent-cloth, and 
when there are many inmates one of them often sleeps in the 
taliga. The back of the tent is always kept facing the wind, and 
the whole structure is continuallv being wheeled round whenever 
the wind changes. 

The Grobenaris are not fond of the vicinity of towns. Many 
town Bulgarians do not even know of their existence. When one 
mentions them, they, the Bulgars, will answer : ' Ah yes, you mean 
the Kopaniiris,' whereas there is all the difference between the 
Grebeniiris and the Kopanaris that there is between an honest 
man and a thief, not to mention the differences of language , 
and trade, and perhaps of origin. Even the word Grebenari, 
though obviously meaning a maker of greheiis or combs, seems 
unfamiliar to many Bulgarians. It is, however, found in all dic- 
tionaries, and is the name which the tribe itself uses, and by 
which they are designated on occasional certificates of good 
character which they obtain from the mayors of villages. Speci- 
mens of these I have frequently been shown : the hor.se-thief 
listens with a complacent smile to the perusal of the document 
to the effect that he, Ivan Nicoloff, is personally known to the 
undersigned, and that he is a native of such and such a village, 
and a maker of combs and withal honest and of a good disposition. 

The camp is pitched on a high common, well away from the 



REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 31 

village to which it belongs, and the comb-makers endeavour not to 
steal from that village, as the camping ground is valued, and they 
do not wish to be driven away or refused permission to camp on 
a subsequent occasion. In such villages, which they so to speak 
patronize, they are often on good terms with the peasantry, who 
will treat them to drink, and allow themselves to be treated by 
the Gypsies in the village kriL^ma. But it often happens that even 
there where they are known, the women cannot refrain from 
stealing. At Yasi Tepe, near Provadia, 1 saw a Gyps}- girl return 
to the tents with an apronful of turf and dung cakes for the 
tire, stolen from a farmhouse on the outskirts of the village, and 
as she crossed the plain towards the encampment she was followed 
by the maledictions of the farmer's wife standing at her gate. 
The girl's father took the stolen property from his daughter and 
himself carried it back to the farm, apologizing and explaining 
how scarce fuel was in that neighbourhood. The girl appeared to 
be very cross with her father, but once in the tent comforted her- 
self by producing from the folds of her dress, and showing to me, 
three new laid eggs which she said she had perquisitioned from 
the same farmhouse. The military word requisitsia has become 
very fashionable among the comb-makers since the Turco-Bulgarian 
War of 1912-13, in order to describe thefts from the peasantry. 
• Only,' they say, ' we do not give receipts, as do the niilitary 
authorities, because we cannot write ! ' 

In point of food the contrast between the comb-makers and 
the Zagundjis is as great as in all other respects. They rarely beg 
their food : they buy or steal it. They eat meat almost daily, in 
the form of chickens. They prefer to make their own bread 
than to buy it ready-made. This may be because of the difficulty 
of getting bread in the villages. It is often quite impossible to 
get any. The peasants bake on certain days, and they will not 
give or sell any, as I have found on many occasions, for fear of 
running short of bread before the baking day. Whereas the 
Zagundjis, who like to camp near some larger village or town, 
always beg their bread, which consists of ancient lumps and odds 
and ends so hard that they have to be soaked in the stew-pot in 
order to be eatable. The comb-makers knead the flour on a large 
round metal tray and put it to bake in the camp-fire ashes, 
covering it up with them. Apparently they do not use any leaven. 
The bread is eaten hot. It is timed to be ready with the zu7ni or 
stew, which forms their staple dish. It is of a dark brown colour. 



32 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

similar to that eaten by the peasantry. They generally possess a 
lamp of rock salt for their animals to lick, portions of which are 
broken off and pounded when required at meals. 

They observe with great solemnity the Feast of the Assumption, 
loth August. Every tent, that is every family, slaughters a sheep 
on that occasion, and it frequently happens that several dozen 
tents are assembled in order to celebrate the festival together. 

On 14th August of the year 1913 a member of this tribe 
fetched me in order to take me to his camp for the Feast of the 
Bogoroditsa, which they themselves call the Feast of Sinta Maria. 
We left Varna at sunrise, and arrived at the encampment at sunset, 
travelling slowly, owing to one of the horses being lame. The 
camp was at Yasi Tepe, a village in the district of Provadia. I 
thus had good occasion to watch their ways and customs during 
the three days' carouse. I also got an idea of what Gypsy life is 
like out in the open when the sun is not shining, for during the 
three nights, and most of the daytime as well, it rained in great 
downpours, and at night little ditches had to be dug around the 
tents to prevent our being swamped by the inrushing water. On 
the morning following my arrival, when the rain stopped for a 
moment, the sheep were slaughtered by the men, after thin wax 
tapers had been wound round the horns of such as had any, and 
lighted, and incense burnt about them in little metal trays, and 
afterwards in the tents, making them smell like the inside of 
churches. The poor beasts had been baaing piteously in the rain 
all night, pending the sacritice. iHiring the death struggle short 
prayers were said for the prosperity of the family and relatives, 
improvisations such as: ' T ahitll amen i Sinta Maria (;^av Idki 
kind), kadale viihiske, hai te del amen bu' aastimds hai ha-)(t hai 
maygin i ameyjge i tumajge, hai te traiftards saurr bute IterUijge, 
hai sastimds ! ' That is to say : ' May Holy Mary help us 

( ) for the coming summer, and grant us much health and 

luck and wealth, botli to us and to you, and may we all live for 
many years, and health.' The actual words given are those I 
heard used at the Feast of St. George, to whom, as seen from the 
above, they do not pray ; but the words used on the occasion I am 
describing were almost the same. The flaying of the animals was 
also done by the men, but the women did all the rest. While the 
usual stew, with rice and vegetables, was preparing, the girls 
quickly roasted little chips of pn'no buko and kald buko, i.e. of 
lungs and liver, and served them to us sprinkled with salt and 



REPORT ON THE GVPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 33 

paprika, with small glasses of rakia and slices of bread. This by 
way of hors-d'ceuvre, the Turkish -and Bulgarian meze, Russian 
zakuski. Before drinking each man made a little speech, wishing 
the assembly health and prosperity, and destruction to the Gentiles, 
' and may we each of us steal thirty horses before the year is out.' 
Then came more rakia and private toasts, and resounding kisses 
on cheek and lip, and sworn friendships, and out came scraps of 
news which prudence had withheld before the advent of the 
liquor, and strange promises are made, and proposals for the loan 
of fabulous sums, until the women carry in the table, which, when 
placed amidst us, stands half a foot from the ground and upon 
which is a steaming dish of savoury zumi. We squat around the 
table and each man takes a morsel according to his fancy, or 
drinks of the broth with a wooden spoon. Now hiVditsas full of 
red wine are handed round, and the gentle comU-niakers become 
almost as noisy as the Ziigundjis when they are sober. 

On the following days the remaining portions of the sheep 
were roasted or rather grilled. But not a drop of alcohol was 
drunk, and after lunch we repaired to the village and drank good 
cortee and bad lemonade. 

On the Feast of St. George, the Moslem Hederlez, much the 
same ceremonies are observed, only the meat is not cooked at 
home, but sent to a public oven, of which there are at least one 
or two in every village, and hundreds in the towns. This is in 
accordance with the Bulgarian custom, for the 23rd April (Gth 
May new style) is a great feast day for all alike in Bulgaria, 
whether Christians or Moslems, Gypsy or Gentile. In fact, the 
feast is the celebration of the advent of spring. The tents of the 
Gypsies, the houses of the Gentiles, and the engines at the railway 
station are all alike decorated with green branches. The festival 
corresponds to the Kakava mentioned by Paspati, the Khadv Elias 
of the Arabs, and the Cember Siiri of the Persians. 

I noticed the following difterence in the manner of celebrating 
the two feasts. On loth August, when we had finished eating in 
one tent we were invited to the next, and as there were seven of 
them we had all of us more than enough by the time we had 
finished. On that occasion, too, the women did not eat with us. 
On 23rd April all famihes brought their food out and spread it on a 
long series of carpets forming a huge banquet table. The women 
also sat down with the men on this occasion. The above prayer 
was said over the meat when spread on these carpets, and 

VOL. IX. — NO. I. C 



34 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

the incense was passed round the table. After partaking of the 
food some very good acting was performed by the men, purport- 
ing to be the scene at a horse fair. The heads of the sheep re- 
presented the horses. Pieces of two francs were stuck into their 
mouths, and long stalks of garlic, at which we had been nibbling 
during the repast, were affixed to the back of their heads, and were 
meant to represent the reins. The haggling and bargaining was 
done in Gypsy, but Rumanian, Turkish, and Bulgarian was also 
used. In the latter language one man imitated the accent of a 
Bulgarian peasant from the villages high up in the Balkans. The 
Gentile was always made to be the loser in the l)argain. 

The tribe of comb-makers, as I have already mentioned, is not 
confined to Bulgaria. Numbers of them still inhabit Rumania, 
mostly in the district around Costantsa and Tulcea in the 
Uobrudja, right.up to l^iessarabia. They appear to have developed 
a degree of criminality in that district verging upon madness. 
Gypsies in Rumania have only lately been accused of the nmtila- 
tion of stolen children used for bogging purposes. This may be 
untrue or may bo chargeable to others than the comb-makers, 
but they confess to housebreaking and murder. There is no 
death penalty in Rumania, but the authorities are determined 
to prevent the continuance of violent crime by the comb-makers. 
They have accordingly taken the following mea.sures with regard 
to this tribe, according to the declarations of the Bulgarian 
branch of it, which is in touch with the Rumanian lot. Every 
Gypsy must live in a tent or hut, probably, as a matter of fact, 
a hurdei (see below) provided for him outside the town or 
village. More than two heads of families may not live together, 
and these two may not be relatives. If any one wishes to go 
to town or to travel to any other spot he must get a written 
leave of absence from the police. Leave is never granted for , 
more than two days, and if the Gypsy is absent longer than 
the time allowed he is liable to arrest and imprisonment. 
Police stations are established near all Gypsy dwellings, and 1 
the police knock at his door at all hours of day and night to ,{ 
ascertain his presence. This constitutes veritable slavery, and has ( 
been the cause of so many leaving the country and invading , 
Bulgaria, where the laws are milder, and where they tend to \ 
become less criminal. Housebreaking is, however, not unknown i 
among them. When I arrived once in their camp with a tin box 
full of sweets for the children, and asked a woman if she could 



REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF XORTH-EAST BULGARIA 35 

open it for me, the men replied for her : ' She opens houses, how 
should she not be able to open a box.' And Totana, already 
mentioned on page 28, who was present at Yasi Tepe when 
we were celebrating the Feast of Sinta Maria, ran away from her 
ij husband and returned calmly a few days later with a bag of 
money which she had procured by breaking into a farmhouse. 

Many members of the tribe who have remained in Rumania 
have bought houses and settled down. These are not molested 
by the police. The drastic measures above described are designed 
to break the spirit (criminal) of the comb-makers, and this can 
"uly be done by making them sedentary. 

Thus far my informant, a comb-maker himself, and I see no 
reason for doubting his word. He says there are Moslem Nomads 
in the Rumanian Dobrudja who are not criminal. There are 
"Christian bear-leaders, according to him, of the same tribe as 
those hailing from Karnobad, near Burgas, in South-East Bulgaria, 
and beyond the contines of the district surveyed in this article. He 
says there are also the ' Pletosi' or Long-Haired Gypsies, described 
as coming from Austria and Russia, coppersmiths with enormous 
tents, and Christians, not crinnnal and very rich, who camp out 
nil through the winter as well as in summer-time. But all this is 
>ubject-matter for future investigation. 

The tribe I met at Ilanlik, to the north-east of Dobritch, in 1913 
{v. B. 2 (/>)), was a Rumanian branch of this comb-making clan. 
I have classitied them apart merely owing to certain characteristics 
which they possessed and which the Bulgarian branch has pro- 
bably lost. They were good musicians, all of them playing the 
'oncertina with great effect, which not one of the Bulgarian lot 
an do. The Bulgarian variations of the national horo dance, 
pretty as they sometimes are, are clumsy when compared to the 
Rumanian variety. 

At Ilanlik I found a colony of this trilte consisting of about a 
hundred and fifty men, women, and children, living partly in tents, 
i>artly in underground dwellings, called by them hurdeis, which 
they had dug out for themselves in the sides of a gentle slope. 
They were hired at 1.40 francs per day to work in the fields of a 
Hungarian landowner, on whose property their camping ground 
ay. They worked exceedingly badly, quarrelling with each other, 
T stopping to tell some tale when half way up a furrow, and thus 
wasting so much time that the Bulgarian, Rumanian and other 
vorkmen employed by the Cokoi would be half way down the 



36 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

next parallel line before the Gypsies had again resumed their 
work. They had lived throughout the winter on the charity of the 
Cokoi, and were then rerleeming their debts in work. Any savings 
they were able to make they spent at the kri6ina leased by the 
Cokoi to a Bulgarian innkeeper. They referred to the Cokoi as 
the Rai, which word is not lost to the tribe as to so many others 
in the Balkan Peninsula. Their hatred of him was great, for he 
used to beat them to make them work. So, too, was their fear and 
hatred of the Rumanian authorities from whom they had fled in 
order, they said, to escape military service, and for a host of other 
reasons already apparent to the reader. Among this branch of the 
tribe I found not only pride of race but even of colour, which is so 
rare among the tribes of Bulgaria, Their fear and dislike of me. 
too, was peculiar. l^pon my arrival among them with my guide 
Vlacano they became exceedingly suspicious, and after the pre- 
liminary greetings whicli custom required they lapsed into long 
and sullen silence. It was soon apparent that they took me for a 
spy sent among them by the Rumanian CJovernmcnt, and Vlarano 
for a traitor to his people. It was only after the Rai, to whom 
they appealed in their fear, had assured them that he knew me by 
sight, and that it was impossible for mo to serve the Rumanian 
Government, and invited me up to lunch with him, that they 
became more calm. But they wished to have read to them tho 
contents of my notebook.s, wherein I had lists of names of 
individuals and of tribes whom I had lately met. They could n ^r 
understand the motives which had brought mo among thcui. 
The matter ended in the evening by Vlarano's treating a large 
number of them to drink at the krUma and himself getting 
drunk, on purpose, he afterwards explained, in order to create a 
favourable impression, the whole jollification being at my expeii.>o, 
during which my guide was as profuse in curses for those who 
had suspected us (always al)sent ones), as he was in kisses for such 
as had bravely maintained that it was a shame to treat guests sc 
inhospitably. After this we were admitted to the horo. which ha( 
been progressing furiously the whole afternoon on tlie hillside 
in front of the underground dwellings. To their dancing they 
imparted a grace and agility quite un-Balkan, in fact one recog- 
nized the Rumanian influence. The concertina was handed from 
one to another when a player wished to dance in his turn. As ' 
the night came on the girls became less shy, throwing their legs 
about in wilder capers, as the men do. Two boys danced together 



REPORT OX THE CiYRSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 37 

the cmrdds ^ or Hungarian heath dance, facing each other. Not 
a muscle of the body was at rest. The head and shoulders were 
thrown from side to side in gentle rhythm, while the lower part 
of the body executed the wildest capers. 1 am not sure whether 
this Gypsy variety is altogether in the approved style, but the 
effect was marvellous. 

During my stay at Ilanlik parties kept arriving and leaving at 
a furious speed, seemingly bent on the most urgent business, and 
the one theme of conversation wasfuj'tde cai, or horse-stealing, 
past and future. 

These Gypsies dress in every conceivable shade of compromise 
between some form of Rumanian peasant costume unknown to 
me and European clothes, and no two men were dressed alike. 
Some men wore high-crowned Rumanian Jcalj^ahs, others wide- 
brinmied straw hats. Their Bulgarian Gypsy brethren of the horse- 
stealing persuasion, on the other hand, dress in a sort of cross 
between Turkish and Bulgarian peasant dress. 

As in Rumania, so too in Bulgaria, some of the comb-makers 
have settled, to a certain extent, without giving up their criminal 
ways. And this brings us to the Christian Sedentaries of Rust- 
chuk, who were lately nomad comb-makers, and we must now con- 
sider their iniquitous mode of gaining a livelihood. 

Christian Sedentaries of Ru.stchuk (v. A. 2 (c)) 

I have met but few members of this tribe, if indeed it may be 
ailed a separate tribe at all. They were all related to one another, 
aid their dialect was that of the comb-makers, with the same 
leasing peculiarity of voice and accent. Their favourite pursuit 
is the practising on a huge scale and for huge stakes the well- 
known ' Great Deceit,' immortalized by Borrow as the Hokano 
Baro. The following facts would appear almost incredible. I can, 
However, vouch for their accuracy, as having occurred in my 
presence. Some time after our Honorary Secretary had left 
Rustchuk and his friends the comb-makers, with whom he had 
travelled to that Danubian city from Varna, I received a visit 
from a most villanous-looking creature with only one eye, and 
horribly marked with smallpox. His skin was dark, and he was 
dressed in black clothes, like an undertaker. But they were all 
shiny with over- wear, and his trousers were tucked into his high 

^ Pronounce curdd'. 



38 REPORT OX THE GVPSV TRIBES OF N'ORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

boots. He wore a broad-briuiiued soft felt hat, and he had a 
red handkerchief round his neck. He was accompanied by 
three other individuals who were somewhat less striking in 
appearance than himself, and whom he introduced as a brother 
and cousins. Havinir handed me Mr. Mactie's card, and also a 
letter of introduction, he immediately broached the subject of his 
visit, and gave me to understand that all I had heard from the 
comb-makers concerning his power to convert one pound into two, 
or, for that matter, tive hundred into a thousand, was true, and 
that if I was agreeable he would conduct a little seance in my 
house on the following day. All that would bo required of me 
would be a half-sovereign and a tray of glowing charcoal. It may 
be well to mention here that a month before this encounter Mr. 
Mactie and my.self had been spoken to by the comb-makers con- 
cerning the wonderful powers possessed by an American inhabiting 
the town of Sistov on the Danube, whereby he was able to make 
two out of one, four out of two, and so on, 'and would I care to 
make his acquaintance ? ' And so when the one-eyed man, self- 
styled Emperor of tlie Gypsies, and his confederates, proposed 
their little entertainment for the morrow I at once agreed, beiii<4 
unwilling to miss such an ojiportunity of verifying some new 
instance of the famous Great Trick. 

Having thus obtained my consent, the one-eyed one at once 
became much more confidential, and before long he made known 
to me the real object of his visit. Would I not produce five , 
hundred napoleons, in order that he might C(»nvert them, there, '. 
before my eyes, into a thousaml ^ I tried to beat liim down, ; 
flabbergasted at the audacity of the man. At last he came down \ 
to two hundred and fifty napoleons in gold. Xothing woidd 
make him acrree to work a lesser sum. Whv ? The reader may ^ 
guess at the end of the story. The reason he gave, however, was a 
cock-and-bull tale about the indivisibility of the linoleum in 
which he nmst wrap the money, preparatory to putting it into the 
melting-pot. So much linoleum was required for such and suck 
a sum, the exact amount being known to experts who provided 
him with the requisite sheets of linoleum. He possessed sheets 
for the doubling of five himdred, seven hundred, and larger sums, 
but none for dealing with sums under two hundred and fifty 
napoleons. ' It is just like in the making of bread,' he added, ' so ' 
much yeast is required for such and such a quantity of flour.' 
True it was he had a limited numl>er of small bits of linolcuju. 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 39 

for experimental purposes, for the conversion of sovereigns and 
half-sovereigns. Anyhow, would I not go down to his hotel, and 
further discuss the matter with him in the evening. I accordingly- 
paid him a visit the same evening at six o'clock. In the hotel 
garden, overlooking the principal street of the town, I was intro- 
duced casually by him and his confederates to two well-to-do- 
looking Bulgarian peasants, who, however, did not speak to me, 
but sat watching me intently while I conversed with the one-eyed 
one in Gypsy. I was surprised at the worried look upon their 
faces, which, however, brightened when they observed me in high 
spirits. After drinking a glass of beer, I left them, on the under- 
standing, between myself and the Gypsies, that the burning 
charcoal and tho half-sovereign should bo ready punctually at 
halt- past ten on tho following day. 

At nine o'clock tho next day I went to a money changer, and 
got tho required gold piece. Punctually at the appointed time the 
ex-comb-maker and his brother and cousins arrived at my house. 
We repaired to tho dining-room. The Gypsies numbered four, and 
we were three : myself, wife, and mother-in-law. We served them 
with brandy. The villain was in his most insinuating mood. I 
was to understand that this was merely a proha. But if I were 
willing to fetch tho required sum from the bank, we would repeat 
the experiment on a large scale, and I should be rich, very rich. 
No one would suspect us. No one would intrude. ' And, brother,' 
producing as ho spoke tho necessary ingredients from his pocket, 
' this piece of linoleum, of which I receive a supply periodically 
from Constantinople (it is, of course, contraband), and this /ttr/ia- 
lamentu (you see it looks like a bit of caked earth) will enable me 
to convert your half-sovereign into a whole one of such apparent 
genuineness that it will deceive tho cleverest experts. If you 
iake it to the money changer, he will accept it. If you take it to 
the police, accusing me of coining false money, they will arrest you 
for defamation of character. As for the furkalamentu, it is tho 
most expensive of the ingredients. A man brings me a supply twice 
a year from Italy, down the Danube, smuggling it into the country 
at Rustchuk. I am a great artist, brother. My wife being from 
Rumania, and I having often visited her people, I have learnt 
from our brethren over the water (the river Danube) the art of 
successfully forging Rumanian bank-notes. But I prefer to work 
in Bulgaria among a few trusted friends. I do no harm to any one. 
I merely help in a modest way to increase the supply of gold in 



40 REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

the country, which, as you know, is scarce. But you will do as you 
like, brother. You have a family and an establishment to keep 
up. What is your fortune ? ' I mentioned haphazardly a sum 
about twice my actual income. ' That is indeed little, brother. 
Perhaps you cannot produce the money at present without 
difficulty. Ka-uzarel tut, it will pinch you. If so, have you no 
friends from whom you could take the money on loan ? Could 
you not telegraph to Mr. Scott Mactie ? You will do what you 
wish, brother; if you agree, well and good, if not. . . sastimos, 
your health, brother, no harm is done.' 

We listened with admiration to this flow of eloquence, punc- 
tuated by gentle, mesmeric gestures, the voice rising and falling 
in well-tempered persuasiveness. I have spoken before of the 
strangely gentle quality of voice possessed by the comb-makers. 
The swindler spoke in the same way, with the same gentle queru- 
lous note dominating his discourse. ' Why should I be unreason- 
able. But if I were unreasonable, sastimos, your health.' 

Then we produced a tray of glowing charcoal, and at his request 
a franc. This he put into a little iron bowl, together with a bit 
of charcoal, upon which he commenced blowing. ' Observe,' he 
said, ' it will not melt. Now give me the half-sovereign, which I 
wrap up in the bit of linoleum, thus.' He then wrapped up the franc 
in a similar piece of linoleum. Then he suddenly became exceed- 
ingly worried, and said that he had lost the small piece of 
farkalamentii which he had brought with him. He searched in 
all his pockets, asked his accomplices whether they had got it, 
looked on the floor, and under the charcoal tray, we helping 
him all the time. At last it was found in his own waistcoat pocket. 
We were completely taken in by the Gypsy's tirst-rate acting. The 
two pieces, or what we thought were the two pieces, were now 
wrapped up in one single bit of linoleum, and the li ttle packet placed 
upon the red-hot coals. Almost immediately it melted into a white 
liquid metal. By this time beads of perspiration covered the 
forehead of the Gypsy, produced, doubtless, by the strain of having 
to act his part in the presence of an audience presumably some- 
what more wide-awake than his usual Bulgarian victim. His 
hands, too, were trembling violently. Then all four Gypsies made 
the sign of the cross in the Orthodox fashion, from right to left, 
and hastily muttered a prayer that God and the Sinta Maria 
might help them, and carefully poured the contents of the iron cup 
into a small pocket mould. This consisted of an iron frame 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 41 

shaped like a brandy flask, with an iron neck to it, the body of the 
flask being solid, and made of sand baked black and damped into 
consistency with water. This mould was divided lengthwise into two 
portions exactly similar, save that on the inside of one of them was 
the hollowed-out impression of a sovereign joined by a narrow canal 
to the impression of a smaller coin. The two portions were, of course, 
tightly clapped together when the metal was poured in. After a 
minute the Gypsy opened the mould, and we beheld two white 
coin-shaped pieces of metal, without, however, a trace of the 
necessary efligy and design, ' It is nevertheless there,' said the 
Gypsy, 'and only requires the heat of Are to bring it out into 
relief.' The fire would also produce, he said, the right hue. We 
watched breathless, while with great swiftness the Gyp.sy wrapped 
up the coin in a fresh piece of linoleum, and held it over the 
hot coals by means of some small pincers. After some time 
the linoleum was consumed and there appeared a dirty smoky 
sovereign, which he again held over the flame, to give it, he said, 
the right ring. He then polished it with some sand, and handed 
it over to us. 

He soon left us, after drinking some more brandy, and assuring 
me that if I required his services I had merely to telegraph to 
Rustchuk, whiiher he was returning that afternoon, and he 
would immediately come to me. He said, however, that he had 
but a limited supply of linoleum, and that if he did not hear from 
me within a month he would no longer keep it for me, as he had 
applicants who desired to double their fortunes in this easy and 
withal safe manner. In the hall he met my baby daughter, and 
insisted upon giving her a two-franc piece for luck, which he said 
he had that morning coined at the hotel. He must now return to 
the hotel, he said, in order to occupy his time advantageously until 
the hour at which the train for Rustchuk was timed to leave. 
When about to leave, and already in the garden, he knocked the 
pocket mould against his heel, as one might a pipe, and there fell 
to the ground a lot of fine black sand. ' You see,' he said, ' no 
one can know what we have been doing. All traces have dis- 
appeared.' 

It mieht have been about two months later that one of the 
peasants whom I had seen in the company of the Gypsy at the 
hotel at Varna paid me a visit. His appearance had sadly 
changed. He was worn and haggard, and badly clothed. Upon 
my inquiring the reason for this visit he told me that he was 



42 REPORT 0\ THE fiYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

getting very anxious about his money. The one-eyed one had 
been in possession of five hundred napoleons belonging to him. 
the peasant, since the previous month of March, and it was now 
October. I was well known to the Gypsies, and it was for thi> 
reason that he had dared approach me on a matter which h»- 
knew was exceedingly shady. I might call in the police and have 
him arrested as a would-be coiner of false money, for he knew that 
I worked among the Gypsies for scientitic reasons, as he had been 
told in the town. Still I would perhaps take into consideration 
that he was the father of a large family, and (beginning to cry) 
would I not use any influence I might have with the one-eyed one 
in order to induce him to finish the business satisfactorily, and 
without further delay ? For he had borrowed money from five 
different villages, and he dare not return to his own village with 
his creditors unsatisfied. Did I not know all about these matters i 
Was it possible that the Gyp.sy would endeavour to keep the doubled 
five hundred, the thousand napoleons, for himself? Was he only 
trying to temporize in insisting that another two hundred must 
be produced before he could work the whole satisfactorily, owing 
to the indivisible piece of linoleum reijuiring a larger sum than 
ho had anticipated ? 

With the deepest misgivings as to the result of my words upon 
the poor peasant, I set about the unpleasant duty of explaining t<> 
him the truth that he was not only himself a rogue, but the dupe 
of a rogue greater than himself, that the talk of a thousand napo- 
leons was a myth, and that there had never been more than five 
hundred, which he was not likely ever to see again. I might have 
spared myself my uneasiness. Such was the ascendancy gained 
over him by the wily one, that the Bulgar simply would not believe 
me. Had he not seen one piece converted into two ? Had not the 
Gypsy loft a great mass of metal, in a molten lump, in his posses- 
sion, which only required working \ And then again, this time 
cringingly, could I not do something for him ? 

He came to me again a week later, and the whole story was 
repeated once more. Since then I have not seen the miserable 
man. 

I can add very little to the above narrative. The reader must 
himself try to fill in the gaps. Since the occurrence of the events 
above described, I have naturally lost no opportunity of picking 
up here and there information of a supplementary nature. I find 
that the Gypsy was well known to the police authorities and had 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 43 

frequently been to prison, but succeeded in bailing himself out by 
means of huge deposits. In theory his numerous cases are due 
to come on some day. What this means is best inferred from the 
opening chapters of Bleak House. It is not a discussion within 
the strict province of this report. Let me confine myself strictly 
to what the Gypsies themselves have told me, and what I have 
myself seen. The one-eyed one employs agents for finding victims 
all over the country. Such agents are chiefly recruited among the 
tribe of comb-makers, but the nomad Moslem sieve-makers (r. B. 
1 (a)), who are recent converts to Islam, are often pretty useful in 
this connexion. It will be, of course, understood that the victims 
cannot themselves appeal to the police, for they are themselves 
criminals, would-be coiners of bad money. According to the 
Gypsies, the trick is most successful in the district of Kustchuk, 
where it has become, again according to my informants, so to 
speak an established custom, bound to occur from time to time, 
like, for example, occasional disastrous hailstorms. In that dis- 
trict, according to my Gypsy informants, a rough and ready remedy 
is always applicable, for in the event of the proceedings being 
brought to a sudden close, in a manner j:><'r//ajJ8(?) unforeseen, the 
sum at stake is so huge as to satisfy all parties who, by mutual 
consent, divide judiciously among each other rather than see the 
money eaten, say the Gypsies, by lawyers. 

For the rest, to the questions : What was the nature of the 
metal left in the hands of the peasant?^ where does the 
Gypsy generally go through his wizard-like performance, whether 
outside some village or in some lonely dell ? and does he often 
prolong the agony of his victim in the hope of getting more out 
of him at some future date, as in the case of my peasant, or 
do he and his fellow-conspirators sometimes undeceive him in the 
above-mentioned lonely dell, knowing that he dare not appeal 
against them ? at what stage of the performance does the Gypsy usu- 
ally put oft' the final touch to a later date (I am told he at times 
feigns a fainting fit when the metal is a molten heap) ? how many 
victims he makes per annum ? whether he really thought me a 
likely victim ? To these and similar questions I can only answer at 
present: ' I don't know.' I have merely set forth all available details 
in the above narrative as a true genuine 1913 instance of the feat 
known to Gypsyologists as the ' Great Deceit,' the Hokano Baro. In 
the linguistic section of this report, by way of a specimen of the dia- 

^ I have since been told that it is arcic, i.e. lead, not tin. 



44 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BUUiARIA 

lect, will be found the letter which the Gypsy dictated to Mr. Scott 
Macfie at Rustchuk, to be taken by the Gypsy to me, by way of 
introduction, and in which he recommends himself to me as a most 
excellent fellow. 

The Nomad Sieve-Makers {v. B. 1 (a)) 

These Gypsies are merely the Nomad branch of the sieve- 
maker tribe. Like their sedentary brethren, they, though 
Moslems, are but recently converts to Islam, some indeed so 
recently as to remember the fact. In appearance they much re- 
semble the sedentary portion of the tribe. Among all nomads 
it is their women who dress in the brightest colours. They 
are pretty and neat, a great contrast to the Zsigundjis. They 
are not beggars. The men are now more horse-dealers than sieve- 
makers, and they have intimate trade relations with the comb- 
makers (horse-thieves), for whom they procure spurious horse 
certificates, selling them to their Christian cousins of the road for 
a good price. I was once able to frustrate the plans of one of 
these brokers who was endeavouring to palm off on a comb-maker 
a ticket so old as to be quite useless for the purpose for which it was 
required. ' Dog of a Horahai ' ' remarked the comb- maker, as the 
turbaued Moslem left our tent in discomfiture. 

The one-eyed one, he of the Hokano Baro, uses many of these 
nomads to find him victims for his 'conjuring trick.' But they 
can scarcely be called a criminal tribe. They do not themselves 
practise the Great Deceit, nor are they horse-thieves, nor house- 
breakers. 

Strange to say, their tents are often poorer and more ragged 
even than those of the Zjigundjis ; of the same shape as the latter's 
tents, they are not made of goats'-hair cloth, but of sacking. They 
rarely come to Varna, preferring the vicinity of the smaller towns 
and villages of the interior. They wander a lot in the basin of the 
winding river Kamtchia, but they say they hailed originally from 
the district of Silistria, now in Rumania. They do not appear to 
be numerous. Their dialect, being identical with that of the 
sedentary Moslem sieve-makers, has not been discussed separately 
in the linguistic section. 

The Parpulia or Gimlet-makers 

Towards the end of the month of June of the year 1914 I saw 
in the streets of Varna a number of Gypsies, men and women, 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 45 

gazing about them with big eyes and open mouths, as if they had 
never seen a town before. They were spread about the street in 
knots of two and three, and members of one batch continually 
loafed back to join the others, so that it was not quite certain in 
which direction the lot of them were proceeding. At first sight 
it was clear to mo that these were members of a tribe hitherto 
unmet. There was none of the self-assurance and freeness and 
adaptability to their surroundings shown by the horse-thieves. By 
their dress it was plain that they were Christians. The men were 
rather ragged, and wore their hair somewhat long in front, and did 
not press down the crown of their kalpaks. The women wore fewer 
and tighter-fitting petticoats than do the Christian peasant women 
of Varna and neighbourhood. They also behaved as naively as the 
men, hero again contrasting with the quick-witted women of tho 
horse-thieves' tribe. Several men carried a roughly turned gimlet 
in their hand, but they were not hawking. I discovered a few 
days later, from casual conversation with a sedentary Gypsy, that 
they were ' Burgudjis' or gimlet-makers, known to other tribes as 
Parpulia, and that they camped every year during the harvest 
which had just then begun, at the village of Pasha Kioi, some 
seven kilometres from Varna. 

I accordingly repaired to the village, upon the outskirts of 
which I found five tents of the Rudaris (r. B. 2 (d)), of whom I 
took but little heed, for they were Romans without Romani, men 
who had, moreover, renounced the ways and crafts of Little Egypt. 
Just beyond them I found, pitched upon the sandy rising ground, 
six tents of the nomad Moslem sieve-makers ('■. B. 1 (a)), bright 
colour within and without, many-coloured shalvars and sashes, a 
feast of red and white, the light brown sackcloth of the tents still 
further dispelling the sombre impression produced by the black 
goats'-hair tents and tawny clothing of the Rudaris. 

Beyond these there suddenly appeared before me, hidden 
hitherto by the nature of the ground, twenty dark and gaping 
tents, looking like large Gothic arches, and of a shape unknown to 
me. These were the homes of the Parpulia. 

The tent-cloth is made of the same strong black goats'-hair 
used by the comb-makers and the Zaguudjis. When wet it 
shrinks and becomes practically rainproof. It expands when dry 
so much that it is possible to discern through it the movements 
of persons outside the tent. 

The cdkala of other nomad tents are here replaced by what 



46 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRI13ES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

the Parpulia call cakmcikja, which are bent or curved Mkala, two 
iu front and two behind. The entrance to the tent is thus i^'iven 
the shape of a Gothic archway, very dirterent from the triangular- 
looking entrance to the tents of the comb-makers. All the way 
up the cakmdkja pegs are stuck pointing outwards, and on these 
are laid horizontal poles running the length of the tent, and 
sometimes slightly protruding in front. The topmost one is 
thicker and stronger than the rest, and is called a hei'aml as in the 
tents of other tribes. The protruding parts are used as wall pegs 
on which to hang various household goods. Against the sides of 
the walls formed by these horizontal polos perpendicular sticks, 
known to the tribe as vr^zdes, are leant, and over this cage- 
like structure the tent-cloth is stretched. The back of the tent 
is closed by stretching a cloth over the entire archlikc aperture. 
No cart is ever built into the back, as in the case of the comb- 
raakers. Indeed the gimlet-makers possess neither carts nor 
horses, and, like the Zdgundzis, move from village to village 
on foot, their goods and chattels being packed on the backs of 
donkeys. 

The interior of the tents is strikingly bare. During the day- 
time no carpet or cloth covers the Hoor, which soon loses any 
grass it m;\y have possessed and becomes hard, beaten earth. Near 
the entrance are to be found the hearth, large bellows, and all the 
instruments required for their trade. They make, besides gimlets, 
shepherds' crooks. 

Like so many other tribes they have not the remotest connexion 
with music, and on festivals have to call in other Gypsies to play 
for them. 

It is interesting to observe how certain characteristics of 
Gypsies in Central and Western Europe are found in the Balkans 
among one set of Gypsies, whilst they are totally unknown to other 
tribes. The ' mitlo mas' propensity is not unknown in England : 
we have seen that here the Ziigundjis are alone addicted to this 
loathsome habit. The Gypsy taste for the hedgehofj, the hotrhi- 
witchi in England, or the Sta)(^elengro, as it is called in the Rhine 
Province, is well known all over Western Europe. Here the 
gimlet-makers alone hunt and eat the kanzaiirka, as they call the 
animal. The ending -ka is the Bulgarian diminutive. Other tribes 
call the hedgehog kanzaiiri.^ The word means literally the prickly 
pig, and is an instance of the preservation from old times of Greek 

* aKavOoxoipo, ofteD pronounced kauOdiro. 



REPORT OX THE GVPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 47 

words among Balkan Gypsies who cannot speak Greek. For hunt- 
ing out the hedgehog the Piirpulia keep a multitude of dogs. 
They are even known occasionally to other tribes as the hedgehog 
waters. I have unfortunately not had an opportunity of observing 
how the food is prepared. 

The Parpulia are very much nomads. During more than half 
the year they wander over the whole of North-East Bulgaria, and 
frequently go as far south as Karnobad, in the latitude of Burgas, 
the town famed of yore for a tribe of bear-leaders, who may be 
identical with the Ursari of Constantinescu. 

There appears to be no Moslem branch of th'> tribe. They are 
honest, and enjoy a good reputation among the peasantry who 
know them. Townsfolk naturally see no difference between them 
.ind any other tribe. They are, however, rarely seen in towns. The 
products of their trade are best disposed of in remote villages miles 
away from any centre, where gimlets and suchlike small tools 
cannot be procured every day. They are rarely met with even on 
the highroads. Having no carts, and having no reason to flee, 
for they never steal, they have little use for metalled roads, which 
hurt the feet of their unshod animals, preferring the soft byways, 
<»r black roads,' whore their donkeys can proceed more comfortably 
from village to village. 

They rarely beg. Probably for these reasons they are, among 
all the tribes I have met, the one that feeds the least well. As 
frugal as the Bulgarian peasant, or more so, they live for days on 
blackish bread alone, which they buy in the villages. I have 
known them go to bed without a meal. 1 have not seen them 
bake their own bread as do the horse-thieves (comb-makers). 

They refer to the last-mentioned tribe as the Bare-Katunierj- 
gere, or they call them the ZavraSkles. Zavra6i is said by them 
to mean thief, swindler. It is a Rumanian word, and is applied to 
coppersmith Gypsies. The comb-makers say they were at one 
time coppersmiths. 

In winter the Pdrpulia may be found, so they themselves say, 
in the village of Kjokludza, which has been quite meaninglessly 
re-named by the Bulgarians Zvezditsa, some eight miles from 
Varna to the south of Lake Devna. I had hoped to gather more 
information concerning this tribe during the winter of 1915, had 
not events necessitated my sudden departure from Bulgaria. For 
further notes I must refer to the lingfuistic section. 



48 report oy the gvpsv tribes of north-east bulgaria 

The Rudaris 

Let us suppose a Romany Rai, newly arrived in the Balkans, 
and longing to meet for the first time some nomad branch of the 
race known to him only from his Vade Mecum, the Great Paspati. 
Chance might luring him to Varna or to Rustchuk without 
having seen any Gypsies except the sedentaries of one tribe or 
other who abound in all Bulgarian towns. Wandering disap- 
pointedly in the commonplace, dusty streets of those ports, he 
might suddenly hit upon a couple of dark girls, clad in some local 
peasant dress, with large silver clasps strapping their waists, and 
long poles carried loosely in one hand, whilst a bundle of wooden 
spoons, spindles, and other wooden articles occupied the other, 
with as often as not a large wooden trough tucked inuler the arm. 
Glad to have come across nomads at last ho would follow them 
about for some time until, their hawking over, they would thread 
their way out of the town. The indefatigable Rai would follow 
them at a distance, bent on beholding a Balkan Gypsy eueanip- 
mont. After a tramp of two hours, the latter half of it on ' black 
roads,' he would suddenly see a largo and irregular camp on a 
rising heath outside a village in a ravine. Largo tents of the 
triangular sort, but so UU as to remind him forcibly of Punch and 
Judy booths, would meet iiis gaze, with here and there a toy 
wooden windmill attached to the protruding herand and turning 
merrily in the evening breeze. Numerous carts, with their hoop- 
like skeleton roofing, over which a strong straw matting is 
stretched, would be standing here and there, cocks and hens 
pecking and scratching about the wheels. No horses would be 
visible, but at one end of the encampment a herd of some twenty 
black buffaloes woul'd be grazing or chewing the cud, many of 
them with blue- white eyes, and also blue beads on their horns t- 
keep off the evil eye. 

All around the tents the ground would be white with wood chop- 
pings, whilst tiny fires, steaming pots, busy women squatting over 
the simmering kakavja, ragged packs of hungry children buzzing 
around, would denote that the pleasantest hour of the day, that 
of the sunset meal, which for them is breakfast, dinner, and supper 
combined, had once more arrived. 

Then would come the disappointment. The Rai would 
approach the most inviting tent with chosen greetings selected 
from Paspati upon his lips and rehearsed again and again during 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 49 

the long tramp from the town. The eldest man of the tent, with 
a long white beard and enormous brown kalpaJc, would remain 
squatted and reply : ' Nil in^eleg, Domnule.' And seeing the Rai's 
astonished disappointment — nay, rather, incredulity — he would 
quickly add : ' Bar vino incodccfnite, bine hai venit, sd se^l pu{in 
cu noi, aid pe dlbie ! '^ And the Rai, if he-were something of a 
Lavengro, would not be disappointed after all, for had he not been 
hailed in Latin, still alive and unforgotten throughout the ages, 
and handed down from a vanguard of Latinity amongst the Slavic 
hordes ? 

The Rai would have been right not to have left them, for they 
are the Rudaris, tho darkest skinned, and the most numerous 
nomad tribe in North-East Bulgaria. They are the descendants 
of the ancient Rumanian Rudari or Auniri Gypsies, who in summer 
sifted gold from tho rivers for their Rumanian overlords, and in 
winter made small wooden instruments. For generations they 
have spoken no Rumani. Those who are now in Bulgaria speak 
fluently Bulgarian and Turkish besides their native Rumanian. 
(See Colocci, pp. 197-200.) As in Hungary in the time of Maria 
Teresa, so too in Bulgaria their descendants think themselves 
insulted if called Gypsies. But if asked to state what they are they 
will answer, ' Wo are Koritiiris' (trough-makers). You cannot get 
from them a racial name. Only among themselves do they, in 
Bulgaria, call themselves Rudari. The Rumanian Standard 
^Etymological Dictionary says the word is Gypsy, and means gold 
workers. It is scarcely of Gypsy origin, though it may now be felt 
to be a Gypsy word. 

The Rudaris never beg nor steal, and are well treated by the 
Bulgarian peasants who call them 'Vlasi,' i.e. the Wallachians. 
Their women are so modest that they refuse to enter the court- 
yard or front garden of houses, selling their wares from the street. 
Nor do they tell fortunes, or, as is the habit of many others, enter 
mto light conversation with grocers' boys. They appear to have 
the nickname of 'Maria' among the shop-assistants and lower 
townsfolk, who thus address them when wishing to buy their wares. 
The poles they are said to carry to keep off dogs. But other 
Gypsies don't carry them. The pole, and also the large silver clasps 
known as jxifti or caprdzi, not generally worn by other tribes 

^ Translation : ' I do not understand, Sir.' 

* But come here, brother, welcome, sit down a bit vnth us here upon the trough.' 
Alhie (the Romani hcdai, Bulgarian korito) is derived from Latin alveus, and 
denotes a wooden trough. 

VOL. IX. — NO. I. D 



50 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

except on very grand occasions, are instances, parallel ■with the 
different shaped tents, of the conservativeness of all these tribes. 
The poles are quite unnecessary, and must be irksome, as the 
Rudari girl has so much else to carry. Perhaps they are a badge, 
or indeed a weapon, of respectability. 

In the summer, towards har\est time, the Kudaris congregate 
for the purpose of cutting the corn. This is still done to a large 
extent by hand, though machines are rapidly being introduced. 
In 1913 I met a procession of Rudaris forming a caravan two 
miles long, a couple of slow, awkward buffiiloes dragging each 
creaking cart at a slow walking pace, the whole family in almost 
every case asleep inside with the exception of one man or youth 
who sauntered beside the animals. Like other nomad tribes they 
repair to the various harvest centres at different dates, the corn 
being cut earlier in the plains than on the ])lateaux. 

Towards the last days of June they arrive every year at the 
village of Ruslar, where two large cam})S may bo seen at either 
end of the village. Lesser contingents are found at Adzender. 
Pasha Kioi is the village patronized by the Parpulia at harvest 
time, but small detachments of Rudaris, without their carts and 
buffaloes, may bo seen alongside the other tents, at a little distance. 
Pasha Kioi can also boast a small camp of nomad Moslem sieve- 
makers. 

The horse-thieves prefer the village of Indze Kioi, on Lake 
Devna. 

When the Rudari encamp quite near Varna, in order to sell 
their wares in the town, they do so likewise without bringing their 
whole families, their carts and buffaloes, chietiy owing to the 
difficulty of finding suitable pasture-ground for the animals. On 
such occasions they put up small tents, as shown in Mr. Macfie's 
article on p. 54 of the Journal, vol. vii. In the said article will be 
found mentioned their implements and the nature of their work. 
As soon as their wares are sold, and their supply of raw material 
exhausted, they rejoin the mother camp. This takes at the most 
four days, during which time the Bulgarian authorities allow them 
to camp on the plain to the north of Varna, near the State 
Hospital, where no mere Gypsies would dream of pitching their 
tents. Indeed, such is the love of the go-ahead Bulgarians for the. 
best approved sanitary methods at present in vogue, that were 
they to read these lines they would probably indignantly deny that 
Gj'psies of any kind were ever allowed to camp on the plain near 



I 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 51 

the Hospital. We have, however, the photograph referred to 
above. The Rudari men serve in the Bulgarian arm}-. In the 
photograph just mentioned is seen one of them just returned from 
the front and still in his uniform. 

The Kudtiris must not be confused with another tribe which, 
though exceedingly thievish, nevertheless moves about in lumber- 
ing carts likewise drawn by the slow buftaloes, and covered with 
rush matting. 

The DiNiKovLAR Gypsies {v. B. 1 (d)) 

These are the Dinikovlars. The origin of the name is uncer- 
tain, and I have found as yet no satisfactory explanation of the 
word. They are Moslems. The men are horse-dealers, and the 
women do most of the thieving. I know very little about them. 
Their haunts are chiefly the vicinity of the Danube, from Nicopolis 
to Rustchuk. They are reported as having no tents, but they 
spread their mats from the shady or sheltered side of the cart 
slantwise to the ground by way of an awning, and under this they 
stjuat. The men wear white turbans, and the women the feredza, 
or Moslem black female cloak. 

At Eski-Djumaya. during the fair in the summer of 1915, I 
watched the extraordinary conduct of a party of Gypsies — two 
men and two women — whom I have reason to believe were of the 
Dinikovlar tribe. It was on a Sunday, and a special train had 
brought the Varna townsfolk in thousands to the fair. Peasants 
thronged in from far and near. The narrow streets formed by the 
specially erected booths were packed. The heat and dust were 
stifling. One booth formed the comer of two streets. In it were 
displayed temptingly packets of Sunlight soap, cheeses, scrubbing 
brushes, and rolls of cheap and brightly coloured cloth, and daggers 
in embroidered leather sheaths. The goods were there to tempt 
the public, and to stand and gaze at them, Avhilst waiting for the 
crowd to move on, did not excite the suspicions of the two youths 
who were serving customers with a great show of bustling. One 
might even pick up a packet of soap to examine the mark. And 
it was just this that the four Dinikovlars were doing when I arrived 
upon the scene. I stood among the crowd at some distance. The 
coolness with which one of the Gypsies took up one packet, then 
another and yet another, and instead of putting it down upon the 
counter, transferred it to the expectant hands of his wife, to be 



52 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

hidden in the folds of her clothing, was astounding. ' After all, of 
what use can all this soap be to them,' I mused. ' Now if they 
were to take some yards of cloth . . .' Scarcely had the thought 
struck me than I saw one of them approach the rolls of cloth, and 
taking one when no one was looking, hold it lengthwise behind his 
back, so that it reached from his neck to the back of his knees. 
Immediately the second man sandwiched himself up against his 
companion, the two standing back to back, and holding the roll 
between them by pressure only. The first man was already rolling 
a cigarette, while the second chatted with one of the women, who 
placed herself casually between the upright piece of cloth and the 
gaze of the shopkeeper, should he perchance look in that direction. 
The second woman, who carried an infant in her arms, now drew 
near the only unprotected side, and I was ol)liged to shift my posi- 
tion in order to see the roll of cloth fall into the folds of her ferctlza, 
the end of which she picked up with a show of wrapping the child 
in it. All this was done perfectly calmly, without any haste. 
What more natural than to see a woman endeavouring to readjust, 
with her only free hand, her clothing, in order to wrap up a squeal- 
ing infant 1 Gradually the little group broke up, only to try their 
luck at another booth. 1 followed, fascinated at the cool daring 
displayed, and each time astonished at the complete success. 

At length the party repaired to the outskirts of the fair, where 
the woman with the child squatted on the ground to rewrap the 
baby and to hide more thoroughly the stolen goods about her 
person. 

I then approached the men and congratulated them in Romani. 
They looked somewhat alarmed, but a few words reassured thorn, 
and they asked me what success I had had. They took me, I 
suppose, for a shop thief. It is not uncommon to find Bulgarians, 
dressed cl la Frawja, skilled in horseflesh, and knowing a little 
Romani. With a knowing look I pointed to the handle of a large 
dagger which I had that day bought, and which I made protrude 
slightly from an inner pocket. They smiled, but as I withdrew I 
noticed their eyes following me suspiciously, and three minutes 
later they had left the fair. 

I was not able in a three minutes' conversation successfully to 
place the dialect of these Dinikovlar thieves, if indeed the four 
above described wore of that tribe. They spoke a non-Vlacb 
dialect, of great phonetic purity. They also had the j*. 



REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTK-EAST BULGARIA 53 

The AiDfA 

About the Aidia, or nomad Moslem ironworkers, I know 
next to nothing (v. B. 1 (c) and Section 2, p. 103). I once tnet a 
great number of them travelling in Indian file along the crest of 
some mountains in the Eastern Balkan range, not far from Kotel. 
I was not even able to discover the shape of their tents, as they 
halted without pitching them, while their leaders endeavoured in 
vain to obtain permission to camp on the heights above the village 
of Gradets. Though the chiefs were absent but half an hour, the 
whole camp set to work to batter and beat into various shapes old 
bits of iron in rapidly lighted charcoal fires, and to make their 
rough iron implements ready for sale in the next village. With 
regard to their name, I got it, not from them, but from the Zagun- 
djis, who occasionally meet them at Burgas, and buy wives from 
among their women. 

I know so little of the horse-shoo makers that I am not even 
sure if they are correctly classified {>:. A. 2 (</)). I believe that 
they live between Kazgrad and Rustchuk, on the outskirts of 
various villages, notably Pisanets, in artificially dug-out caves, and 
that they are Christians, and speak a dialect roughly described by 
the horse-thieves as being Zagundji ! 

I have little data whereon to build a description of the 
Demirdjis found at Varna, the Sepetdji's, and Hasirdji's, the 
Kazanlik ironworkers, and the Dawuldjis or Mehteris (v. A. 1 (c), 
(.7), (/). and ((/)). 

The Varna Demirdjis, the Se[^etdjis, and the Hasirdji's, are 
t closely allied. They are of the old Moslem stock, and their 
language is of the family of the tinners' speech. They do not all 
speak Romani, and those who have forgotten their language have, 
generally speaking, adopted the ways of the Turk, on whom they 
model their mode of living. Their women veil, and parents have 
their children circumcised. 

All I know of the Kazanlik ironworkers will be found in the 
second or linguistic section of this report. 

The Dawuldjis cannot speak a Avord of Gypsy, at least this is 
the case with regard to those inhabiting this district. 

They are a ragged, plebeian lot, with little of the Gypsy about 
them, and are often hard to distinguish from the lowest class of 
the Turkish population. 



54 REVIEW I 



Instead of the shrill, piercing pipe, they sometimes pLay the 
native bagpipe or gaita. They are in great demand at Gypsy 
marriages and festivals, notably at those of the Zagundjls. They 
also play from house to house in the towns at the Xew Year. t 

(To be continued) 






REVIEW 

Report of the Departmental Committee on Tinkers in Scotland, 
His Majesty's Stationery Office, Edinburgh, 1918 (4s. net) 

CONSCRIPTION and the various restrictions under which we 
are living in war-time have made the position of Gypsies 
difficult in every case, in some cases impossible. We have met 
with a family of Gypsies, driven liy fear of air-raids from the 
eastern counties, now living in Cheshire, and one hears complaints 
of the abandonment of many fairs at which these people used 
to congregate. The life of a parasite becomes wollnigh impos- 
sible to members of a comnmnity engaged in a war that taxes 
every energy, and extends its influence to all grades of society. 
Though, normally, the Gypsy mode of life is that of a parasite, let 
it never be forgotten that the Gypsies in the United Kingdom are 
members of the community; that, while their mode of life does 
not commend itself to the purblind view of modern civilized man, 
they follow a natural and a healthy instinct in pursuing a nomadic 
life, and it is rather the clash of two kinds of civilization than any 
innate depravity that forces them so often to make a living in the 
less generally reputable walks of life, and out of the foibles and 
follies of their more sophisticated brethren. The difficulties under 
which Gypsies are labouring in England at present are enhanced 
tenfold in so poor and scantily populated a country as many of 
the remoter parts of Scotland. To the honour of the race be it 
said that not all male Gypsies of military age waited to be con- 
scripted; numbers, especially from the New Forest, volunteered in 
the early days of the war. The same is true of Welsli Gypsies : in 
particular, the Roberts family. In the New Forest a relaxation has 
been made in the forest laws by which Gypsy families are no 
longer compelled to strike camp frequently and migrate to a fresh 
camping-place. The late vicar of Bransgore and others were 
instrumental in securing this temporary concession. In Scotland 



REVIEW 55 

the necessities of the time make it undesirable that there should 
be migrants camping out and lighting fires promiscuously, and the 
tinkers have been driven into the towns. Members of the Gypsy 
Lore Society are well aware of the almost inevitable results of 
herding such people in towns. It has sometimes been said that 
they sink speedily to a position moral, sanitary, and social, that is 
lower than the lowest of our slum-dwellers. This is often due to 
prejudice against letting decent houses to Gypsies. 

On 19th September 1917 His Majesty's Secretary of State for 
Scotland, acting on representations made to him by various 
interested bodies, appointed a Committee to inquire into the 
conditions under which tinkers live, and, ' keeping in view the 
reconmiendations relating to such persons made by recent Com- 
missions and Committees, to report as to any steps which might 
be advisable in order to secure or confirm an improvement in 
these conditions.' 

This Comjnittee, composed of the Rev. R. Menzies Fer- 
gusson, D.D., Her Grace the Duchess of Atholl, Miss Agnes 
Campbell, the Rev. G. A. Jetlrey, Donald Mackay, Esq., and 
G. A. Mackay, Esq., have issued their report. 

The problem is attacked in a comprehensive manner, beginning 
with an excellent sketch of the past history of the tinkers and 
Gypsies in Scotland. Part ii. contains a description of their 
present conditions, and in Part in. the Committee's recommenda- 
tions are detailed. There are thirteen appendices, giving in some 
cases most interesting statistics. We have no hesitation in saying 
that every member of the Gypsy Lore Society should obtain this 
Report, and we take this opportunity of thanking those concerned 
for the valuable information they have collected and here exhibit. 

In summing up the evidence bearing upon the question of 
tinker origins the Report says : ' The varying elements in the 
ethnography of the Scottish tinker can probably best be summarized 
through his speech. Romani words, though universal, are chiefly 
found in the south ; Shelta is hardly spoken save in the west ; Old 
English " cant " appears to have left its traces everywhere except 
in Tiree. It should be added that the Highland tinker also knows 
Gaelic — possible evidence of his descent from "broken men" of 
the clans' (19).i 

' The tinker therefore must be regarded as of mixed blood ' 
(20). 

' The numbers refer to paragraphs in the Report. 



56 REVIEW 

The fact that Highland tinkers speak Gaelic is not enough to 
support the suggestion that any considerable tincture of Scottish 
Gaelic blood is to be found among them. No doubt there is some. 
The English Gypsies are described by Borrow as having recently 
abandoned their former strict ideas with regard to intermarriage 
with ' gorgios.' The same thing is said by Gypsies to-day, nearly 
forty years after Borrows death. Perhaps they have always said 
the same, looking to a Golden Age of race purity, not in the remote 
past, but ever in the near past. Gypsies marry outside the blood 
fairly frequently ; they have done so for centuries. There is 
no reason to suppose that Scottish Gypsies have been any more 
exclusive of alien blood. Further, as regards a knowledge of 
Gaelic, no one would suggest that Welsh blood is an original 
element in the family of Abraham Wood on the grounds that 
most of the descendants of that enigmatic person speak Welsh 
with considerable fluency. They are bi-liugual, or rather tri-lingual, 
by circumstance rather than by origin. The Scottish Gypsy 
speaks Gaelic probably because he travels in a Gaelic country in 
like manner. That there were wandering tinkers in Scotland, as in 
England, before ever a Gypsy set foot in that land is, however, 
certain. The tinker of the present day is descended from both 
stocks; the original tinkers may or may not have been recruited 
from among the ' broken men ' of the clans. The possession of the 
Gaelic tongue proves nothing either way. Much firmer ground for 
the suggestion is to be found in the physical appearance of these 
people. Ethnological arguments based on language are seldom 
anything but fallacious. 

An interesting point is mentioned in the course of the histori- 
cal survey. The anti-Gypsy legislation of Scotland 'gradually fell 
into disuse, though not actually repealed until the twentieth 
century.' A footnote adds (page 8), ' By the Statute Law Revisiun 
(Scotland) Act of 1906.' 

In dealing with the public interest manifested in the Gypsies 
early in the nineteenth century the Committee seems to have 
overlooked a series of letters that appeared in the Northampton 
Mercury in 1814-15, which preceded the articles in Blackwood' 
{J. G. L. S., New Series, i. 333). The Report gives the date of 
Baird's efforts to educate Gypsies as 1839. Mr. Winstedt (loc. cit. 
334) makes it a year earlier. Baird's eflbrts were more successful 
than Mr. Winstedt seems to imply if their fruit is to be seen 
to-day in the more settled habits of the Kirk Yetholm colony (33). 



REVIEW 57 

Mention might have been made of the statement that 'so far back 
as the beginning of the last century, Bailie Smith found that the 
Gypsies of Scotland gave their children as good an education as 
the lower classes of natives.' — {J. G. L. S., i. 340.) 

The Report takes for granted the truth of the common story 
of Gypsies kidnapping children (34(a)). It would have been 
better to have given definite evidence on the point, or to have 
mentioned the scepticism about the charge which is prevalent 
among most students of Gypsy problems. 

Hitherto legislation ha.s aimed at dispersing vagrant bands 
without much concern as to what became of those so dispersed. 
It is true that the vagrancy problem has been reduced within 
narrower limits (34), but at the expense of producing other and 
more serious problems. We welcome the evidences shown in this 
Report of a deeper study of the question, and a more far-sighted 
view in the Scottish Otiice at Whitehall. 

Part II. of the Report, dealing with the present condition of the 
tinkers, is of extraordinary interest. The special census of tinkers 
made on the evening of Sunda}-, 21st October 1917, was carefully 
jtlanned, and is probably as reliable as any such census can be. 
It is of interest beyond the borders of Scotland, for it affords a 
basis upon which one may estimate the number of Gypsies in 
England, as to which widely dissimilar guesses have been made. 
In this census settled and well-to do Gypsies were excluded. 
Including 309 men in the Army and 171 children in industrial 
schools, the gross total for Scotland is 2728. Ross-shire has the 
greatest number among the counties; Dundee among the burghs. 
'Among tinkers large families may be said to be the rule' (42). 
The Rev. A. B. Scott, of Kildonan, Sutherland, in giving 
evidence before the Committee, divided the Sutherland tinkers 
into three classes. ' The tirst have money, reside in villages in 
winter, wander in summer, attend markets, and deal in horses. 
The second come from southern counties in summer (I have met 
them from Forfar and Perth) ; camp out, sell German wares, wash 
gold, tish for pearls, poach, steal, beg, and generally have a good 
time. They are the sort who love " the wind on the heath." The 
third live in caves, rock-shelters, and tents. They look degraded, 
although they have many good qualities. Physically they are 
weak ; much given to liquor. They beg, steal, and poach. The 
only articles I have seen them selling are heather-brooms, and 
rinsers. The MacPhees and others of the class are said to be 



58 REVIEW 

remnants of broken clans' (43). This last is interesting. We 
should like to know by whom this is said of the MacPhees — by 
themselves, or by others ? The probability is that those belonging 
to this third class are mainly non-Gypsy. Only 122 tinkers reside 
in the Islands. Family names go by localities to some extent. 
' The tinker in Caithness or Orkney is a Newlands, a Williamson, 
or a MacPhee. In the heart of the countrv, about Perthshire and 
Forfarshire, are to be found Whites, Townsleys, Reids, Stewarts, 
and Camerons. Among the Border "muggers" the names 
Douglas, Watson, Blyth, Norris, and Young are common; while 
Gallowav is the home of the Marshalls. Macmillans, Watsons, and 
Wilsons. This list does not by any means exhaust the tinker 
names in Scotland ' (53). 

It is of interest to note that one witness described the women 
as being greater wanderers than the men. Among the copper- 
smith Gypsies, Tinka it was, and not her husband, who urged the 
tribe from countr}- to country (/. G. L. S., viii. 252). 

It is surprising to learn that the tinkers of the north look upon 
the police as their best friends (03). All honour to the Scottish 
police ! 

The points that seem to be of greatest interest are (1) the 
health conditions of the nomadic life; (2) the treatment of 
children by their tinker parents; (3) the eftect of town life on 
the morals of tinkers ; and (4) the etVect of strong drink on the 
tinkers. 

With regard to the etiect of a nomadic life under the strenuous 
conditions of climate in Scotland, and the general poverty of the 
class of people with which the Report deals, we are given a number 
of statements which go to show that great suttering is entailed, 
and that there is some possibility of this affecting the general 
health of the tinkers, while witnesses are agreed as to itsefl'ect on 
their children. Their mode of life ' exposes the children, in 
winter more especially, to very severe physical suffering and hard- 
ship' (64). ' The majority of the witnesses spoke of the health of 
the tinker as being good. Nevertheless, there are tinkers who are 
poor physically and below the normal' (78). 'As to the effect of 
the camping life on the health of the young children. There 
seems to be a consensus of opinion that the exposure of such 
children in tents and caves in the winter time is causing them 
unnecessary suffering, and even injury to health' (80). 'These 
tents could not be regarded as sanitary. While he (Dr. Roger 



REVIEW 59 

M'Neill) was not prepared to say they were dangerous to health in 
summer, he would be disposed to condemn them from the public 
health point of view as unsuitable for habitation ' (82). Statistical 
tables prepared by the Committee show that among children under 
five years of age the proportion of deaths is abnormally high. 

With regard to the former of these two statements, we think 
it would have been better if the Committee had more clearly 
specitied the circumstances in which the deaths tabulated took 
place. The large majority were in towns, so that no real evidence 
is to be obtained in this way for the alleged unhealthiness of vans 
and tents. English Gypsies complain of sutiermg from colds and 
chest complaints during the winter when they are in houses in 
towns. Something similar has been the experience of soldiers 
who have gone into billets out of the trenches. As to the abnor- 
mally high death-rate among children under live, the suggestion 
has been made that this may run parallel to the abnormally high 
birth-rate among these people. A study of a normal English 
pedigree seems to support the notion that where there are a large 
number of children in a family there is likely to be a large infan- 
tile death-rate. On the other hand, such statistics as the present 
writer can obtain for the population of an agricultural district 
in Yorkshire, where there are also a few cotton factories, and 
where large families mean increased income, show that the larger 
families are most free from deaths of infants under five years 
old. The point ought to be investigated more thoroughly. 

In the case of Caithness, births as well as deaths are taken 
into account, so far as possible, from which it appears that the 
infantile mortality rate is 216 per 1000 tinker children born, as 
against the normal rate for that county, 99 per 1000 (87). These 
figures undoubtedly disclose a serious state of things. We should 
sufjtTest that efforts should be made to instruct the mothers in 
proper methods of feeding and caring for infants, a work that is 
being done with considerable success among the cottagers in 
England, where, in a district that is well known to the present 
writer, an amount of prejudice has to be overcome that can scarcely 
be exceeded among the migrant peoples in Scotland. Further 
we would suggest that steps should be taken to provide the 
tenters with more commodious and weather-proof tents. Pneu- 
monia seems to be the most frequent cause of death. The 
proposals of the Committee will be dealt with later in this paper, 
when we shall take the liberty of suggesting what seems to us a 



60 REVIEW 

wiser course than that which they recommend. For the moment 
we note that the conditions as to the health of young children 
constitute a serious menace, and must needs be dealt with. In 
any case there does not seem to be any very positive evidence 
pointing to unhealthiness in the tenting life for those who 
practise it. 

Tinker parents are fond of their children. A Report i.ssued in 
1895 says, ' In their domestic relations they are depicted as faith- 
ful to their own marriage ties, and fond of their children ' (60). 
One of the witnesses in the present inquiry says, 'Fond of their 
children, to whom they seem greatly attached ' (63). The former 
General Secretary of the Scottish National Society for the Preven- 
tion of Cruelty to Children says, ' The attention of the Society was 
not directed to the tinkers as a cla.ss by any allegation or suspicion 
of cruelty to children, as the term is popularly understood. On 
the contrary, there was ample testimony that tinkers are specially 
fond of their children, who were usually found to be healthy, well 
nourished, amply clad, and less verminous than generally supposed. 
Their condition, on the whole, compared favourably with the 
children of city slums' (64). Mention is made of ' the sociability 
and strong family affection which characterize the tinker tribes' 
(135). Again, 'almost every witness we examined testified to the 
deep affection existing between tinkers and their children. Man}' 
facts have been brought to our notice which afford confirmation of 
this view' (162). 

The Eeport is equally emphatic on the dangers which attend 
the transfer from tenting life to life in a city. ' In Perth city the 
circumstances and conditions of the tinkers were described to u.s 
as low, "almost animal"' (io). 'There can be no doubt that the 
conditions under which tinkers are at present living in " D " are 
fraught with danger, physically and morally. Women and 
children accustomed to an open-air life, totally ignorant of 
hygiene, and necessarily brought up with little regard for personal 
cleanliness, are living herded together in single-room slum tene- 
ments, and children accustomed to country surroundings are being 
given every opportunity of rubbing shoulders with the lowest of 
a town population' (123). 'The desire for the country is very 
generally expressed for the sake of the children's health ' (125). 
' Our visits could not but leave on our minds a marked impres- 
sion of the disabilities entailed by illiteracy and ignorance among 
a primitive people forced into contact with civilization' (135). 



REVIEW 61 

' Certain evidence placed before us points to the danger of definite 
moral declension on the part of tinkers as a consequence of town 
life ' (150). 

Intemperance in the use of strong liquors is spoken of as ' the 
bane of the tinker's life.' ' Some witnesses stated that any scheme 
for the reformation of the tinker would fail unless buttressed by 
drink prohibition' (72). 'Though strongly favouring prohibition, 
certain witnesses doubted whether it would be practicable to 
enforce such a measure for a limited class '(75). The witnesses 
quoted in the Report seem all to find the worst evils of the 
tinker's way of life due to over-indulgence in strong drink. 

The Committee were of opinion that the disturbance in the 
habits of tinkers brought about by the war, and the necessity of 
taking some steps to ameliorate the condition of these people at 
the present time, afford an e^fcellent opportunity for dealing with 
the problem comprehensively, and once and for all extinguishing 
the anomaly of a class of people living among us who are not of 
the orthodox fashion. The members of the Committee have done 
their work with the utmost fairness : we have no criticism to offer 
as to their genuine wish to find the best way out of a difficult 
position both for the nation at large and for the tinkers. But 
they have not been able to free themselves entirely from the arti- 
ficial view of life which masquerades as modern civilization. "We 
ask in amazement, why should it be thought desirable to bring 
the tinker's way of life to an end ? The Report itself gives reasons 
why it should still be allowed to exist. In paragraph 143 we are 
told that ' tinkerdom is a verv real social disease.' This is no 
doubt the case viewed from the standpoint of modern industrial 
towns, Local Government Boards, the Poor Law, and the like. 
May we not, however, with just as much reason, look at it from 
the tinker's point of view, and see in modern civilization, with its 
working class spending their days in factories from five in the 
morning till nearly five at night, with black smoke poisoning the 
air and blighting the sweet natural growths of the countryside, 
with cut-throat competition, with education of children who are 
driven at the age of fourteen from the study of literature and 
painting to the back-breaking task of potato-picking in the fields, 
with rows of sanitary houses each the exact replica of its neigh- 
bour, with its cinema shows provided to keep the victims of system 
amused, with all the paraphernalia of these modern days, a real 
social disease that cries aloud to be extinguished by the energies 



62 REVIEW 

of all riofht-thinkinof men. We have no scheme of so-called 
Socialism to propound, but we are convinced that for the vast 
majority of our fellow-countrymen there is, under modern condi- 
tions, existence only, but no real life. Why should the tinkers, 
who are a people that have for generations revolted from this sort 
of thing, be compelled or cajoled into submitting to the chains 
that are becoming ever more and more galling to ourselves ? 
Says the Report, ' In all communities there are born men and 
women who do not take kindly to settled industrial conditions ' 
(143). Thank God for that! ' The blood of the primitive hunter 
or of the pastoral nomad has bridged a gap of centuries and 
found a modern setting. The machinery of industry has scant 
tolerance for this type. . . . The lot of such persons, if isolated, 
would be pitiable. But they find easy admittance to a class which 
has developed a social economy of its own' (143). If the recom- 
mendations of the Committee are carried out and meet with full 
success, obviously a new situation will arise, and persons of atavis- 
tic type will have to endure the lot which the Committee rightly 
stigmatize as pitiable. Surely the better course would be to 
acknowledge the inevitability of some such class of people as the 
tinkers within the bounds of more settled, stolid humanity, and 
scheme to ameliorate their condition, while at the same time 
respecting the inherent right to freedom and self-determination 
which we so loudly uphold yet so seldom practise. It is a pity 
that more weight was not allowed to the very just remarks of 
Provost M'Cormick in his statement (Appendix No. iv. to this 
Report). As he says, ' Why drive them into slums, when social 
reformers are trying to do away with slums ? ' Again, ' Tinklers and 
Gypsies are the only people who never seem to have forgotten the 
advantages of open-air life.' Here lies our main criticism of this 
Report. 

The Committee, hoping to extinguish in due time every rem- 
nant of nomadic life, make a number of recommendations with a 
view to settlement and employment of tinkers, their proper hou.s- 
ing, financial assistance, supervision of families, education and 
industrial training, drink prohibition, and the like. On one point, 
that of drink prohibition, a reservation is made by the Duchess of 
Atholl and Miss Campbell, who deprecate such action as should 
mark tinkers off as a class by themselves under special disabilities. 
We agree with these two ladies. The drink problem must be 
attacked in a comprehensive way, and can be made to apply to 



KEVIEW 63 

every member of the community to their great benefit. Surely 
the experiences of war-tinie have taught us this much. With the 
details of the Committee's scheme we have no quarrel. There 
are among the tinkers individual persons who do not like tenting, 
who do like industrial employment, who can benefit by education. 
Let all this be provided. There is always a need for town dwell- 
ings for such people during the winter months. Let these be 
provided. But do not attempt to convert to a settled life a 
whole class whose wandering ' is more than an inclination : it is 
an instinct. That instinct is inbred and ingrained ' (Rev. A. B. 
Scott, 54). There is no serious charge against these people of 
being unusually criminal. ' The tinker does not take what 
is not his own until he is driven by necessity ' {66). ' Any 
departure on their part from strict truthfulness may, we think, 
not unfairly be attributed, not so much to a deliberate desire 
to deceive as to a habitual concern to agree with their ques- 
tioner' (111). 'The Vagrancy Committee indeed point out that 
the gypsy, though a source of annoyance in certain districts, 
usually exercises some handicraft or industry, and "though 
he may be at times addicted to petty pilfering, poaching, and 
other like offences, he is often of a respectable character'" (139). 
' The tinker is a member of a community with definite ideas of 
right and wrong ' (144). 

It would have been well had the Committee examined wit- 
nesses as to the tents used in various parts of England by Gypsies. 
There are several types of these. As a rule they are warm, airy, 
comfortable, and sanitary, far removed from the miserable dwell- 
ings we have seen in photographs of Scottish tinkers. The 
Government would be well advised to try, by providing better 
tents and by careful financial assistance, to carry out a genuine 
' reformation ' of the tinker. In our reading, to ' re-form ' does not, 
and cannot, mean ' to do away with.' We are sorry for the tinkers 
who love the wandering life, if they are to be forced into a 
manner of life that appeals to the few among them who do not 
love a wandering life. We are sorry for the community that, by 
blindly trying to extingui-sh conditions that could as easily be 
ameliorated, is surely about to entail on people, whether ' cairds,' 
Gypsies, ' broken men of the clans,' or merely revolters from the 
constraints and the dullness of life in factories and slum dwellings, 
a lot that the Committee allow to be pitiable. 

Nevertheless we would heartily commend many of their 



64 REVIEW 

recommendations, while we hope that our forebodings will not be 
fulfilled. 

The Report is carefully printed, but the short Bibliography on 
pages 50 and 51 contains two deplorable slips. Dr. Black's book 
is A Gypsy Bibliography, and is a Monograph of the Gypsy Lorr 
Society: in both cases Gypsy, not Gipsy. 



NOTES AND QUERIES 
1. — Spanish Romaxi 



The following 'couplets' were given to M. Tiithes at Majorca in 1836 or 1837 
by an Anilalusian artillery officer. Bataillard thought they were a specinu-n ni 
Catalonian Romani, but they are almost certainly Spanish Roniaui, and pr<'bal>ly 
have only a fortuitous connexion with the Catalonian district. 

' Sarasen de la Canl1>ea 
A villila pucharda, 
Socarrien de variven 
Canielilr 6 anasiohir. 

' Arrinmte & esa bangri 
No sea <|ue venga el cbin^ 

Y por inalo te jonjiive, 

Y te lleve al estariv<^r. 

' Si me dinas un chupendo 
De esa fila tan sere, 
Yo te dinare unos cales 
Para tus pulidos pinrr^s. 

' La Ruiiii ijue yo canielo 
Si utro me la canu-lara, 
Tiniva de mi chuli, 

Y la fila le coruira. 

' Al pan le Uaman Manro, 
Al tociuo Valeviile, 
A la yglesia la Cangri, 

Y Es-sarivi'-r a I:i c.ircel. 

' Anoche esture en tugue 
Rumi, i>ara piravarte, 

Y me chumillastes en calci, 
Que estabas con el arate 
Te no podia ser. 

'Estando yo piravando 
En el palomar de Andares 
Me afanavon los estroD«iues 
Que abelava en los alares.' 



SEP 13 1967 ; 



J U R X A L OT THE 

GYPSY LORE 

S C I E T Y 



NEW SERIES 



Vol. IX YEAR 1915-lG No. 2 

I— REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST 

BULGARIA 

By ' Petulexgro ' 
(Continued) 
2. — Dialects 

I\ making a comprehensive survey of the Gypsy dialects of 
the whole Balkan Peninsula one would probably begin by dis- 
tinguishing two great divisions — ( 1 ) the non-Ylach Dialects ; 
(2) the Vlach Dialects. It is not possible to find a suitable name 
applicable to the first division. The Gypsies themselves call them 
the Moslem dialects, on account of their being largely spoken by 
the original Gypsy converts to Islam centuries ago, the memory of 
such conversion having been entirely lost. But the term must 
not be taken to mean that there are not Christians who must be 
linguistically included in the tirst division, nor that there are 
not Moslem tribes speaking Ylach dialects. Such tribes, as we 
have seen, do exist. They are, however, all recent converts to 
Islam, some as recent as a generation ago. One might call the 
first division the Greek dialects. Not that those who speak them 
have necessarily a knowledge of Greek, but that the elements of 
that language, which from ancient times have been permanently 
VOL. IX. — NO. n. E 



C6 REPORT ON THE GYPSV TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

incorporated into their speech, are found in greater abundance 
therein than in the VLach dialects, where Rumanian loan words 
have ousted the Greek loan words, and, not infrequently, the 
original Koniani. Beyond this, each of the two groups of dialects 
also possesses, to a certain extent, a genuine original Romani 
vocabulary of its own, unused by the other. 

It seems to me that these must be regarded as the two 
important primal groups, to one or the other of which all dialects 
can be attached. Future investigations in difterent parts of the 
Balkan Peninsula will show how far I am right. I am even of 
opinion that it will be possible to classify to a certain extent the 
European Gypsy dialects as having sprung from one or other of 
these two groupings. For instance, the 'Lalere Sinto,' and the 
Nomad Coppersmiths recently in England do belong, on the whole, 
to the second division, Avhereas the Gypsies of the Rhine Province 
may possibly be relegated to the first group. These considera- 
tions, however, would lead us lieyond the scope of this report. 

With regard to the dialects spoken by the tribes here sur- 
veyed, the two groupings undoubtedly hold good. Within the 
second group are found the following chief subdivisions, arranged 
according to their relationship one to another: — 

(1) The Sieve-maker dialects, Mo.slem and Christian Seden- 

tary and Nomad, which may be taken as typical, at 
the same time, of all Christian Sedentary tribes within 
the district, such as tlie Coflee-pot makers of Shumla, 
and many Christian Sedcntaries scattered throughout 
the villages around Varna and Dobritch, who practise no 
distinctive trade, and call themselves Yerlia or local 
Gypsies. 

(2) The dialect of the Ziigundjis. It appears to stand by itself, 

and I have not met any Sedentaries or Christians, or 
other Nomad tribes speaking it. 

(3) The dialect of the Comb-makers. It is found also beyond 

the frontiers of Bulgaria. (See account of this tribe.) 
Within the first group, which embraces all the more primitive 
dialects, are found the following subdivisions, arranged according 
to their degree of kinship one to another : — 

(1) The dialects of the Aidia and of the Parpulia. 

(2) The dialect of the Sedentary Iron- workers of Kazanlik. I 

have not at present sufficient material in order to be sure 
which of the dialects just mentioned is the purest, but 



REPOar ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 67 

they are all very near to each other, and are all very 
primitive. 
<3) The dialects of the Tinners and Basket-makers, and of the 
Mat-makers, and of some of the Iron-workers found in 
Varna (v. A. 1 (c)), all of which are almost identical one 
with another, and may be looked upon as a sort of half- 
way house towards Dri'ndari. 
(•i) Drindari, comprising all the varieties, differing slightly 
among each other, of the dialect spoken by the Gypsy 
musicians who hail from the district of Kotel, and a 
vocabulary of whose dialect is embodied in Colocci's 
appendix to his work Gli Ziivjari, entitled ' Lessico 
Italiano-Tchinghiane.' 
I may mention, in passing, that the dialect of the Sofia 
.Sedentary Moslems who call themselves Yerlides, i.e. locals, 
belongs to the group of non-Vlach dialects, as will be apparent 
from a comparison of the Sofia Gypsy fairy tales with examples 
published below. 

Miklosich, in Book vi. of his Mandarten, gives a vocabulary of 
the Gypsies of Galicia which, in many instances, resembles the 
dialects of our non-VIach group. Balania, dilino, 6e6ipo, gelom, 
melinel, darinel, ka\ni, rukono, pipirus, phus, atavos, avetoa, 
rosolos, vaJcer, are all words and forms typical of one or other of 
the non-Vlach dialects. However, the above-mentioned vocabu- 
lary, and still more the ones following it in the same Book vi. 
contain many forms peculiar to both groups. This is to a certain 
extent true of one of our dialects, that of the Comb-makers, in 
fact just of that one which most nearly resembles the dialect 
spoken in Rumania. It is also true of the Bukovina fairy tales. 
It may be therefore objected that the expression Vlach dialects is 
misleading, since many dialects spoken in Rumania, and influenced 
by Rumanian, are not of the group. As an alternative one might 
talk of the ^ group and the R group. But here again one would 
meet with exceptions, although not in this district. Or one might 
•call them A and B. 

Before going further I should like to emphasize a point, the 
importance of which is not always realized. Students of Romani, 
admiring the purity and splendid preservation of the Balkan 
Gypsy dialects, are inclined to consider quaint and highly expres- 
sive phrases and idioms found in South-East European Romani as 
the undisputed property of the Gypsies, brought by them from 



68 REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

other lands. This is not the case. It is not the case in any Euro- 
pean dialect, and those of the Balkans are no exception to the 
general rule. It would be interesting to collect the real Roniani 
phraseology found in these pure dialects. Genuine instances 
would be found to be very rare. Among such is probably the 
expression, common to nearly all dialects, kiv tat jmlal, meaning 
to drive or send away some one. But the majority of much 
admired forms and expressions are directly due to the existence of 
the same in Turkish, Bulgarian, or Modern Greek. Compare the 
expression dikldjar<his pes e doftoroste, ' he caused himself to be 
examined by the doctor,' with the Turkish kendisini doktora 
bakdlrdi, of which the Romani is a literal translation. Such are 
also: pdle kanarakhihljovas, Turkish, jinr hidu-iddzaijiz, 'we shall 
meet again,' where tribes not usually speaking Turkish would sav, 
kadikhns amen. DikhddJQrii'^ is the Turkish gjuriiJmek, to meet 
and hold discourse together. Te aj'aklnidjovav leske tsira love, 
' Let me come to his assistance with some money,' is the Turkish 
bidunnjivi ona biraz para. There are hundreds of such examples 
in the language of the Sedentary Moslem Sieve-makers, the whole 
dialect being deeply influenced by Turki.sh idiom. The same may 
be said of Dn'ndari expressions. They are the literal translation 
of the Bulgarian spoken by the people with whom the Drindari 
come most into contact. For instance, the expression lotaUii tit,ke ? 
meaning literally 'has it become lighter, easier for you?' i.e. 
' do you feel relieved ? ' said after a person has wept or given way 
to a fit of rage, is simply the literal translation of the Bulgarian 
lUeknn ti ? 

For the rest a host of expressions must be regarded as neither 
exclusively Turkish, Bulgarian, Rumanian, nor Greek, but as being 
common to them all, and to the four can be added Romani and 
Albanian, and, it is to me a foregone conclusion, also Armenian, 
as spoken in the Balkan Peninsula, although I have not yet been 
able to test it. All this forms a Balkan Sprachschatz, a striking 
evidence of influence and counter-influence exercised for centuries 
among races in spite of their mutual hostility to one another. 
Papahagi, in his ' Parallele Ausdrilcke und Redensarten im 
Rumanischen, Albanesischen, Neugriechischen und Bulgarischen,' 
published in Professor Gustav Weigand's 14^^.«j Jahreshericht des 
Jnstituts filr Rumdnische Sprache (Leipzig. 1008), shows by 
means of some four hundred and fifty examples how deep this 
influence has been. In perusing his article I was struck by the 



UEl'ORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 69 

■numerous instances in which I could supply a Romani parallel to 
his examples. Here are only a few of them : — 

The formula for greeting, Mist' avildn, to which is answered 
miSf araJduidUain by the Zsigundjis, otherwise mi&t'araJddm, is 
Rumanian: bine ai venit, bine am ijasit ; Bulgarian: dobre doSsl, 
dohre nameril ; Modern Greek : kalos irthes, Jcalos evrika. And 
all these expressions are probably copied from the Turkish, of 
which they are faithful translations: xos (jeldin, xos bulduk. 
Compare, too, Romani: gelo kai gelo, with Rumanian: merde ce 
merse ; Bulgarian : rsrve sto vsrce ; Greek : pi ye ti piye. Romani : 
sa rovel, meaning ' he does nothing but cry,' is Rumanian : tot 
pldiuje ; Greek : ulo klei ; Bulgarian : vse plaice ; Turkish : Jiep 
agluyor. Also arakhadilo lake chavorro, i.e. ' a little boy was found 
(born) to her ' is literally, passive form and all, the Modern Greek : 
Us rrethike ena mikru ; Bulgarian : nameri i se mnlko, and 
Rumanian (Kutso-Vlach): I'i se ajia un nic. This will suffice to 
show the reader what is already a recognized fact among students 
-of Balkan philology. 

It is the Greek language, either directly or through the 
ujedium of Rumanian or Bulgarian, that has had the greatest 
influence in moulding the syntax and idioms of the Romani 
dialects of the Balkans.^ In point of actual vocabulary, if we 
except Moslem Romani dialects directly affected by Turkish, and 
borrowing freely from that language in order to supplement the 
deficiencies of their own, and in many cases, when an equally 
good Romani word, known to them, already exists, Turkish has 
had wonderfully little influence upon Romani, and none at all out- 
side the Balkan Peninsula, for we can suppose such so-called 
Turkish words as do exist to have been taken from the language 
of some Christian Balkan race. Greek, and a long way after it 
Rumanian, are the two languages which have most deeply affected 
Romani as a whole, in and outside of the Balkan Peninsula. The 
case of Armenian is somewhat different. Apart from the Armenian 
words adopted by the Drindaris, which are consciously borrowed 
for purposes of secrecy, the well-known Armenian elements in 
European Gypsy dialects were probably adopted in Armenia, or 
any how before Armeno-Gypsy contact in Europe.^ 

* See Ch. Sandfeldt Jensen, Riimanslce Studitr (Danish text), who, I think, con- 
clusively proves that it is Greek, and not, as sometimes believed, Albanian, which 
has left its original cachet upon all the languages of the Balkans. 

- It has been admitted that Miklosichs list of Armenian words found in Romani 
required overhauling. Dr. Sampson did this perhaps a little too thoroughly in his' 



70 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

The influence of Greek and Rumanian upon Gypsy is so well 
known that I need not insist upon it here. A lot of words may 
yet be found to be Greek that have been considered dnnkel 
hitherto. Since I have been in Bulgaria I have noted the 
following, of which some have been hit upon independently by Dr. 
Sampson : — 

tromar, I dare, dunbl according to Miklosich, and wrongly 
explained by Pott. Modern Greek, tromdzo, tromeo. 

prepel (Sofia Dialect), to fit. Greek, jyrepi, to bo suitable. 

note on page 10 of tho first nuniUer of the new series of tho JovrvnJ of tin' dypnf 
Lore Society. The list certainly reijuireil revisinj;. Miklosich himself left out ; 
words which he elsewhere admits are of Armenian origin: dior6 and dioml, ikj 
mule ; vah, on account of ; and t<> tliese must he adiliMl xi'"'""^'. * relative by 
marriage, and cihit, n. forehead. To this I must add the following word found itt 
Bome of the dialects under consideration in this report : xunk (fern.), incense. Also] 
a verb, x"n9»«o'""'i'- Kg- Xungimrd e muUn xunyuim, he incenses the dead witlv 
incense. The word is found in the dialect of the Sedentary Moslem Sieve-makers. 

Xiiratas, Hpeeih, is found in several of the non-Vlach dialects, and x'"''''"""V 
found in Sofia. The word is of doubtful origin. Bulgarian has, in certain dialects, 
Xdrtuvmn, x'''^"'^> I speak. The wonl, however, exists as a noun in vulgar 
Armenian, and in Modern (Jreek as x"»*n'n*, » j"kf. (The West Kun.pean Uoiiianii 
word for a joke, namolj', ptrjan, is found in nearly all the dialects of Eastern Bul- 
garia in the form of pherdt, and it also often simply means speech, words. This i» 
not Armenian.) 

With regard to the words concerning which there is believed to be some doubt 
as to their origin, arcic, tin, was defiiietl as mercury by an Armenian whom I 
questioned, and bov was saitl to mean tho pipes of an oven through which the heat 
runs. For tiie rest, the Uomani word for crumbs, purfukd (see Dr. Samp.son'i note 
above quoted), known to the Z.igundjis and to the .Moslem Sedentary Sieve maker* 
is, in my opinion, undoubtedly an Armenian word. Miklosich quoted the Armenian 
equivalent in tho Armenian plural, purnuk'. But in the Armenian singular the 
word is piiiork, and puinrka, purfuka, i.e. tho singular of the Armenian with the 
Romaiii plural, are similar enough to convince any one of the derivation of the 
Romaiii word, especially as exactly similar transpositions occur in the .Sieve makers' 
dialect, both in native and loan words : cf. na/sa/o for noj^folii, and koittdko for 
koni'iko, French brandy. Here I might record the rare word, found in the Sieve- 
makers' dialect as well as in Colocci's Dnmlari an<l somewhere in Miklosich, i/>af( 
(not Armenian) also meaning brandy, beside the original word tharl. 

Koi'<ik is pure Armenian, pronounced as in Romani. The so called Slavic word 
is kopca, probably from the Turkish ko]>ce. Balkan Gypsies use the .\rmeniai> 
t-og/, 07/ in the sense of the soul, the principle of life, the seat of the affections, 
the heart, also courage, character, power of resistance. It translates the I'ersian 
word dzan, aclopted by the Turks. 

Goif/ always means the mind, the reasoning faculty, and translates the Bulgarian- 
Turkish akil (from the Arabic). The Gypsies never confu<.e this word with jo;//. 
Ooiil is also a feminine noun, whereas vofjl is generally masculine. The words muFt 
be of different origin. I am told tliat godi in Armenian means a girdle. The word, 
I suppose, must remain dtmkel for the present. 

As for m»«-Jo»i<ii. which Miklosich refers to Armenian mrrjt/n, it is pure Rumanian. 
The Sedentary Moslem Sieve-makers have muionii, ard it means a mole and a mole 
heap, not an ant and an ant heap as it does in some Rumanian dialects. There is 
another well-known word ending in ox used by the same tribe, namely, knnd"i, a 
mouse. I have not found any more jirobable origin for the word than Modern 
Greek poiidiki, of which it is possibly a corruption. 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 71 

liperdv, to remember, mourn, regret (cf. Bohemian Gypsy 
leperav and Welsh Gypsy reperdva), Modern Greek root lip 
(vide Paspati, liixi). 
rumiisardv, I destroy, Miklosich has musarav. (Cf. Puch- 
mayer, quoted and unexphiined by Pott, Worterbuch, 275.) 
ruminav, I destroy. It is probaby Greek kremnizo, Avhich 
would give first of all kremisardv, or with an -in stem, 
kreminav. 
Jcanzaiiri, a hedgehog. Greek, skanzdiro, skantsoxiro, for 

akanth6\oiro8, i.e. a prickly pig. 
thrimn (Drindari), a little. Greek, thryma, a bit, fragment. 
kandoi, a mouse. Perhaps a perversion of poiidikos, pondiki 

the Modern Greek word for a mouse. 
furuvli, a lime tree. Greek jilyra. Also used for the wood. 

Heard from the Sedentary Moslem Sieve-makers. 
The Greek, or non-Vlaeh, or I^ group, call it what we may, 
contains by far the most primitive dialects, the richest mine for 
the philological explorer, whether he examine the rapidly disap- 
pearing dialect of the Tinners or Kalaidjis, the linguistic monstro- 
sity of the Drfndari dialect, or the ancient and classical speech of 
the Aidia and Parpulia. All dialects of this group possess the old 
f sound. ^ The Vlach dialects, on the other hand, have either lost 
the I' entirely, as in the case of the Sieve- makers, or converted it 
into another sound, as in the case of the Zagundjis, which, how- 
ever, they do not use with perfect regularity, and which one might 
have easily overlooked, had one not been acquainted with the r of 
the non- Vlach dialects. I refer to an r grassaye, which I repre- 
sent as r. It is pronounced by trilling the epiglottis. It is used 
by the Zagundjis in rapid speech in words where there was 
originally, and is still in the other group of dialects, the r. But if 
one asks them to repeat such a word they will probably use an 
ordinary r. They will say in talking /)/(amr<;7, but will repeat the 
word as pharavel. In the dialects which have preserved the r, the 
pronouncing of the sound is never optional. 

' My article on the j- sound was written in Beirut, from memory', without it 
being possible for me to check the words by reference to Balkan Gypsies. Three 
words must undoubtedly be struck off the list set forth in that article : parriO, 
Xarn6, and nri- the root of the verb to fly. The word koro, blind, should have been 
on the list. Bu^, bui^d, dry grass, twigs, brushwood, heath, must be added. It is 
Paspati's o ve.^ o bur, forests and heaths ; Borrow's o haval po bur, the wind on the 
heath, the bor, bush, of the Gypsies of the Rhine, and the bur, mountain, of the 
Spanish Gypsies. Also almost certainly the word akho^, a walnut. But I am, 
with regard to the last, again writing from memory, far away from any Balkan 
Gypsies. 



72 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

The Comb-makers also have a very strongly trilled rr, trilled, 
however, with the front part of the tongue. It may or may not 
correspond to the original f of the older dialects. The difficulty 
here again is, that if asked to repeat the word, the r will in all 
probability be an ordinary one. The noh-Vlach tribes, having 
preserved the j*, of course use it in the formation of the diminu- 
tives in -ofo, -ofi. The corresponding Vlach form is oro, oro, or 
orro. Strange to say, there is in this group no feminine to such 
diminutives. Non- Vlach chaioyi, a little girl, becomes in the 
Vlach group Oieioro, Shioro, or (Comb-makers) kiorro, Horrd. 
Likewise horiord, a little bride, in the dialect of the Sieve-makers, 
applied to a weazel after the Turkish (jelindzik. Even the words 
laloro, kdrkoi'o, savoro (in non-Vlach dialects laloj'6, korkcifv. 
8av(y^6), diminutives in form though not in meaning, have no 
feminine. Example: i c^hei nasti dial kurkoro avrl. So strictly 
is this rule adhered to, that the word rvro, j)Oor, has no feminine 
in this class of dialects, probably owing to its having been origin- 
ally coj'6, which syllable j'o came to l)e felt as a diminutive. Kurd, 
which was originally A-o/'o, has likewise no feminine. Example: 
Kadajd i^ojnni ai hut i!or6. Oi ai koi'6 e fheldtar. 'That woman 
is very poor. She is blind from smallpox.' The rule as to the in- 
variability of the ro diminutive, whether it be a diminutive in 
fact or in form only, is so strictly adhered to by the Sieve-makers, 
that there is, in their dialect, no j)lural to the words discussed 
above. 

Loan verbs arc conjugated in the non-Vlach dialects generally 
from a stem in -iz. The -ear stem is found at times in the past 
tenses. The Yerlfdes of Sofia, however, replace this -iz by -in. 
Parpulia irlzava is in Sofia erinav, I turn. The Vlach dialects 
use the -sar stem for all tenses, with the alternative, in the case 
of the Corab-makors, of adding to the loan verb, in the present 
tenses, the Romani personal endings minus their vowels, thus 
(a)v, («)s, (e)l, to the root, borrowed from the Rumanian, and 
ending in 't' : trais, trail, for traisares, traisare'l (Rumanian 
root trai). There is a small class of verbs of Greek origin, already 
mentioned above, which add the Romani personal endings ivith 
their vowels, but minus a stem in either -sar, -in or -iz : liperdv, 
I remember with yearning (perhaps only Vlach) ; prepel, it is fit, 
or it fits; and tromav, I dare, both of the non-Vlach group. 

The -sar stem is sometimes used incorrectly in both groups, in 
the passive voice, present or past tenses, of genuine Romani verbs. 



1 



REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 73 

instead of the regular Romani formation. Sofi»: losasajlo for 
lomnilo; Sieve-makers: kanhikindisdjol ioi kanhildndjol, it will 
be sold ; and ahindimjol, it is heard, i.e., the sound of cannons. 
Kazanlik Iron- workers : ustisdilo for ustino, and dikhisdilo for 
dikhilo, it was seen. 

List I 

The following alphabetical list of words will give a general idea 
of the difference, as regards vocabulary alone, between the two 
main groups. The list is nut exhaustive. There are cases in 
which one group possesses both words, while the other has 
retained only one. There are also instances in which individual 
dialects possess words not otherwise known to the group to which 
they belong. All such cases are mentioned in footnotes. 



Meaning 


Non-Vlach 


Vlach 


understand 


axdljovav 


hakjardv 


Hnger 


amjdU 


nai^ 


destroy 


aravdv 


i-umusardv 


trough 


halani 


baldi 


marriage feast 


h'ldv 


abidv 


spit, skewer 


bust 


mi 


mother 


dai 


del 


fooUsh 


denilo 


dil6 


sea 


derjdv 


denizi, mdre 


day 


dies 


gives 


town 


dis 


foro 


wake 


dzaiKjavdv 




pocket 


dzeba 


poski 


alive 


dzivdd 


traime 


mule 


dzoro, dzomi 


katiro 


chew 


(dmkerav 


Sambdv 


call 


M ndav 


akhardv 


empty 


6iU6 


hoH 


girl 


Hhai 


chei, Sei 


raisins 


ckamikd 


moskini 


dust, ashes 


char 


prd^os 


chick 


(havri 


puju 


boots 


tsiraxd 


kherd 


to-morrow 


javine, tasjd 


tehdra, thedehdra 


chicken 


kaxni 


khaini 


tent 


katdna 


sdra, tsihra 



74 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 



Meaning 


Non-Vlach 


Vlacu 




bitter 


kerko, fern, kerki 


kerkin, kerki (be 
masc. or fern.) 


>th 


mouse 


kermuso 


kandoi 




curse 


kuSdv 


akusdv 




flay, peel 


ku.^dv 


uzardv, kuSdv 




fat, dripping 


khani 


khoi 




plum 


khiljdva 


jyruna 




load 


laddv 


ladavdv 




■word, name 


lav 


aldv 




camp 


loddv 


inzardv 




rejoice 


loSdiiav 


hukuriftdjovav 




can 


khoro 


akhoro 




month, moon 


mdsek 


fhon 




necklace, rosary 


mifikli 


kUja 




shave (transitive) 


vxui'avdv 


raiigljardv 




arm 


must 


vast 




name 


nav 


andv 




lose 


naSiddv 


^asardv 




summer 


iiild i 


viildi 




bury 


parondv 


prnxosardv 




exchange, change 


paruvdv 






open, free (adj.) 


jnrd 


jihufardd 




open (verb) 


phiyavdv 


phuterdv 




bridge 


phnrt 


j)6do 




reach 


re SUV 


areadv 




bear 


rWiini, nnei'ka 


vuSka 




dog 


rikond, dzukel 


dzukel 




tree 


ruk 


kaSt 




brother-in-law 


aaU 


kumiuito 




basket 


sevli 


sepeto 




hammer 


aivrl 


(okdno 




gold 


somnakdi 


gdlbeno 




wet 


sxislo 


kiiigo 




rope 


M6 


Sold 




head 


Ser6 


Sord 




hear 


Snndv 


ahtndv 




clean 


Suz6 


temizi, uzd 




cup (of metal) • 


taxtdi 


nastrdpa 




burn, shine 


thdhjovav 


2)hdhjovav 




wait 


(ti)dzakerdv 


aSukjardv 





report on the gypsv tribes of north-east bulgaria <5 

Ylach 



Meaning 

speak 

forest 

flax 

sword 

a little 

clothes 

mushroom 



Non-Ylach 
vrjdv 
vaJcerdv 

veS 

Xaro 

"Xiirmut, dre-^es 



orbisardv 



X^ntsi, tsira 

riiba 

(uperka 



Notes to the List 

Amji'iSt. Even in the Sofia Sed. Moslem dialect nai is frequently used as a 
synonym ioran<iuit, anguMu. The use of vaM for miw/ reminds one of the Buljjarian 
rSlcd, which means both hand and arm. 

araiuii^ is found also among the Vlach dialects, hut the Vlach Romani equivalent 
r^tmuiariiv is not found among the non Vlachs. Amidv is mentioned in the 
vocabulary to the Hukovina fairy tales (Mik., Mmidarlen, Bk. v.). 

lierjdv. The equivalent word dettizi is from the Turkish, and used by the Sieve- 
makers. The nomad Comb-makers use the Rumanian word nidre, but they also 
have a form dorjiii; applied to the Danube. 

dzan(f<tvdi\ The Vlach tribes have no common word corresponding to diaiiffavdv. 
They borrow from Turkish, Bulgarian, or Rumanian. 

rfit*'"!. The word is Turkisli. The corresponding word pOiiki, used by the 
Vlachs, may be akin to potisi. 

dzoni. The Comb-makers use this word also, although they are of the Vlach 
group. 

kuHiiv, to flay. The corresponding word xiiardv of the Vlachs is probably akiu 
to the adjective «f«). See under hiiii, clean. 

loiiinax'. The Vlach word hnkitri/<ojovav is only used by the Comb-makers. 
Otherwise tribes borrow from the Turkish. 

imi^ek: The word chomut, also known in Sofia, has not yet been recorded in 
North-East Bulgaria. 

naJialdv. The word is also used by the Vlachs in the sense of to make rur> 
away, to elope with. 

nav. The Vlach form andv is only known to the Comb-makers. Other VlacK 
tribes use the word aid v. 

paruvdv. The Vlachs use arUa kerdv. The word arlla is very usual, meaning 
barter. For ' to change clothes "they would use a Turkish loan word. 

piyd. Phntardd is also known to the non-Vlachs, hat piro is not known to the 
Vlachs. 

resdv. The Sieve-makers have also this word, without the prefix ' a.' 

rikond. The non-Vlachs have also dzukil. 

ruk. This word is exceedingly rare, even among the non-Vlachs. I have so 
far recorded it only among the Gimlet-makers and the Drindaris of Zeravna. It is 
on a par with rai, so far recorded only in the dialect of the Comb-makers. 

said. All tribes in this district tell me that the feminine sali does not exist. 

somnakdi. The word is known to the Comb-makers. A form ^omndl in the 
expression o ''omndl phurd Devel, the old golden God, is also much used among the 
Sieve-makers. 

iuzd. The Vlach word ufd is only used of food in the sense of unadulterated, 
clean, not spoilt. The verb uzardv is probably from this adjective. (See 
kuSdv. ) 



76 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

thdhjovav. The transitive thabjardv la used by the Comb-makers in the sense of 
to shoot. 

vu^. The Vlach group of dialects, which has lost vuS, has no common word, 
each dialect borrowing from Turkish, Bulgarian or Rumanian. 

xaj*d. The same remark as for iii.i holds good here. 

Xuxwp Cupirka is used by the Sieve-makers and Zaguiidjis. The Comb-makers 
know it, but prefer the Rumanian buredtxa. 

The words dorelerdv, to tell fortunes, and mtfiil bad, and naia thanks, appear to 
belong only to the Vlach Group. Por, a featlier, unknown to most Vlachs, is yet 
well known to the Comb-makers. Duruli a tlute, in the non-Vlach dialecta, means 
a barrel among the Vlachs. 

Besides the words contained ii> the above list, there are many test worils in 
Romaiii, the knowledge ot which enables one to locate a dialect. No single word 
exists, perhaps, which cannot be found in the same form in more than one dialect. 
Taking, for instance, the seven following dialects found within the district here 
examined : the dialects of the Parpulia, of the Kazanlik Irun-workers, of the 
Drindaria, Kalaidjis, Kalburdjis, ZAgundjis and Grebemiris, it is not possible to 
find a word which possesses seven variations corresponding to the seven dialects. 
Some, however, vary five times, such as the verb ' to extract,' which has the following 
forms: — niknJdva, ikandv, inkaid, ihildv, inkaidv, aud inkalatdv, the latter form 
being a barbarous invention of the Comb-makeni. Such test word.s are the words 
for bread, water, something, a little, how much, so much, such, more, yet, the 
words expressing negation, prohibition, iK>8sibility and impossibility, ailirmation, 
those translating to come and to become, the preterite first and third |>ersoD 
singular and third jicrson plural, the endings of abstract nouns, the form of the 
so-called adjectival genitive, and finally the following verbs : — to ascend, descend, 
arise, go out, extract, dig, scratch and comb, wrestle, sift, knead, and carry, lead. 
The following giving the Romani translations of the above test words and forms, 
and of a few others, in the above-mentioned seven dialects, plus the .Sofia dialect 
for the sake of comparison, will show to what extent both the vocabulary and the 
grammar of one tribe differs from that of another. 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 77 



a 
o 

M 
> 



I i 



k 



'05 



r 






O 

2 



Grebeniiri 
Comb- 
makers. 




•<* 






-J 










N5 


1 

?> lo S "» 


1 


? a, ?^ -£ 


^^— ^"^ 


„^ 




-ii S 




e 


C* ^ O 


-^ si 


S 


























si 








(^ 


















.o 


Zdgund 

Carrioi 

eaters, 


2 g 
2 § ^l^b 








^2 ^ 


-:3 


5 


-^ e ts 
•5 ?i ? 




S 








p- Ai ?^ CO 


,.^ 


-< 




•^ :* 


^ 


^ Si 


?> 


e 










vo 


















.- 2 








J. 


















— . 0; 


1 ? 




-is 


O 


11 














^ 1 

-* «-> ^ ~ ^ 


1 




s 


a 


■i 




*>^ 


c. 


ii g :S e s tJ 


S 
^ 






















,„.^ 








1 


















^ 


























Ho 






? 


d S 


5 S,-^^ 


:! 






■ nail ■ 'O 






Q s e 

?i si ?i 






5C 




















^-^ , ^ 












^ 














e -r* 










1 u S 


*-«. 






_^^^ 








s^ 










^ 3 






•r. 






^ 
? 




s s S 


Ho 




v^ 


;3 :--t^ 


^ 
" ^"^ 


2v»c ^ ^ 


• —> 


z 


• -^ 




^ 

^ 




■^ '§ 


'S 






























' ^ i 
















v»* 










~ ^ 
















*« 








^ 


Kazan 
ra. Ironwoi 
















fi 








^ 




-5 


9: 




-5 -5 


■1 




s e 1 

e si g 


si 


i 






























4> 
















^-,^ 










ea^ 








^«M^ 








ess 








g 


— <a 








^ 








si ?i 








■V/-S 


5 


\= v^ ^ ^ 

ST S 5 ~ 


"5 
-5 












fr- Si ■> 


Si 


■to 




^o :2 r? ^s 












-« 
















00 




^*- *v 






,^ 






y^^ 










3 




^^ 




















rO 






-C! 






OS 






5i ?i 








. ^ ,-a 


! 1 


? ^ ■« vs> 

•i «> iC ««-• 




*^ 












^c^ 








o 


V4 

-ii 


t 

-o 

«» 










§ § § 

si S ? 


e si 


»i 


^ 
"s 




























O -t^ 




tc 


'o 


_ 






(D 




o 

S3 ^ 






O 


S O 


t3 


^ o 


2 


O 
w 






>^ 




O 




B 


o ^^ 


O 

1 


1 o^3 

b: t o ^ 


o 










w 2 
o o o 


a 


CO 


c3 
O 

CD 




1 






T. -^ 


3 




a cxi 


o o 


>^^ 


^ l-H 1— 1 to 



78 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF XORTH-EAST BULGARIA 









^2 == 

— - u 

- i. « 

.- < =« 



=c : 









.sg;J 



09 









^-< 






>D 






^ *^ "s 



as 















so 






I 



— . _^ 

- 2 

■r. 






^« 'w * 



.2 






» -e 






"^ ~ ^ -; ^ 
•M -cs •<:» '*-«,'*^ 






t: ^ ** 

s - e 






^ 




a c 

US 



■C •«» •<:- S ?i 



IS-.? -2 
3 S^ 






X 






t 






§'^ 



•X. 

o 

■< 

> 

z 

c 

55 





»-:> *^ .^ 




'S 




^ 




v^ 


e 






•^'<t -5 ,2 1 


|13 


00 


1 

X 


v" * 5 '^ 




1. 


K5 


go 










1 








r 




r* •^ •"•^ **«- ^^ 


-S ^2 -1 

*o: -v; "-C 

S S ?: 


2 


1>^ 


•A 

X 






4 


1 



u 



"■ s 
3 



'"» -~ -i: -^ 









ac 



'- • — m^ 



XX 






pa 



^s 



XX 



t 

X 



e e -, s> 

e s s ^ 






■J. 



^^ ^ - 4 \2 

i "2 "^ 1^?^ 

■^ S ?3 52 J3 












= » ?^ 



> j; ^ ^ H 






b. S ** '"^ ^ "2 

XZ^ e e s 3 



-3 



-3 






C « O 

o O O I 

a M M « 

X cs © -o y 



0) X 



M 






c3 



o 

to 



4^ 

9 

o 






t: 



C 

o 

S5 






^ 5 



<-3 



—~z to 



E 
o 
o 






^HH^N^J3 P-H^-< ^ — ^_.-( _ ^H-(>^-H 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 79 

Appendix to List II 

To fly : Urjdv is one of the rare words in Balkan Gypsy dialects. 
It is found only in the dialect of the Sofia Erlides and in thixt 
of the Piirpulia. Other dialects have a loan verb, as Drindari : 
frknizaa, or express the idea by means of such verbs as 
rt'izdel-pes (Kazanlik), or lUiela (Kalaidji), from u^tida. 

Rai, a lord, gentleman, is still rarer. It is only found in the 
Comb-makers' dialect. 

Kak, Riikh, a tree, is found only in the dialect of the Parpulia and 
of the Drindaris. 

To-morrow, in Sofia (Erlides dialect) tasld, is usually expressed by 
javine (Parpulia, Kazanlik); avinlard (Drindari); aTnildra, 
or amindra (Kalaidji); tehdra, thedehdra (Kalhurdyi, Zaguu- 
dji, and Comb-maker); also teiskdke (Kalburdji). 

To camp, lodav, has only been recorded with any certainty in the 
dialect of the Parpulia, though it is probably known to the 
Aidia also. I have not recorded Paspati's radd r anywhere. 

The Drindari feminine of the adjective gudlu, sweet, is gudi, 
according to Drindari phonetics. The Kalaidjis also say 
(judi., but they have taken this to be a regular feminine from 
an adjective (ixido, which form they actually use for the 
masculine. In the Vlach dialects the word is guglo, gugli, 
and the Comb-makers generally pronounce the words without 
the g: guld, gidi. 

ingjerdv forms ga in the Drindari dialect and ingeldv is an 
alternative form in Sofia, and the only one used by the Par- 
pulia, whilst the Sieve-makers have ingandv. 

Notes to List II 

Bread. Wherever variations of the word cam, bread, exist, they are considered 
to be ' (juradi cliib.' 

In the same way as rmmrd the Comb-makers form jnuuro, munri ; hanr6, a thorn, 
jiunrii, a foot ; a))ri>, an egg. x«"'"i * sword, is not recorded in their dialect. In 
the same w.iy as viariw the Sieve-makers form karnO, j>im6, ani6. 

■••omtthiiKj. Ek I'hijxi^ is quite peculiar to Drindari. I cannot suggest a satis- 
factory etymology. Ek idn-i may be Greek, eioos, a little, thrima and tsimn are 
the (ireek thryma. x^*"^*' ™^y ^ ^ variation of the word x^T^ formed when it was 
still xci'iti/. 

fO much. Note that the word kiisi means, in Kazanlik, so much. Elsewhere it 
means, how much. 

■^uch. With the form kikit-^i and kikfou (from a kikesavo), compare the other 
Drindari word kikida, I collect, elsewhere kidav. 

can and cannot. Drindari ii is probably nd-^i minus the na, and has nothing to 
do with Sax, iti, found in the Comb-makers' dialect. The Comb-makers always 
conjugate the words daiii and 7iai(i thus : dakiv or daitisardv. 



80 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

gave. The Zagundji iorm,'dild, he gave (dilim, dildn, etc.), is peculiar to their 
dialect. 

heat. The form of the abstract noun in -pen has, so far, not been recorded in 
the Balkan Peninsula elsewhere than in the dialect of the Ka/anlik Iron-workerg. 
This, too, applies to the participles in Greek -menoji, e.g. x'^'"'""", angry. 

Abstract nouns in -po, the characteristic of our Tinners, are also found in Sieben- 
burgen, according to Miklosieh's collections (v. Book .xi., Cardinal Mezzofanti'e 
collection). The Comb-makers use also pe, but prefer -mo-i. 

ascend, and go out. These two verbs have been confused by most Gypsies. Only 
the Sofia Erlides dialect distinguishes regularly l)etween ' to ascend ' and ' to go, or 
come out.' The highly irregular Tinner form for the present tense, iki'xira, is worth 
noting. Like its fellow, uxwdvn, to descend, it ia probably formed from the 
participle, dropping, however, the t, uxvs(t)dfa. 

to romb. The Sofia form, uxlj-ivdv, literally, to loosen, to comb out, has its 
counterpart in the Sieve-makers'/Wniy/c, used like uxljnidv, as meaning to comb, 
but also to take anything down, e.g. from a cupboard. See Miklosicb, Book vii., 
rhxddv. The verb is also found in Welsh Romani. 

to fti/t Olid hiend. The two words have got confused by the Gypsies. The 
Gimlet-makers alone have Paspati's form, uianuv, I sift. Elsewhere we find 
nrhnndv. Usandr, meaning to knead, is used by the Sieve-makers. Elsewhere, 
uiljerdv, wHjardv. 

carry. I once thought and wrote (v. J. O. L.S., v. 288) that itjgjardv came 
from unljftrdv. However, I find aiidjnri'iv used by the Sieve-makers, and moaning 
to have brought, to cause to be brought, and it is not confused with iijgjnrni-. 



List III 
Sentences Compared 

Kl. = Kalaidji. Dr, = Drfndari. Kz. = Kazanlik Iron-workers. 

1. Kl. Kdnva ahrdn ane ziz na ahkpfon. 
Dr. Knkald amh'61 u ziznte lui abipina. 
Kz. Kddnld amhrol dndo foro na ardklon. 

These pears are not found in the town. 

2. Kl. Line o 6hejd,nasiarde o dadtske khereatar. 
Dr. Lin'i u rha, na^ikerdi u dsiska kharistar. 
Kz. Line e rhijd, naSaldi e dadeskere kher^star. 

They took the girl, made her run away from her father's 
house, 

3. Kl. cikono cirikld xi/iela. 
Dr. U tsikofo ciriklu frkizela. 

Kz. tsikno 6irikl6 upy^e vddel-pes. 
The little bird is flying. 

4. Kl. Kavd tnaa na kerids, ddha tHma mo-arhel opre, kaod. 
Dr. Kokd mas na kerzild, panda thrima ko-mu-keril, mo-oi(l). 
Kz. Kadavd mas na kdrdilo. ddha x<^r^ me-kirdl, kaovel. 

This meat is not cooked, let it cook a little more and it 
will be done. 



REPORT ON THE GVl'SV TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 81 

5. Kl. Kid id idos hie na dikizias kalle bresende. 
Dr. Kikessi butsi hie na di4ii-tar e aveatoste. 
Kz. Kidid ek kovd hie dikisdilo dndo ihem. 

Such a thing was never seen in the world. 

6. Kl. Yeter kidehih\ 
Dr. Renlla keitsi. 
Kz. Kit si resela. 

It is sufficient. Turkish yder okader. Bulgarian stiga 
tolkos. 

7. Kl. Ayijdl o Jugate }>ekds. 
Dr. Tiirje e jagnti hestd. 
Kz. Ayjgldl e jugate heM6. 

He was seated before the tire. 

8. Kl. Me phaleste mo manziti didadom. 

Dr. Ma phralista mo manzin di^ijim, dUlm, di^arlm. 
Kz. Me bai^ste mo maygin sikaddm. 
I showed my wealth to my brother. 

9. Kl. Rodidm, nai alakhdm, tarmzio)ii. 
Dr. Rozim, nd.H alakhim, trakiziim. 

Kz. Rodindm, iiasti arakhldm, trakiiiilom. 

I searched, but could not tind and got frightened. 

10. Kl. Tiisdra (or amindra) kokhd kamaldpros. 
Dr. Avinlard kotkd vm-aldpisa. 

Kz. Jarine othe ka-ardklos. 

To-morrow you will be there, lit. will be found there. 

11. Kl. Utidm katdr, nastoin. 
Dr. USim koitdr, luihcim. 

Kz. UStisdilom okoidr, nasldm. 
I arose from there and fled. 

12. Kl. pai penziol. Kavd ma.s na x'^mziol, khaino. 
Dr. psi piizila. K^kd mas na x^izH'^^, khsinu. 

Kz. pani pindol. Kidavd mas na -xdndol, sugutno nandi. 
The water is drinkable. This meat cannot be eaten, it 
stinks, is not fresh. 

13. Kl. Arre-'^te te rodizarel lex. 
Dr. Avrista te rozikei'^l les. 
Kz. a west e te rodindavel les. 

Let him make some one else look for it. 

14. Kl. Ek kiijes rdndav me love ande thojdva, garajdva, 

uchardva. 
Dr. Ek trdpus x^nd, endri thod 1113 pares, garaci, iLchard. 

VOL. IX.— NO. II. F 



82 IlEPORT OX THE GYPSV TUIIJES OF XOHTll-EAST HULGARIA 

Kz. Bk x^'' x"'*^^'^^'^' cf'*^^'*^ "'^ ^^^-'* thodra, (jaravdva, 
udhardva. 
I dig a hole and put my money into it, hide, cover it up. 

15. Kl. KoU hxStendar jiatrjA inini. 
Dii. Knkffle kastinchtr o patrd lyeli. 
Kz. Kadale ka^ttndar o patrjd peU. 

The leaves have fallen from those trees. 

16. Kl. Ka^'d hasmds pajd^is (fHtjdajas), pirSindeste. 
Dr. Kidt cevfja psjeii ^ hrUindlsta, 

Kz. Kadavd ba^mds e bri.^imtste sdfililo. 
This cloth got wet in the rain. 

{cf. Sieve-makers : — Kadajd Uismdva (fem.) e hr'iSindeste 
khingdl.) 

17. Kl. Du'i sa-^dfi icinde (Turk.) hai mo kher nai ajdva. 
Dr. Done .s•a;;^a^s•^7K/a ndma mo-reM ht kli^sr, 

Kz. Ane do sa-x^itende naMi readva me tltniutfte. 

In two hours I shall not (be able to) reach my homo. 

18. Kl., I'kerida o mui pai. 

Dr. Phrrild {ithrrzilu) o mui UhLh pSi. 
Kz. Leskitro imii phtrdilo paniesa. 

His mouth became tilled with water. 

19. Kl. Akniid kapiinijoht. 
Dr. Akund-to mo jiiltseihi. 
Kz. Akand kaprandizelo. 

Now he will marry. 

Having given the reader some idea of the broad lines along 
which the two chief groups of dialects have developed, and further 
illustrated by means of a coniparative list of test words (List II.), 
and of sentences (List 111.), the differences existing between indi- 
vidual dialects of either group, I now propo.se to give texts in 
some of these dialects, preceded by remarks concerning the pecu- 
liarities of each, in so far as they have. not yet been mentioned. 

The Dialect of the Kalrurdjls or Sieve-makers 

Embracing that of the Moslem and Christian Sedentaries, and 
Moslem Nomads ( r. A. 1 («) and 2 (a) and B. 1 (a ).and in general 
all Christian Sedentaries in North-East Bulcraria. such as 
A. 2 (6), and perhaps {d), other than those specified in A. 2 (c)). 

The language spoken by these Gypsies may perhaps be regarded 
as the purest of the great family of Vlach dialects. As .-spoken in 

' From *patilni/o {*panlnjorara). 



REPORT OX THE GVl'SV TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 83 

this district, whether by Moslems or Christians, its phonetics are 
deepl}' influenced by the local Turkish language. The influence, 
however, is naturally most apparent among the Moslem branch of 
the tribe, both Sedentary and Nomad. It is from an old Moslem 
Sedentary Gypsy, mentioned on page 8, that I have obtained 
the sentences printed below, which are excellent samples of the 
dialect. The pronunciation is slow and very distinct, as in local 
Turivish. The y has disappeared entirely and is replaced by a 
simple trilled r. The rit is everywhere preserved. The other 
aspirated consonants are likewise very pronounced— AA, ph, th, 
giving the well-known Romani cacJiet to the language. There is 
no Midi ill Iran;/ in the past tense: they .^ay 2)/a'7i(i(i.s, never 
pliendjn.i, phfrff/hjdif. The vocabulary betrays the Rumanian 
ori«'in of the tribe, but Turkish loan words often exist alonjjside 
of the Rumanian loan word, and they have a tendency even to 
oust the latter. For spider,' it is, for instance, more usual to 
hear the word )'irumdzdr((, from the Turkish oriimdid, than the 
word yuii'' no from the Rumanian /xii^njan. So, too, saleygo is 
often used fur a snail, from the Greek, through the Turkish, s(d- 
janh's, instead of the word iskdire from the Rumanian scoicea. 
k'ivtnm'na (froin the Turkish /.rftnn<J), a species of rolled cake, 
called al-^o at times Ity the Romani word holdhii, lias almost 
ousted tho Rumanian word [thirenla, still occasionally used. 

It will be noticed from the above examples that this dialect 
uses the ending -»vt, tacked on to loan words ending in a vowel e 
or a. This is done to a certain extent by all Vlach tril)es, and is 
not unknown among the Sofia Erh'des. P^xamples : khidva, henna 
(Turk, khid): t/ir/imva, the world (Turk, du.njd); aiiterdva, &. shirt, 
in other dialects, antevla (from the Turkish anteri) ; luljdva, a pipe 
(Turk. InU) : dzezdva, punishment (Turk, dzezd) ; Ixujcdva, a garden 
(Turk, luiijie) : ^as»uira, cloth (Turk. Ijo-^ind) ; Jcasdva, a safe, a case ; 
PrmhAv'i , Ho7iifjdva (Turk. Pembe and Hanife), both girls' names. 

The ending is not altogether unknown in pAiropean dialects. 
It is not mentioned, however, by Miklosich in Rook x. of his 
Mundarteii. Its origin is as follows. 

Rumanian fern, nouns ending in accented o, ea, and i, add an 
a to express the definite article, inserting a u or o between the 
termination and the said a, in order to avoid the hiatus. E.g., 
basmd, cloth, from the Turkish hasma, ba.smdua, the cloth. This 
ending has been adopted by the Gypsies of the Vlach group, or of 
Vlach influence, and tacked on as above described, having lost its 
meaninir as definite article. Hence Romani : basmdva. 



84 REPORT ON THE OY'l'SY THIHES OF NORTH-EAST RULGARIA 

The grammar otters few peculiarities not already mentioned as 
belonging to the whole group. The future is formed by pretixing 
the syllable /ttt7i-, not ka- or ham-, to the present. Prefixed to the 
imperfect, it produces a conditional present, and also a present 
over which some doubt hangs. The future is negatived by pre- 
tixing nai to the future. Otherwise, in the present and past tenses, 
this is expressed by in or inci. (See note to sentence 44' below.) 

In the past tense, tirst person plural, an unaccented foreign 
syllable, presumably Turkish, namely ' /;,' is tacked on to the usual 
ending: kerddiniz, we did. ' He or she said ' is translated by the 
enclitic ire, placed immediately after the quotation, and much 
used in narration. Is this related in any way to the Welsh 
Romani hoH ? 

The syntax is the result of years of Turkish influence. The 
speaker seems to think in Turkish, while speaking in Romani. The 
following sentences arc very different from those given elsewhere 
in this report in order to illustrate ditl'cront dialects. All the 
others were aske<l either in Turkish or in Hulgarian, according to 
the dialect in (juestion, in order to entrap the Ciyp.sy into betraying 
certain peculiarities of speech, and with a view to comparison 
with other dialects. They are. therefore, at the best, grammatical 
examples, although, of course, not invented, in Romani, by my- 
self Those published below are not translations, but spontaneous 
utterances heard and taken down by mo during a space of two 
years from an old woman who worked in my house and gossiped 
between her work. They are, therefore, in their way, as valuable, 
from a linguistic and literary point of view, as the fairy talcs which 
I collected at Sofia. The Turkish influence is so pronounced, and 
the way the Turk expresses his thoughts is often so different froni 
that familiar to European languages, that I have thought it 
necessary in some cases to give the literal translation into English 
coupled with a freer translation illustrative of the meaning. 
Occasionally I have given the Turkish equivalent and a reference 
to the context which gave rise to the sentence. 

1. Sukdr (UJchddjol, sukdr dikkaihe. 

There is a beautiful view (i.e. from the terrace on the top 
of my house at Varna). 

2. tnci pidv i luljdva ko dromd te na pherUn si Dcmd ko i 

astardv man barikani. 
I do not smoke my pipe in the streets, that the Bulgars may 
not say that I give myself airs (lit. seize myself biggi.sh). 



REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF XORTH-EAST BULGARIA 85 

3. Xoxaiinndste in6i inJdistern mor Efendiske. 

My master has not caught me telling a lie (lit. to a lie, I 
have not come out to my master.) 

4. C/iindordjavas hohhatar. 

We are dying of hunger (lit. are being caused to be cut up 
from hunger). 

5. Sif/o phurjarei peshi roba. 

He wears out his clothes quickly. 
(). L(tpatensa kiden i Hk Andn foro. 

With spades they collect the mud in the town. 
7. Xadjardv-lf'sh- mcrt'borjdhoratje n'cu-el mdnde, ov liihno si. 
May I cause him to eat my daughter-in-law's blood, let him 
not come to me, he is a whoremonger. 
H. Kdna fulel o pizuino tele, Laiuoel milsafiri. 

When the spider comes down (from the ceiling on its thread 
it is a sign that) a guest will come. 
0. Kandzdv, kanphnradjardv si love. 
I will f'o and change some monev. 

Phdradjardv, to cause a thing to be made to burst, is the 
Sieve-makers' translation of the Turkish Itozdnrmak, to 
spoil (transitive), to change. 

10. Buruven,Jani dara^imren i po^om. 

They comb the wool. (Vide Paspati fji'irdva, and Rumanian 
darari to comb, from the Turkish dardk, a comb. Jani, 
' videlicet,' Turk, from Arabic. ) 

11. KiDiplidhjitn te pdres.' 

Your money will be squandered (lit. burnt.) 
\'l. /{nnhanadjavdc i rez. 

I am uoinij to difr in the vineyard (lit. cause the vine to be 
dug, from hanavdv, I dig). 
18. }for6 bard o Kdntolosi kanorbimrel man e themeste, ' cinn ' 
kankerel mo kan. Kanlipearel man. 
^[y master the Consul will talk of me in his country, my ear 
will tingle (lit. will do chinn, imitation of sound). He 
will miss me. 

14. Te dzav khere, te kiravdv me gadd. 

1 will go home and do my washing (cause my shirts to cook). 

15. E uchaldte bes, nd-be.s e khameste, kannafsdilos. 
Sit in the shade, not in the sun, you will fall ill. 

16. Banges pdMiUm, dukhdl-man mor kor. 
I slept crooked, my neck aches. 



86 REPORT (>X THE UVl'SV TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

17. Ldko rat hirjdl, in dzantl, so h-anherel. 

Her blood is boiling (said of a person with an abundance of 
animal spirits), she does not know what she will do next 

18. Nevo kankerdjol o hilimi, te ih<iv ando denlzi.londo kai si. 
The carpet will be made as though it were new if" I wash it 

in the sea, as it is salt. 

19. Akand d hi Frdnga Jcerdilaa : o baru savl ruha urjavel,<> 

6or6-da urjavel, amd ndi-Uske mariio te x'^l- i^*'^' p^ste 
hut ruba, te na arhH e bnrvalestar tele. Ando sokdhi 
phukjard-pes. 
Now (everything) has become in the Frenchy way : the 
great dress as the poor (lit. the great what clothes bo 
wears the poor too wears), but he has not got bread i<* 
eat. On him (are) much clothes, that he may not remain 
beneath (i.r. appear interior to) the rich man. He causes 
himself to swell (with pride and ostentation) in the street. 

20. Xevjdrdili i sit a. 

The sieve has become torn. 

21. NakJi^l tut o kham, /./<<nn I id v. 

You have got a sunstroke. (The sun j)asses you, yon lia\e 
taken the sun.) 

22. Plierdi love i sasiU. Bare (Turk.) e x^irdeyffe faiddra 

(Turk. /(I idd) te kerel,^ uui luii kerel, iioi urjavel e ^(urden, 
6-zaman sira jardimi (Turk.) av^l. 
The mother-in-law is full of money. At least let her do 
something for the children, but she doesn't do, she doesn't 
clothe the little ones, and thus little help is forthcoming. 

23. Te na ;^wr</j.s'(/jo^ o tfltiino. 

Let liot the tobacco be chopped fine. 

24. E Stamboldske ri(/>(tar kanakel dzi Varndte. 

He will pass by way of Constantinople to Varna. 

25. Sar kaljardi fjuifld te kdrdjos ! 

May you become sweet as coftee. (Said out of politeness 
while sipping coffee. The passive of kerdv is often used 
to replace ordra, which is lost to this dialect.) 

26. podo inH nnkhen gemidsa, ini^i den e romnjd bnljiisa. 
They don't pass across a bridge in a ship, nor give a girl in 

marriage for nothing. (Lit. with her podex. This is a 
Turkish rhymed proverb: KopiniyH ffrt'hnezler potldn. 
kariyi vermezler gOtldn. It is as impossible to get a 
wife for nothing as it is to pass over a bridge in a boat.) 



REPORT ON THE GVI'SY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 87 

27. De sikndra si gadjd. 

She has been like that since her babyhood. 

Instead of ' de' they often use the Turkish particle -heri, 
placed after the word, thus: sikndra-heri' The Turkish 
ablative particle is even added to the word, as siknara- 
ddn-beri, on the analo<:fy of the Turkish Kii/ilL'-ddn-beri 
(not kilciik-den-heri in the local dialect). The particle 
de is Rumanian. It is sometimes prefixed when the 
Turkish particle is used : de idzdra-heri, since yester- 
day, from /(T, idze, yesterday. Thus, too, in the dialect of 
the Tinners, who have no Rumanian influence, 7'a(^"arc?«ii- 
heri, since the night began. What is the origin of 
the element -dm in these words ? Conjpare amildra 
(Tinners) to-morrow, (also tasdra), Drindari arhdard, and 
the well-known Romani word tasdrla, and tehdra, de- 
fhehdra. The form with the I is also found in the 
ivazanlik dialect ( Iron- workers) : edzdrlaberl since 
yesterday. Miklosich, Book x., SutHx -r« (adverbs), has 
little to say about it. 

28. Risarde lesko aldv. 

I'hey have changed his name, its name, i.e. the town of 
Dobritch. 

29. Chord He ol bald, kai but phdbiUin mar flidke. 

My hair fell out (was poured out) as I was in great grief over 
the death of my daughter (lit. as I was burnt for my girl). 

30. Thoimdsa suvimdsa jaidjnrel pc rhaven. 

With washing and sewing she feeds (procures food for) her 
sons. 

31. E-pd^kerdjol. 

It is broken in two (lit. has been made half). 

32. L' nai, acgutno gives. Tehdra 7iai, over tehdra. Izitno, 

avgiesitnd. 
Not yesterday, the day before yesterday. Not to-morrow, 
the day after to-morrow. Yesterday's, to-day's. 

33. Sdniol i diinjdva akand, sdnile savoi^d. 

The world is thinning out (becoming less populous owing to 
the war), all have thinned out. Note that savc/ro not 
only has no feminine in this dialect (i*. p. 72), but also 
no plural form. 

34. Sai'e mosa kandzds dndi kali phuv ! 

With what a face {i.e. in what state of mind), shall we go 



88 REPORT OX THE GYTSV TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

down into the black earth! (Kara Hati was always 
talkinij of death and fearing it very much.) 

35. Somndl Fhuro Level das e rosoftke o kahiri (Turk. », 

phdgilo. E hareske das, phanidilo. ' A6 te d[kh&i-'-u>\ 
' te dav If'S e manits^rige.' K'nnisi (Turk.), asdias, kimisi 
rovelas. * E, odolA dajdniorlar'-iSe, ' l/nde te aOiel <> 
kahirl '-ire. 
The Old Golden God (the Divinity is nearly always thus 
referred to by this tribe, not by others) gave to the forest 
sorrow, it broke. He gave it to the stone and the stone 
burst. ' Wait," He said, ' that I may see, let Me give it to 
men.' Some laughed, others cried. ' Ha ! ' said He, ' they 
will stand it, let them have sorrow,' He .said. 

36. Ldki god( hike caijgende. Oi dzatjgll mdnde. 

Her brain is in her knees (i.e. she has no sense in her). She 
is known to me. 

37. Sode hakrd nas i piUkn ! Khere \adjnren la dndo tsikiut 

rfion. Nai jMirea, dar Indje o Intrljte ! 
The turkey was as big as a sheep! They fed it at home in 
the little month (the month of February). We have no 
money, what matters! {Mi. futwtviajestatem). 

38. Ir makljardhn o kher c chejende. 

Yesterday I got the girls to whiiewjish my house (lit. 
caused it to bo smeared by the girls, expressed 
by dat.). 

39. U6hdrdj(>l o masti'dfi. 

The expenses have been met (lit. are being covered). 

40. El romnieijg*! gives si akaiid. E puran^ zamani^nde 

ananas el iWibaJlidni'Ja e rfiejen. Aknrid inH keren 
agadjd. Odnld hreA muU, thai odold manuS. E purane 
hreSende ai^henas el rhejd, jm.^d pe dades he^Snas dzi hiSe- 
breSende ; kai denas h'li, othe dzdnas. 
Now the day of women has come. In the olden times the 
gypsy chiefs brought the girls {i.e. .so to speak, to the 
marriage market ). Xow they don't do so. Those years 
are dead, and those folk. In the olden years the girls 
remained, sat by their father until they were twenty 
years old; whither they gave them (i.e. in marriage) 
thither they went. 

41. Kasave mamiMndc bnt pares ka navel, zn^r ! 

To suchlike people there will be plenty of money, forsooth '. 



REPORT OX THE OVPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 89 

42. Te si bnki kanaclidv, te iianai IcancUdv. 

If there is work I 11 stay, if there is not I '11 go. 

We have seen that the usual negative, in the present and 
past tenses, is in, inci, and in the future vai. Nai 
is also used to translate the negative in conjunction with 
the verb ' to be,' e.g. nai buki, there is no work ; nai sem 
fjorniU, I am not rich. Nandi is only used, in Vlach 
dialects, in dependent clauses, as in the above sentence 
42, or in the following: te nandi i^havo, pdle Jcankeres 
niatjge kdvdri, if it is not a boy, you will nevertheless 
make me a pair of bloomers.^ In non-Vlach dialects 
nandi can stand in a principal clause. Finally na, as 
meaning not, is only used in dependent clauses, where it 
is the only form admissible, in Vlach dialects, e.g. te 
na desus kadavd so kankerdvds ? If you did not give it, 
what should I do ;* In non-Vlach dialects na can stand 
in a principal clause. 

43. Savnro adathe sdmiz. 

Wo are all here. Note the plur. Snvord and the ending iz. 

44. Pe jxf yiresd, si. Ake Idko luxicsosko than kai kankerdjol 

luxi'isa, otke kanjxiMjttl pe \urdesa. 
She is upon her days {i.e. about to give birth to a child). 
Beliold her lying-in place, where she will become a 
mother, there she will lie with her child. 

45. Cheimdstf gelileste. 

In her maidenhood she went to him. (He was her first 
husband). 

46. Kdsave vudareste nianiU uasti piel pai, kai si nekeska. 

Kathdr sihtjor, kathdr-da jallajdr te xal. Mulo IdJco 
rom. Pliivli arhili. Lah-la mor 6hav6, o Sdli. Akand 
ov da mulo. Kadiridn phenil : ' Astardem me phrales 
6ari(jdtar, amd nai man kon t'astarel man me caygdtar, 
t'ljjgjarel man dndo limori.' Oi, i nekeska, pe dadeske 
vudareste cord sas, varend, pe rcmeske vudareste dikhlds. 
Gannemi^ vtidarestar evladi avudz achen. Pe phejdsa 
beselas, e rahmetlikdsa. 
Literal translation : At such a door a man cannot drink 
water, for she is a miser. From here she squeezes, and 
from here she licks, in order to eat. Her husband died, 

' I had promised Kara Hati a new pair of bloomers if my second child proved to 
be a boy. 



90 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

and she remained a widow. },[y son Sali married her. 
Now he too is dead. And Kadir says : ' I seized my 
brother by the leg, but there is no one to seize me by 
the leg. to carry me to the grave.' She, the miser, was 
poor at her father's door, don't you see, at her husband'.s 
door she saw. The children of a door which has 
not seen remain hungry. She sat with her sister, the 
deceased. 
Free translation of the ditlicult portions : ' In such a house a 
man cannot even get a glass of water, for she is a miser. 
From this side (pointing to her closed H.st, which she 
supposes is holding a piece of bread dipped in broth) 
she squeezes, and from this side she licks (j.6'. the broth 
which would ooze out, by a figure of speech much 
used to describe miserliness) when she wishes to eat.' 
The other pjussages, not immediately obvious to a stranger, 
are the expression to see, meaning to see wealth, to 
experience well-being. To see at one's fathers door is 
therefore to have a comforuible home, while the children 
of the poor go hungry, a platitude, this, which is quite 
de rujuenr in chatting Turkish. The reference to .seizing 
the man's leg refers to the fact that the poorer Moslems 
carry their dead to the cemetery without a cortin. Alto- 
gether the sentence, which was taken down from Kara 
Hati in exactly the form given, may be considered typical 
of the dialect in every way. The order of the words, the 
way of expressing herself, the Turkish verbs conjugated 
in Turkish fashion in the middle of an otherwi.so irre- 
proachable Homani sentence, the interspersion of loan 
words, all go to make this a very good example of the 
way in which the Moslem Sieve-maker uses his language 
in everyday conversation. 

47. Ando mxLro cafipe \av sovei. 
I swear upon my honour. 

48. Philtres jck viiddr, kerea jek sebdpi. 

You feed and clothe the inmates of a poor house, and 
thereby win grace (lit. you open a door and do a seMjn). 
(Turkish-Arabic thevab, divine grace, also the act 
whereby you gain it.) 

49. Pai-anipe, pos-anij>e, opre-vazdipemayqd mo kher. 

My house requires the carrying of water, of earth {i.r. 



REPORT OX THE GVPSV TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 91 

mortar), and the lifting of it (her house required re- 
building, and she wanted me to hire men to do this for 
her as she was too feeble to carry water and mortar herself). 

50. InH dikhes les ha\ige jalhdna, ama sar 2yhralor6. 

Vou don't look at him askance (lit. with a crooked eye), but 
as a brother. 

51. But Mehterja gelt Varndtar Stamholdsfe kdna o Dasipe 

ke'rdilo. Bikinde jio than,gele-tar. 
Many of the Drum and Fife Tribe of Gypsies went from 
Varna to Constantinople when Bulgaria was created 
independent (lit. when Bulgardom was made). They 
sold their ground and departed. 

52. El Ustadiirjeijge romnjd lncit<ilidj<m, na.^en. 

The wives of the Tribe of Craftsmen do not unveil before 
men, but they conceal themselves (lit. do not show them- 
selves, but run. The stricter Moslem women run when 
they see a man coming). 

53. Jiirui'tnlco gar inci avtl. 

There is no village without its wolf. {Avel is here used, not 
in the sense of to come, but to replace the orel which is 
lost to this tribe. Inri arel translates the Turkish 
oluviz. The sentence is the tran.slation of the Turkish 
proverb Kurtsii: kivi olvid:.) The meaning here was 
that even in a small village one finds at least one woman 
of evil repute. 

54. Lei [to trii.su I. 

He crosses him.self, makes the sign of the cross (lit. takes 
his cross). Although herself a Moslem, Kara Hati knew 
a good deal of the ways of Christians. Kivrd she only 
used in the sense of a Christian godfather. 

55. Rakjdi<a, nai gircoe risartl i buki. 

He does (lit. turns) the work by night, not by day. 

56. Kd-hadjdv amare mahcdid-dte. 

Do not come to our mahala. (The verb hadjavdv, to come, 
is of unknown origin and unrecorded elsewhere, to my 
knowledge. It cannot be the interjection hdide coupled 
with avdi\ or it would scarcely be used with the negative, 
as above.) 

57. Cumiden-pes, kernaren-pes. 

They kiss and fondle each other (lit. to make rotten, kerno. 
The expression is Turkish). 



92 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIHES OF NoRTH-EAST BULGARIA 

58. Kdslce avel dusljarel-j)e8 i Niska. Thudali but. ' Mnnde 
nd-dUchen,' phenel, ' ])anse grosoneyge kdna kandav, kon 
avil kanavel.' Marel la. ol Hmorja ko Soi^o, kai si Kiska, 
gurumni! Te na nikjol mdnde t'avel. Sa kid€l-j>e8 2>e 
amalinentaa. Ldke orba 16 te, dzanen jek avreske el doki. 
Luhi masks orba keren. Ameijge jartlmdz. Kovli tti 
Idki 6rba. Kovljarel manvMii. DeS maniU te orbimre'v, 
viruS, odol inani'iJ iiuH a^unen : jek romiti te orbisarel, 
korljol o mnniiS. 

(This virtuous tirade n^'aiust her nei<,'hbo«rs is anotlier 
splendid example of Sieve-maker Honiani.) 

B}' whomsoever comes Xiska causes herself to be 
milked. She is full of milk. ' I)o not look at me.' she 
says, ' if I \sill give myself for Hve groats, he who will 
come will come.' May the gravestones strike lier on the 
head, for she is Xiska, the cow! (Xiska was a Tinner 
woman, and in the Tinners' Dialect ni^ka means cow. 
I cannot trace the origin of the word.) Let it not be 
seen (lit shown) that she should come to me. She 
contimially assembles with her companions. Her word 
is to her (her speech is fit for her, not for others), 
they know each other's sins. Their speecli savours of 
harlotry. It is not fit for us. Her words are soft. She 
softens men. If ten men talk, and they be males, 
men hear them not: but if one woman speaks, man 
softens. 

For Kdske one would e.xpect the usual dative in -te, kdsfe, 
after the causative verb. .1 malin is a female companion, 
fem. o( (imdl. 

59. E tovereijge mdste tlion o a»phi, 6-zaman (Turk.) chinel. E 

vhurjeijge-da thov^n, k(\skhii kerdjol kdna nstaren ki 
jasiin. 
On the edge of the axe they put steel, then it cuts. They 
put it (use it) also for knives, it (the knife) becomes 
sharp when they whet it at the whetstone {astardv is to 
sharpen, as in Paspati). 

60. Akhdr les te dikhdv savi doS si leste, te phirel thanMe. 

Call him that I may see what is his guilt, that he may go 
about his business (lit, to his place). If one wanted a 
typical sentence to illustrate the sound of Romani, one 
could not do better than pronounce this one, with its 



REPORT OX THE GVPSV TUIUES OF NORTH-EAST hULGAUIA 93 

aspirated consonants. It was given me without any 
other context, by Kara Hati when I first arrived at 
Varna and asked her if she knew the word akhardv. 
61. Bolen les e zumjdte. 

They dip it into the broth or stew. 
(32. Balden len, ta s&ra leygo aldv thoven, el kivre,ja! 

They baptize them, and then they give them their names 
(lit. place the names), the godparents, to be sure ! 

63. Inci dzandv 80 \aUin ic. Bulandi mor ogi,6haglem. Ker- 

niarjge jek kerici kajdva tepidv, nd-ifuv Sekeri andre. 
I don't know wliat I ate yesterday. My inside (stomach, 
heart, etc., they are very vague about what is inside 
them) is upset, I was sick. Make me a bitter cup of 
colVee to drink, don't put sugar into it. 

64. IiUi avilern tumare inarneske,avdein hcmar<^ gugle iJdhdke. 
I did not come for your bread, I came for your sweet con- 
versation. (This was the usual preamble to begging.) 

6"). Te dav \ins mor borktute. 

Let me give a thrust into my bosom. 

Xins is the khendj of Paspati (>•. Paspati, p. 312). See also 
Sofia dialect (Cordilmdzis, J. G. L. 5^., New Series, iii. 182). 
QQ. Xmnureatar kere'n i holdini, i kivirindva (Turk.), makeii 
i sinjd khojdsa, te na phdbol i holdini. 
Out of dougk they make the cake, they smear the tray with 
dripping that the cake may not burn. 
67. Iklidi, phirdds hut, rakjdke kan\ds. 

She is tired, she has walked much, at nightfall we shall eat. 
This is the klundi of other dialects. The Sieve-makers 
appear to have entirely lost the adjective khino, having 
preserved only the verb. 

65. Arakhddjovavas lake hukjdke. 

I was busy looking after her affairs. (A literal translation 
of the local Turkish, inind huluniirdum, I was found at 
her business. But note that the Romani translation has, 
/ icas caused to he found, also that the Turkish dative is 
translated in Romani by the dative in -ke, in this 
case.) 

69. Kanarakhddjoias. 

We shall get on well together, shall meet and converse. 

70. Arakhdddo lake xurdo. 
A child was born to her. 



94 llEFOHT OX THE (iVPSY TUIBES OF XORTII-EAsT lULGARIA 



I 



71. Avercdndes kankineii do-ffro-<oue')jge je/c oki'o'n fhwl. 
Otherwise you will buy one oka of milk for two j^'roats 

(piastres), 

72. Jek hrss avgos mulS lesko dad. 
His father died a year ago. 

73. Mdndar bareder jthen si oi. 

She is my elder sister. The comparative in -der is only used 
in comparing age. 

74. l)nd)(iikjaril o rak'ii. 

The priest reads, i.e. prays. The Turks use i>kuinak, 'to 
read,' also in the sense of ' to pray,' hence the double 
meaning in many Romani dialects, and also the meaning 
' to exorcise ' and ' to tell fortunes.' 

75. E barralexko heiji dii hai. <ivel c roroxko ogi inld^l. 

A literal translation of the Tnrki.sh : zengin in h'ifi g>lind:i , 
fiLkaranin dzani cikar. Literally : Until the wellbeing of 
the rich man comes (is reached), the poor man's heart is 
eaten out That is: The rich man's comfort is onlv 
jiossible at the expense of the poor man's suft'ering. 
7(!. Xiu'dimata murdimdtn. 

Odds and ends, all sorts of small rubbish. 

All through the Xear East in all languages words may bo 
thus reduplicated, changing the first letter into //*. 
E.g. in Turkish comb mor<ib, stockings, and similar bits 
of clothing. Levantines even do this when speaking 
French: Toutcx sor(<'8 df rlinpeaux-mappinx, hats and 
such like. 

The Kalaidji Dialects (Tinners), (»•. A. 1 (!>)) 

Since beginning this report I have ama.s8ed a consideral)le 
amount of information concerning the Tinners which would have 
been better included in the rirst section. 

The dialect of the Tinners comprises several subdivi.sions. 
All tribes speaking it are Moslems. If the Drindaris are the 
musicians ^>ar c.rcellcnce, combining to form orchestras, the ballad 
singers, who accompany themselves on a rude form of mandoline, 
are recruited almost exclusively from the Tinner caste. This is 
so much the case that if one attempts to take down a song from 
the Ziigundjis or from the Sieve-makers, one will find that it is 
generally not given in pure Zagundji or Sieve-maker dialect, but 



REPORT ON' THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 95 

is, as it were, a parody of the Tinners' language, the speaker having 
heard the songs only in that dialect, which he, of course, knows 
but imperfectly. Hence the strange versions so frequently 
offered. 

It is difficult to get a text of any length in pure Tinner dialect. 
Evervwhere Turkish is creeping in, ousting the old Romani. Some 
of the tribe cannot count at all in Romani, others only up to four. 

Some subdivisions of this tribe have lost the aspirated /./<, 2^/*, 
and vk, rarely however the tli. (J and dz, as in a subdivision of 
Dri'ndari, are pronounced by curving the tongue round, and making 
it touch the beginning of the hard palate. Ihis is most often 
heard in the continually repeated expression : P^'k larho, very 
good or very well ; Turkish itek-exji, peki. As a general rule 
J)rindari ^'* becomes cm Kalaidji, hence the following forms : cinia, 
a little, raci, by night, huci, work, fikono, little, small, tadipo, heat. 
Some subdivisions have however the tfi. 

As in hri'ndari, the dj of phonetically purer dialects becomes 
:. As in Dri'ndari an i susceptible of MouUlh'umj causes a 
preceding / to drop out: kanyi, a comb, (jiid'i mol, sweet wine. 
But they have forgotten that there ever was an / in gndln and 
say f/u.d6 pai. 

Other forms, reminding one of Driudari, may be seen from the 
following: loi gar i, a VQd cow. (However, there is no nasalisation); di 
jua;i,give me ; o'rmdi sanzi, a worm-eaten plank {kermall sanidi) ; 
pi'iti't, married (Drind. p\ltu)\ piiMa, piiniva, I take in marriage, 
become married, 3rd pers. sing, pncdjol: piicardva, 1 give in 
marriage; disiirzias, it appeared (cf. Drind. diiilii); dumvdv and 
di<iivzardv, I show (cf. Vr'md. discird); piom, I fell and I drank 
(Drind. pihn and peim). 

Piddi, a street, and idvs, a thing, are both peculiar to this 
dialect. 

A'(t is the simple negative used everywhere, with no discrimina- 
tion such as we have seen among the Sieve-makers: e.g. na 
dzandva, I don't know. It is also the prohibitive. iVai is 
• cannot,' the nciMi of other dialects. 

To •'■o out and descend have been already referred to in the 
List of Test Words. 

The shortened gerundive is found : phiri phiri, by dint of 
walking, (phiri phiri joruldd. He walked a lot and grew tired). 
In the 3rd pers. sing, past tense the participial form, i.e. geld, avilo, 
etc.. is never used. They say gijds, ajds, rodids, dids. This is 



96 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

also the case with the passive verbs : tarsdz'uis, he was frightened, 
gardzias, he hid, harvdjas, nafsdjas, deijas, he went mad. Note 
pheinds, he she or it became full, where the <I has gone, as in 
Drindari. 

The I in such forms as vude, they died, geU, they went, tivih'. 
they came, is replaced by ii, as with Patkanoft's Russian Gypsies. 
Examples: mune, they died, aine, they came. Sometimes the 
singular is used for the plural : mujiis, they died. 

As in other dialects -it stems are often tacked on to genuine 
Romani verbs: na j)uc'izola vidndar, no one is asking for mo (lit. 
it is not being questioned concerning me), c?i/.<'ci««, he was seen. 
Note too: rodiziol, It in being looked for. Note the form ardp- 
Siara, from ampjovara, I am being found. 

The enclitic pronouns -lo, li (cf. Geruj. Komani rijafi-lu gar, 
he came not) are apparently found here. Forms recorded are : 
bestds-li, she sat down ; maciiis-li, she became dnmk ; pioN-le, 
they drank or fell. I am not aware that these forms have yet been 
recorded so far East as in the Ralkan Peninsula. 

There is no tendency, as among the Greek Gypsies to pro- 
nounce .s as 8. The more remarkable therefore are the following 
forms : pa^'iidm, I lay down, ^Kisiarddui, I put him to bed. In 
these words most dialects have .-T, but if I am not mistaken I'at- 
kanotV strangely enough again agrees with the Tinners in having 
s in just these words. 

Bre.^, a year, is continually being used in the sense of country : 
Jade bre.^nde, in these countries, places, hereabouLs. ' Here ' is b'ikd, 
and 'there' is kokd. These are looked upon as test words by the 
Gvpsies themselves, as the Tinners' die kaka, or 'come here,' is 
in Sieve-makers' language w khuthe, and in Drindari ela kitkd. 

The article o is used in the oblique cases, even when the 
feminine is meant: di les o {ei^ijge. (Nominative is rhui, not Hai 
or at.) 

And here nmst end this jumble of notes, from which it will be 
seen that the dialect, though in places dying out, has still pre- 
served its grammar intact. 

For examples of the dialect I must refer the reader for the 
present to the List of Compared Sentences. Later I hope to pub- 
lish, in Kalaidji speech, a good version of the famous 'Ballad of 
the Bridge' (see Paspati's Conip du Pont), together with other 
ballads in the same dialect, taken down from an old blind singer 
from Rustchuk. 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRI15ES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 97 

The Dialect of the Comh-Makers (v. B. 2 (a)) 

Of all the dialects mentioned in this Report, that of the Conib- 
uiakers is tlie nearest to those of the ' Lai ere Sinte,' of the Nomad 
Coppersmiths, recently in Liverpool, or of the ' Zidaris ' or Builders 
of Bucharest, and, in fact, to all dialects represented in Constan- 
tinescu's Probe de limba §i literatura tigcmilor din Romdnia, 
excepting that of the ' Ursari,' or Bear-leaders. These latter, 
by the by, may be related to the Gypsy monkey-trainers, and 
formerly boar-leaders, of Karnobad, west of the Bulgarian port 
of Burgas, who speak a dialect which is decidedly ' non-Vlach ' 
in the sense of that expression used in this Report. 

I have already said enough concerning the soft accent and 
pleasing voice of the Comb-makers. The dialect is not far 
removed from that of the Sieve-makers, with whom, and with all 
those speaking at all like them, the Comb-makers can converse 
in Romani with perfect ease, save perhaps with the Zagundjis, 
owing to the hitter's uncouth accent. 

Liku all Romani dialects this one has, as it were, constantly at 
its elbow, a gadzo language on which it models its syntax, and 
from which it borrows words and particles with the greatest pre- 
dilection. It is, in this case, the Rumanian language that is at the 
back of the Comb-maker's mind when ho is speaking, and a know- 
ledge of Rumanian phonetics, word formation, and syntax is to be 
recommended to any one who would speak fluently the language 
of this criminal tribe. Particles thus borrowed are, amongst 
others, iiiai (untranslatable), in such phrases as 'so mai Jeeves?' 
how are you ? (Rumanian ce mai fad?), nuniai, only, de mult, long 
since, a long time already, de dimine'rltsa, early, etc., decdt, since, 
and many more which are all replaced by corresponding Turkish 
or Bulgarian words in other dialects. 

Amongst dialectical peculiarities may be mentioned the 
following : — 

c and ch are replaced by s. They have the word Rai, so unex- 
pectedly absent from all the other dialects dealt with in this Report. 
They alone have also the well-known verb bus6l-pe, he is called, 
named. They use the Rumanian names of the week, to translate 
Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, just as do the 'Lalere Sinte' and other 
kindred tribes, and where the Sieve-maker dialects use either 
Turkish or translations from the Turkish, such as Paid o kurko, 
Monday, salija, Tuesday, carsambdva, Wednesday, j^^'^^^i'^bdva, 
VOL. IX. — no. II. G 



98 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF \ORTll-EAST BULGARIA 

Thursday. They have a special liking for the passive foruiation 
where the Sieve-makers use the reHexive : H kdna kaiinirdjon? 
how long are they going to continue fighting? Note also nji\ 
mngljol, it is not ascertainable, the nandi p^ndldr of the Sofia 
Erli'des. 

Ei grastd asddile means the horses are tired out. I have not] 
been able to place the verb. The reperdva of some western; 
dialects finds its counterpart in liperimos, remembrance, keep-' 
sake, souvenir, almost always heard in the dative, as: de inan\ 
kadavd lijMrimdske, give rae that as a keepsake. 

The Comb-makers use the abstract noun RaimSs in talking! 
to superiors, thus: Ko Raiinos, Your Lordship, thereby translat-! 
ing literally the Rumanian Dumnia-td or Dinnma-Vodstra. 
They also rarely give a positive or negative answer without adding] 
Xfiv ki khnl, literally may I eat your excrement, but which is 
apparently not any stronger than the English ' yes indeed ' or ' no 
indeed.' 

Te dildva'-, literally, may I go mad, is also constantly used in 
simple asseveration, seemingly having no mure meaning than the 
English ' Yes, by Jove,' and u.sed much more frequently. 

The following two letters will serve as examples of the dialect, 
which is not unfamiliar to students of Uoinani : — 



1. Letter, dated at Hustchuk, May 27, 1!»13 

Me gslem dndo liiiscuko. Xalt^m jyilem, nakadem but mi^to. 
Rikddv Uih' but sastimos, but .^tar vagdna saatijye po Mddno e 
Nikoldsko. mui-lesko ihipime. I jdk-leski, i stnjgo, rirrKmie. 
Thagdr Romand si, hai but lasd manii.i Hai bikddv-tuke 
shriipd but te primis kadale manusSs, le Mikinoa sar kai £an^8 
tnan kadd i lea. Vo kaacel-tuke jyeske-zuvlidsa. Rngi-nia, 
prirtiisdr le munvMs munr4 rigdtar. But rugi-ma tdk/i. Me 
kdna avela tnte te skris mdijgs Lisa jek HI dndi munrd them, i 
tnc kaskriv i tunie'rfgs. But sastipe mdndar. 

Translat ion 

I have gone to Rustchuk. I have eaten and drunk and pas.sed 
(the time) very well. I send you much health, many four wagon 
(-loads) of health from Milan, the son of Nicolas. His face is marked 
with smallpox. H is eye, the left one, is jammed in. He is a Gypsy 



IIEPOIIT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 99 

King, and an excellent man. And I send you written {i.e. recom- 
mendations) to receive much(i.f.'. well) this man, Milan, as you 
knojv me even so him. He will come to you with his wife. I beg 
yon receive the man from my part I beseech you much. 1 (sic) 
when he comes to you, you write me with him a letter to my 
country, and I will write to you (plur.). Much health from 



me. 



Note 



nikailem : a ciusative verlj, where possible, or in any case a transitive one, is 
lused in all Halkan languagL-s, not followeil b}- any accusative, in this well known 
phrase, which may be heard daily in Levantine and Halkan French, thus : ' 
Madame I nous avons i»as8o admirablement en vilKgiatur?,' or * Comment avez 
vous passt'-, bien ? 

2. Lottcr written at Shumla to Roman Ilia at Gelendzik, near 
Dobritch. 

lint sastimos r Anlaiisdtar. Te dea kadavd HI kai Vriatdki. 
J(i i'avei* mdndc Samnoste.ja te b'u'liaUs lord, xdske iiaSti hekiv 
kathe e -^{t/'o^e/t^sa, bi-lov^r/go. Te na gindls kai tl romni 
'irreste <jeJ[. Te naMl t'aesa tu, te hi^ales el lov4 kai ko sokro dndo 
/>/t«H/i/nn-v. Ltsko aldv Serbdn Ispdso. But sastimos le 
Nikalaestav ke kuninatdstar. Kai sanas uziU anddr grast, 
line el roiii, aHle e salentsa pe 2>ojdn. Romdne, viaygdv te 
mothds-inaijge anddr niunrd dad, o Rddulo, hai but sastimds e 
Duddtar. Ami sain ando Sumen. Hai bu' sastimos le Kos- 
tandindstar, Icai arakhddjol rinagi dndi Sumen. 

mJ'ranslation 

Much health from Ankutsa. Give this letter to Vristaki. 
Either come to me at Shumla, or send money, because I cannot 
sit here with the children without money. Do not imagine that 
your wife [the author of the letter] has gone to another man. If 
you cannot come yourself, send the money to your father-in-law 
in prison. His name is Sherban Ispasu. Much health from 
Nicolai, your brother-in-law. The men have taken that which 
was owing to them for horses, {and thus) they have remained with 
the children upon the field. Roman : (well-known Rumanian 
proper name) I want you to tell me about my father Radul, and 
much health from Duda. We are in Shumla. And much 
health from Constantine, who is always to be found in 
Shumla 



100 report ox the gypsy tribes of north-east uulcjaria 

The Dialect of the Zagundjis 

Nearest allied to the dialect of the Sieve-makers is that of the 
Zagundjis (Carrion- eaters), concerning whom I have given a 
somewhat lengthy notice. Although I have frequented this tribe 
perhaps more than any other, I am not in possession of any very 
vahiable texts wherewith to illustrate their speech. The story of 
'CAmpara Biijukltl (Jelebi Mustafa,' which is in their dialect, and 
has already been pubHshed {J. G. L. S., vol. vi. p. 141), and other 
frafrments which I have at times taken down, have lost half their 
value owing to the fact that the Zjigundjis' everyday speech is 
very ditlerent from that of the songs and fairy tales. The 
Ziigundji shouts and mutters, and jabbers and whines, but he is 
very incoherent, being unaccustomed to fi.x his mind on any one 
subject for more than a few minutes at a time. The more care- 
fully ho speaks, the nearer ho approaches to the dialect of the 
Sieve-makers. 

Among the few peculiarities of his speech, apart from his 
rough accent and general uncouthncss, which at once mark him 
out as of the Carrion-eating caste. I may mention the r, which is 
apparently a further development of ]' (see p. 71), and which 
seems to be produced by vibrating the epiglottis. The sound is a 
voiced one. Note too, as characteristic of the dialect, within the 
area covered in this Re|)ort, the past ten.se of the verb to give, 
dilem, dildn, dihi, etc., and that of to go, dJelem, dieldn, dzeld, 
etc., also d6=he gave. 

Specimen of the Bialect 

(Like Paspati 's Cmiie dtt, Pont this tale, or rather fragment of 
one, is rather rambling. It was dictated to me on the heights of 
Giinduz Cesme in the summer of 1913, and the Gypsy was 
impatient to finish in order to join in a drinking carou.se which had 
already started on the gra.ss some yards distant.) 

Si kai si jek phurl i^kivli, si kai si jek phuro phivlo. E 
phurjdko kher momdstar, e phurjesko kher loiiestar. Ake o phur6 
phenela: ' De Delia jek Irt'i^in te hildl e j)hurdsko kher, te nal^l 
mdnde.' I phuri-da phendds e Devleske : ' De Devla jek kham, 
te nasel o phiiro mdnde.' 

Ake, Efendimize, do o briSin, nasld ki pthuri. phuro phcnel : 
' ^[uk, phurije, kai ko vtiddr te pasljovav kairdf, khiijijiiem .' ' 
Pale i phiiri : ' XinH pirci, ndSov e vudarestar, in-kaimi-tut.' 



REPORT OX THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 101 

Ek drom, pdle dui drom, thai tsirdd le pai o umblald. Brts- 
taldl i phurl dndi lindri, nakel o jjhuro paid late. Rom romni- 
jdsa achilo. 

IhaUl i pliuri peske trdnda miskojd, \urdeijge thaneste. Lttjgi 
del kerel niamo thedardsa. Coren o xumel te kerdn-peske bokoljd. 
' Phureja, le adalen, uff/jarde dndo vo.^ te \asdon.' (A sentence is 
missing here.) ' ^for dad kaMd (^hiygjarel.' Leygi 2^hen phenel: 
' Bokhdilem.' Pdle e guruv kai ■)(indd ker^l lerjge bokoli. Thol 
leyge jak, pekeUi. Fidel o phuro Del: 'So 's kathe, kizim?'' Oi 
phenel : ' Go^ni si, mor phral^n xo\avdva.' 

Translation 

There is where there is an old widow, there is where 
there is an old widower. The widow's house is of wax, the 
widower's house is of salt. 

Behold the old man says : • Give, God, a (shower of) rain, to 
melt the old man's house (sic) that he may come to me.' And 
the old woman said to the God: ' Give. God, a sun (sunshine), 
tiiat the old man may run to me.' 

Behold, My Masters, the rain fell, and he fled to the old 
woman. The old man savs : ' Let me, old woman, lie at vour door 
to-nit,dit, I am wet through. Then the old woman: ' Heigho, 
begone from the door, I don't want you.' 

Once twice and she drew him up to the embers. The old 
woman forgot herself in sleep. The old man passed over to her 
side. They remained husband and wife. 

The old woman takes out thirty mice instead of children, 
rheir mother is making bread early in the morning. They steal 
the dough to makes cakes for themselves. ' (Jld man, take them, 
lead them out into the forest, that they may be lost.' ' M}' father is 
cutting wood.' Their sister says: 'I am hungry.' Then she 
makes them cakes from the dung of cows. She puts fire to them 
(puts them on the tire), it bakes. The Old God descends: 
• What's here, my girl ? ' She says: ' It is dung, I am deceiving 
my brothers.' 

Notes 

The tale is a hopeless jumble of many well-known fairy tales, good versions of 
which I have already published in this Journal (see the ' Sofia Gypsy Fairy 
Tales '). 

do: generally iu conversation clild. 

briataldi : probably for hriitdldili. 

mamo. The r is not usually heard in the grouping m, marn6, larnd. 



102 REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

The Dialect of the Parpl'lia (Gimlet-makers) 

The dialect is one of the purest of the primitive non-Vhich 
type. I have no texts, but have noted, in conversations with these 
Gypsies, various peculiarities, the most important among which 
may be set forth as follows. 

The verb is of the type of Paspati's Nomads. The long endings 
to the present are preferred : -dva, -esa, -ela, etc. The loan verbs, 
of which there are many, mostly from the Bulgarian, as these 
Gypsies are Christians, are conjugated from an -iz stem. Baki- 
vdva, which in most other dialects here discussed becomes huAa- 
Idva, is here pronounced hasdriini. The primitive verb laddva, to 
pack up, is found. As in all dialects considered in this Report, the 
verb dzivdva^ is missing, save in its participial and gerundial 
forms: dzivdo and dzivindd (hence also (/itrm</i/)^', life, health). 
The nearest form to Paspati's nikdva, namely niJddvd, is here 
found. Also nlkijovava and niJaddvn (see Test Word List). Tliey 
have such primitive forms as khin'dde, for the more usual khinih. 
Blandva is used for to lay eggs. Ttrjuvnva is their nearest form 
to Paspati's terdva, nowhere found in this district. 

They know the word riik, so rare in East Bulgaria, and they 
do not aspirate the /.-. (A sub-dialect of the Drindari language 
has rnkhd.) The Drindari sivamli, betrothed, is here siame, a 
participle in -rnenos. It may be the Modern Greek simiomenoa, 
signalled out, signed, the more so as this would be a literal trans- 
lation of the Turkish niiauli, used in the sense of betrothed. 

They have Paspati's word viiA, tlax, unknown even to most 
other non-Vlach dialects. Also the rare word zam, desire, men- 
tioned by Paspati. It is here found in the combination: Dzam- 
Ba\t te del u Del, recorded nowhere else hitherto, and used as a 
toast meaning: May God grant every one's wishes and luck to all. 
They often use davdri for a horse, a word not used in local 
Turkish in that sense. Turkish has no direct influence upon this 
dialect, which in most of its forms may perhaps date back to 
before the Turks' entry into Europe. (See Paspati for the origin 
of davdri.) 

For Thursday they use the Greek pefti. For Monday and 
Tuesday they have the Bulgarian words, with endings according 
to the genius of their dialect, fwnddnikns, ftdrnikos. For the 

' It is doubtful whetlier '/iir/:</a (sentence 5 below) should bi- confiidered as a 
Roniani verb wrongly conjugate*! from an -i; stem, dt whether it is a loan-word 
from Bulgarian iiv, the initial being pronounced df by analogy with rffi'ixio. 



REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 103 

Other days of the week they use the usual Romani words of Greek 
origin. 

The rare words dster and 'pasterni are found : both, however, in 
the sense of apron. 

Ijike Paspati, they have the prepositional combination: andre 
ko, andre ki, an ho, an hi, Icatdr ko, anddr ko, etc. 

I liave heard the following pronominal forms: adavd^ kadavd, 
kakd, akab.l, all meaning this, the feminine adaikd, and the 
.oblique singular adalke. 

The Test Word List may also be consulted with profit. The 
following are a few selected sentences taken down, using Bulgarian 
as the language in which to ask the questions : — 

1. Akakd neve jyostale kerdds-peske. He had new shoes made. 

2. Kihur kerla ndaikd katuna f What is the price of this tent- 

cloth ? 

3. katdnes katkd, attui nandi pani adalke yavesie. The tents 

are here, but there is no water in this village. 

4. KufnHindhela pdle jekh4 hcHtste. He will marry in a year. 
.5. Dzivizelu katkd. He lives here. 

6. Kiborkd khind aindm naStl phirdra. lam so tired I cannot 

walk. 

7. Cholila, kuJeUi kartoji. He is peeling potatoes. 

8. Clii)jfjjarela mas. He is chopping up meat. 

9. Thdbilo o sastokher. The whole house burnt down. 

10. / kaxni vaye hianehi. The hen lays eggs. 

1 1. Ackona pdla ko kher, o<loth4 terjoim. They are waiting behind 

the house, there they are staying. 

12. Sazdrla i 6ik anddr ko drom. He is cleaning away the mud 

from the road. 

13. Sdr'i rat gildhindoni, IjaSarddm, khelddm xoroskoro.^ The 

whole night I sang, played, danced the horo. 



The Xomad Iron-workers (AmfA) 

I have no notes on this dialect, but as far as I could judge 
from one short interview with the tribe, when I met them up in 
the Eastern Balkans whilst they were on the move in long Indian 
tile, each man behind his donkey, and each family behind its chief, 
their language can best be learnt by studying Paspati. It is pro- 

^ Scil., x^'d-'ikoro Lhelipe. 



lO-i REPORT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

bably nearest to that of the Parpulia, thoup^h with Turkish 
influence, as they are Moslems. 

Of the lanjjuaije of the Dinikovlars and of the Horse-shoe- 
makers I know nothing. The former is probably akin to other 
Moslem non-Vlach dialects; is certainly so, and phonetically pure, 
{i.e. unlike the Kalaidjis' and Drindari languages), if the thieves I 
met at the fair of Eski-Djumaya in 1915 were of this tribe. (See 
account above.) The Horse-shoe-makers, if they are Christians, 
and Sedentaries, probably speak a Sieve-maker dialect like the 
Christian Sedentary Cott'ee-pot-makers. 

The Dialect of the DEMiun.jfs (Iron-workers of Kazanlik) 

The Cerihaii, or chief of the Moslem Sedentary Gypsies at 
Varna, hailed from Kazanlik, a town lying south of the Shipka 
Pass, and the centre of the Attar of Roses district. He was of 
the tribe of Kazanlik Iron-workers. Unlike Varna, Kazanlik 
harbours, according to him, but one otlier Moslem Sedentary tribe, 
the Ba.sket-makers, brethren of the Basket-makers of Shumla 
(?'. A. 1 id)). From the CitHhi.H Osman. and from his brother, I 
learnt something of the Kazanlik dialect. It is of the non-Vlach 
group, and is extremely pure. It Is remarkable as being the only 
dialect hitherto recorded in the Balkan Peninsula possessing the 
full ending -pen, -ben for abstract nouns, as well as -mt'n fttr 
the Chrek participles in -menos, instead of -pe, -be, -me. It also 
has the emphatic forms vieja, tiija, corresponding in meaning to 
the French moi, Un. The genitive is fonned from the -karn stem. 
The past tense has no Mouillirung. The syntax is modelled on 
the Turkish as far as this is possible in the case of an Aryan 
language like llomani. The word Ao'v/, thing, so common in most 
European Romani dialects, and so rare in the Balkans, is here 
used. Here I have also found a preposition hitherto unknown, 
which exists also in Drindari, namely, astir or ast<ir-re, which, 
like the asdl of the Sotia Erlides, to which it may just possibly be 
akin, governs the dative in -/.v. and means for the sake of, or for, 
on behalf of. 

For the rest, details concerning this dialect can best be studied 
in the List of Compared Sentences. 

There is, however, one more peculiarity of this dialect to which I 
should like to give special prominence. It is that the usual Romani 
word pArai oc p)hal, a brother, is not generally used, and the word 



REPOKT ON THE GYPSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 105 

which replaces it is the Urdu word hhdi '. How this comes to be 
so I cannot explain. This Bai might be the Bulgarian Bai which 
is used as a sort of familiar title much as Oom in Transvaal Dutch, 
but which never means brother. 

Specimen of Dialect 

The following is a copy of the letter received by me from 
Osman Osmanoff, Ceriba^i, when he had been deposed from his 
throne with all other Bulgarian officials, high and low, upon the 
fall of the Nationalist {Xarodniak) Party in 191o. He had retired 
to Provadia, whence after some time he sent me this petition, 
asking me to intercede with the new Prefect, in order that he 
might be reinstated as chief at least in that small provincial 
town : — 

PhrAla ! — Me nnUi aviloin pcL^iil ti'ite. Tu mdyyr ma-xoljdze, 
me (jelum Pravadidte. Me tut isl te vakerdm ek urha : molizava 
tut te dzas kai UpraHtelo, te vakeres astdr mdijge te kerel vii 
buti t'ovdv Pravadidte aav tu dzanes aijgli sindmas othe, athe-da ; 
te keres mej'i buti. Tu-da te dzandv kai aan mo j^firal kai nandi 
80 te vakerdv. 

But sastipen e borjdke ve te t^Jddke, pdle e aasdke, saovefiyge 
saatipen-restijten. Te del o Del bu' saMipen mdndar, e Osmand- 
><tfn: Ac e Devle'sa. Me (jelom me khereste. — Sss Pocitanie, 

0. OSMANOFF 
2 Oktombri 1913 godina 
grad Provadia 

Notes 

6>ha and phral. In his own dialect he would say pherds and bai, but through 
having been chief of a mixed crowd of Tinners and Sieve-makers in Vaina for 
tweutj years on and off, his dialect has become somewhat contaminated. 

re. This is apparently an attempt at being literary. Ve, 'and,' is used in 
written Turkish, never in the local dialect. 

Translation 

Brother ! — I have been unable to come to you. Do not be 
angry with me, I have gone to Provadia. I much wanted to say a 
word to you : I beg you to go to the Prefect and speak to him on 
my behalf, that he may arrange the matter for me that I may 
become at Provadia as you know I was before there (in Varna) so 
too here ; please arrange this matter. As I know that you are my 
brother there is nothing (further) that I need say. 



106 REPORT ON' THE OYPSV TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

Much health to your wife and daughter, also to your mother- 
in-law, and to every one health and good luck. May God grant 
you much health from me, Osman. Remain with God. I have 
gone to my home. — With respects, - 

0. OSMANOFF 
2 October 1913, 
Provadia 

While in Varna I used to bo constantly receiving begging 
letters and others from ditierent tribes. Unfortunately most of 
them had been dictated to non-Gypsies, who did not understand 
what they were writing, and they were consequently often quite 
undecipherable. In one letter I was only able to make out that 
a certain horse-thief, who was dictating it, made his amanuensis 
write that he, the amanuensis, was a fool. 

Occasionally, however, a CJypsy was found who could write, as 
in the case of the following specinien, sent me by a horse-thief, 
but dictated to a Sedentary Christian, according to a postscript 
not here published, it will be seen that the writer wrote in 
his own dialect, which was the Sieve-makers' speech, only now 
and again putting down faithfully what ho was told, as when ho 
writes ' saatimoit.' 

Grad R<mjtul, 28 A' //1 3 godina. 

Phrdhx ! — But seldmo vuindar, e ^^^iknlindtar, e htrjdtar 
savorosendar-da, hem e Turesdir. Vov si akand but barvalo. 
Addl gesd Ins j^inda gdlbea, anddr ek-dui. But addmo mdndnr, 
€ Vlannwstar. But molisardv tut, bujakindd iiai man xc-rsliki, 
te bicfiales mdijge trin gdlhea, ciinkim si man gras, amd nai 
man .so tr ■x^iindjardv lestc. Take dikhdv dndo drom te bi^ales 
mdyge trin gdlbea, soske nai avei-tstar, kdste te diav ta te ma)jgdv 
pares tutar-ba.skd. Cilnki dzands e Tiirisko phral bichaldd' feske 
kl lefurja Anglidtnr, i tu-da bichdl mdijge trin gdlbea, ta ine 
kdna kazanirtm, kanrisardi^ len iiike. 

Akayui but sastimos bichaldv e borjdke ke romnjdke, e sokrdke. 
But molisardv tut sar kabul edersln o mektvpo te bi^haJes mdijge 
karSiliki. — Sss Pozdrav, 

VLACANO 

Notes 

E boridtar. From the /*o/v'. The word is in appoaition to e ,Vii-«/i»wf^ar. Hia 
sister was, by courtesy, bori to me. See below, where he semis ecl<im.% to my wife, 
who is bori to him. This is the universal use of the word, and is found also iu 



REPORT ON THE GYPSV TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 107 

Sofia. liiji-i is a 3<«ung bride, and also means daughter-in-law, the Turkish geUv, 
Bulgarian snax. You address any married woman as horije. To an unmarried 
girl you saj* generally ' ph^ne !' i.e. sister fmore rarely j,fte?i/;e). 

aiiddr ek-iui. Literally from one-two, i.e. from the Hokano Bare, the doubling 
money, making two coins out of one. 

Tithe dikhdv dndo droin. Literally, I look for you upon the road, i.e. I rely upon 
you. One would like to see in this a beautiful Nomad figure of speech, and, as a 
matter of fact, I know of no Bulgarian or Turkish efjuivalent. The Turkish found 
in the letter is as follows : — 

«f/(/m = salaams : /cm -also ; hu-jnkindd = %\iO\i\y, at present ; xo'c7fi = earnings ; 
f«ni/m = because ; 6a*X"<i = other ; c«Mi"i = because ; kazamrim = l earn, gain; knbid- 
€ti«*rsiu = receive ; mtktitb = \eiiev; kai-iUlk = hy retwrn. 



Translation 

Brother, — Many salaams from iiie. from Nikulina, the bride, 
and Croui all, al.so from Turi. He is now very rich. These days 
ho took fifty pounds by means of 'one-two' (the Great Deceit). 
Many salaams from me, Vlacano. I earnestly pray you, at present 
I am earning nothing, send me three pounds, for I have a horse, 
but I have not wherewith to feed it. I rely upon you to send me 
three pounds, for there is no other (lit. there is not from another) 
to wlioiii I may go to ask for money, other than you. For you 
know Turi's brother sent him a hundred leva from England, and 
you too send me tliree pounds, and when I earn them I will 
return them to vou. 

Now I send much health to the bride, your wife, and to your 
mother-in-law. I beseech you, when you receive this letter to 
answer by return. — With greetings, 

VLACANO 

It will be noticed that this Report is in many instances incom- 
plete. This is partly owing to the meagreness of available data 
concerning some of the tribes which are fast disappearing, but it is 
also due to ray hurried departure from Bulgaria in the autumn 
of 1915. 

In the absence of reliable historical references to the Gypsies of 
Bulgaria I have been obliged to confine myself to setting down a 
personal record of my dealings with the tribes, many of which I 
know but slightly. I thought it better to include all the tribes, 
however sketchy the description of some may be, for the sake of 
completeness, and in order to help future students of the Gypsies 
of the Balkans. 

The best way of procuring good examples of the dialects is to 
discover a good story-teller, His tales, however uninteresting they 



108 REPORT ON THE OYRSY TRIBES OF NORTH-EAST BULGARIA 

may appear, will be of value if only for the sake of the priceless 
sentences and words which are sure to be found interspersed here 
and there in the narrative. Such tales in the dialects of the Aidia, 
the Parpulia, the Kazanlik Iron-workers, the Dinikovlars, would 
certainly supply us with new and interesting;^ linguistic material. 
In the summer of 1914 I was able to procure several fairy tales in 
the dialect of the Dri'ndaris, from the village of Zeravna on the 
heights around Kotel (Kazan). The dialect in which they are 
told is not so typically Drindari as that of the specimens I have 
already published in this Journal, hut it is sufficiently near to the 
prototype Drindari to be worth while printing. 

It is (litHcult to predict the fate of Roman ipen in the Near 
East as the result of great upheavals. The race cannot be merged 
in the surrounding population. For that the Gypsies are both too 
numerous and too despised. Tiicre were few signs, before I left, 
of an awakening sense of nationality, and yet the wave of 
nationalism is not likel}' to leave them altogether untouched. If 
we are spared the sight of a Gypsy Imj)erialism,and a Gypsy Yellow 
I'ress, I cannot but delight in the thought thai a poet may arise 
who will know how to express in song and in prose the simple 
soul of his nation, in his own language, which in Soulh-Kastcrn 
Europe is as capable of cultivation without the help of foreign 
elements as are the Bulgarian, Modern Greek, or Serbian 
languages. What matter if this last statement rai.se a howl of 
indignant protest on the part of the ' d«'>bri patrioti ' and ' vat- 
andzis ' of the Balkans. The language is there, in all its archaic 
purity. Foreign elements have crept in, as they have in Bulgarian 
and Rumanian, but this fact has not prevented Botjev in liulgaria 
or Eminescu in Rumania from being great poets. And why should 
not the Romani nmse sing of the forest and heath, o ve.s o buy, and 
the wind that blows across them ? 

And now, to close this Report, I have an etymological discovery 
which I hit upon, as it were, by inspiration, at three o'clock in the 
morning of the 18th January 1918. It is no less than an elucida- 
tion of the word nais, which baffled Miklosich, and has, I believe, 
puzzled most students of Romani. The root of the word is the 
same as that to be found in the English word ' hygiene.' I can see 
with my mind's eye the looks of incredulity on the faces of some 
of my readers. And yet it is quite simple: the Ancient Greek 
adjective vyn]<; and the substantive iryLaa (both of which I believe 
lam right in stating are used in the modern Romaic), produced 



EDITORIAL 109 

a late Byzantine verb vyuLO). All such forms have for centuries 
past been contracted in the spoken language and are conjugated 
as follows: vyio), vyieU, vyiel, etc., send these are pronounced iyo, 
iyis, iyl, etc. Nais is therefore va v'yiel<; {na iyis), and means 
' may you be healthy, may you prosper.' It has its exact counter- 
part in all Balkan languages, including Gypsy, e.g. Turkish, sctg- 
olswn : Rumanian, sa Jil sdnatus; Bulgarian, da si zdrav; 
Drindari, te snktsis-tu ; Romani, te sdstjos. It will be remembered 
that sids, or sid, used in proposing a toast, has the same root 
origin : et? vyceuii', pronounced isidn, and of daily use among 
modern Greeks. I have heard Gypsies use both words in the 
same toast. The proposer says sid, the person toasted answering 
niais. 

The word nai.s is used in the ' Vlach "■ dialects of this Report, 
and is known elsewhere as far west as in the dialect of the ' Lalere 
Sinte.' Tuke is often appended, as an ethical dative, I suppose 
similar to diau-matjge. 

And now nais, phrdia, may you be hygienic, and dza 
DevUsa ! 



KDITOHIAL 



IN presenting the second portion of the Report on Gypsy Tribes 
of Xorth-East Bulgaria, which forms the sole article in this 
part of our Jounud, wo wish to explain that delays, directly or 
indirectly due to the war now happily over, have prevented the 
regular issue of the quarterly parts of the Journal of the Gypsy 
Lore Society. 

Owing to the enhanced cost of printing and of paper, we have 
been compelled. to reduce the size of the separate issues. It 
is hoped that the excellent quality of the work published will 
atone for the loss of a certain number of pages of printed matter. 

The further issue of the Journal will now follow in as rapid 
succession as possible. Consideration is being given to a sugges- 
tion that three years' issues should be published together in one 
vohnne, so that we may resume the preparation of our quarterly 
parts from the beginning of our financial year in July 1920. 

The Society holds a goodly stock of manuscripts and first 
proofs, and we look forward to much valuable and interesting 
material coming in for the future. The great disturbance of the 



110 EDITORIAL 

habits of the Gypsies all over Europe And the Near East may well 
brinof stransre visitors to our shores in greater numbers, and more 
frequently than in former years. However that may be, there is 
sure to be a good opportunity anywhere on the Continent for the 
study of tribes that have not hitherto been classed among the 
wide- wanderers. It is conceivable that the reconstruction of 
Europe may adversely affect the Gypsies, and lead to their 
extinction, or absorption, at a more rapid rate than in former 
times. At any rate, much remains to be gathered, and the oppor- 
tunity to gather more may soon have passed away. ^Ve urge on 
all who have the chance to collect what they can of Gyp.sy Lore. 

While the immediate need is to save what may be saved from 
the wreck of the old world that has gone from us, old records are 
not to be despised, and there is a wealth of information, and 
doubtless the solution of many problems, locked up in Parish 
Registers, Municipal Records, and the tiles of old newspapers. We 
want to publi.sh everything of this kind that is of value, and appeal 
to the public to help in this work. 

The financial position is by no means secure. .V vastly ex- 
tended membership would remove this anxiety. Former members 
have died, others cannot bo traced ; .some libraries that used to 
subscribe may, for all we know yet, have been destroyed. Our 
field of inquiry may seem but a limited one, yet it is world-wide. 
It has been said that the study of Gypsies is interesting becau.se it 
is of no earthly use to any one. Surely the Report of the Scottish 
Commission which we reviewed in our la.st issue demonstrates the 
fact that our work has really considerable value, not only to the 
politician, but to all who are engaged in what may be called 
humanitarian work. The study of Homani, furthermore, is of 
great use to the philologist, and has already helped to stimulate 
research into some of the lesser known dialects»of India. What 
Pott and Miklosich found no unworthy subject for their genius, 
cannot be thought of as beneath the notice of the student of 
to-day, now that our knowledge of the language is so much more 
extensive and exact than it was when these two giants of Romani 
philology devoted time and thought to it. 



NOTES AND QUERIES 111 

XOTES AND QUERIES 

2. — SHELTA 

MhUmi. I have been thinking that this is probably not mo bheul sa, but mo 
thuil-sa, 'in my eyes.' The pronunciiition would be exactly )nuilAa since in the 
Gaelic aspiratetl — or, as James Munro quaintly writes, 'asperated'— s practically 
dis;ippears from the pronunciation. D. F. de l'Hoste Ra.nkisg. 



3.— The Roimant Chai or Gipsies 

Can anv one tell me who wrote an article with the above title which appeared 
III the llhtsfrot'il Lomlon Ncwii for September 20th, 1S56 ? 

Tom Taylor's ' Gyjtsey Experiences ' were piiblLshed in the supplement of the 
same iiaper on November 29th, December 13th, and December 27th, 1851. 

Thoii^'h Imth Tom Taylor and the author of this article agree in the spelling 
Hiiiiiiiitinj they differ in the spelling of Gyfxnj. 

Were it not for the peculiar use of the word chai I should have been inclined 
to ascribe the authorship to my old friend the Reverend R. N. Sanderson, after- 
wards sub-ma>ter of I]>swiih Grammar School, and a jiast-master of Romani : it 
wa.s he who tirst >et Fnink (Jroome, a pupil of his, on the ijuest. Sanderson must 
have been about twenty-six or twenty-seven years of age at the date of the article. 

The author was evidently a serious student as well as a lover of the Gypsy 
rate. He mentions the labours of Vulcanius, Grelhnan, Riidiger, Barmcister, 
Marsden, Bryant, Richardson, Harriott (whose vocabulary the author had coni])ared 
with one made by himself), Kraus, Zippel and Pott. 

He could also put his true value on Borrow, of whose works he says : 'they are 
more interesting as records of personal adventure than valuable as contributions to 
t)hilology. The " man of words " is not to be trusted as a theorizer about language.' 

The author was, as I gather, also a student of thieves' slang ; he mentions the 
Katiiphi'Dii of Turkey, the Huiifiirka of Bohemia, the Gennania of Spain, the 
G'jnio of Italy, the Rothw'l.<ch of Germany, the Lanyue Blesquiu or Jifjot of 
Fntnce : and points out that none of these has anything to do with Romani. He 
also mentions the vocabularies of slang in the 'English Rogue,' and in the life of 
Bampfylde Moore Carew. 

In the course of the article the following words and phrases occur: hotchy- 
litchy; botim'-zimininsj ha»h; bashingroy parrakavo-t nt ; Tcamchava ta chuma 
tut, rinkui rahli or, sjiys the author, 'as spoken by the English Roumani koinma ta 
ihmitn y, yinkni rukli.' 

Till some other authorship is proved I shall be inclined to look upon the article 
s the work of my dear old friend. , D. F. de l'Hoste Ranking. 



4. — The Sevex Jaugoxs 

In J.G.L.S., Old Series, iii. 128, Mr. MacRitchie asks whether the phrase 'he 
understands the seven Gypsy jargons' {Bible in Spain, chapter xxxix), has any 
connexion with ' the seven languages' of Mr. Groomes Gypsy {ibicl i. 375). 

Now Borrow was fond of reading the Welsh bards, and may very well have 
come across the couplet 

£f a gar avxU ac araith, 
Ef a icyr synnm/r y soAth. 



112 NOTES AND QUERIES 

This is quoted by J. Morris Jones (A U'el-^h Grammar, Oxford, 1913, p. 34), who 
transhites 'He loves song and speech, he knows the nieaninrr of the seven 
[sciences].' It is sufficiently easy Welsh to have been readily intelligible to 
Lavengro, who may have filled in the hiatus wrongly. It would be quite in 
Sorrow's vein to put a Welsh phrase into the mouth of a Spanisk Gypsy. 

Frki). G. Ackeri.ey. 



. — Gypsies and Bears 



'I have heard of a case of alcohol being administered also to beai-s in a vtiy 
cruel, indeed a revolting, manner. This occurred some time ago when I had >,>>l[ 
several large European bears to a menagerie owner of the name of MalforteiiKr. 
This man used to wander about the country with an itinerant .-xhibition, and his 
cages were of a somewhat light make, scarcely strong enough to keep securely the 
exceptionally fine animals which I had soM him. There seemed considorable 
danger that, ))y gnawing, scratching, or breaking, they would soon succeed in 
gaining their liberty. He was therefore rather pleased when, soon afterwards, he 
fell in with a tribe of Gypsies, who were much interested in the b«trs and offered 
■to purchase them. As they had some ready money he completed the transaction, 
and waited witii curiosity to see how the Gypsies were going to take ovtr the 
captures, for they had no luggage an<l no cages in which they could keep the Itears. 
When Malferteiner asked them how they were going to manage it, they replied 
that he need not worry about that, they would look afttr it. He could not see, 
however, how they were going to avoid running into considerable danger, for no 
attempt had ever been made to tame the bears or break them in in any way. The 
first thing that the Gypsies <lid was to leave the creatures for a couple of days 
without food. They then brought a cask of salted herrings, which ihey jiiit in the 
cages. The bears did not like this food at all, but their dislike availed them 
nothing, for no other was offered them ; and on the third day their hunger became 
so acute that they devoured the herrings. Forthwith they liecame, of course, 
exceedingly thirsty, but no water was given them. Instead of water, bowls of 
sweetened spirit were placed before them, and this they greedily lapped up. They 
were then thoroughly intoxicated and sank into a very deep sleep. The Gypsies 
were now in a i>osition to carry out their evil i)urpo.<.e without fear. They walked 
into the cages where the formidable animals lay as harndess and motionless aa 
sacks of flour ; they extracted their large canine teeth with pliers, and cut away 
the claws from their paws. Even the deep wounds in the flesh which they made 
in this operation did not arouse the bears, and the Gypsies knew no pity. Kings 
were drawn through their noses, and to each animal two chains wire attached, 
one round the neck and another to the ring on the nose. Tlie creatures had now 
been altogether deprived of their weapons of offence and defence. They were i 
placed upon a cart, and the Gypsies drove off with thom. After many hours the 
unfortunate animals awoke and fell out of the cart ; but, held as they were by the 
chains, they were compelled to run behind. The Gypsies had taken the additional 
precaution of nuizzling them, but this was entirely unnecessary, for the poor brutes, I 
stupefied and weakened by pain, had no spirit left for attacking their persecutors. ' 
Let us hope that in these civilized days such barbarotis and cruel treatment would 
be impossible. Under enlightened laws the punishment would indeed be swift 
and severe for offenders of this detestable description.' 

The above is an extract from Biasts ami Mm, by Pari Hagenl>eck ; an abridged 
translation by Hugh S. R. Elliot .and A. G. Thacker, A.RC.S. (London. Reissue. 
London, 1911, pp. 22G-228. J. R. Moriarty. 

]~tl, Juhi 1916. 



I 



^ SEP 13 195/ 
JOURNAL oi^'J^HE'''' 

GYPSY LORE 

SOCIETY 



NEW SERIES 



V.)L. IX YEAR 1915-lG Nos. 3-4. 



I.— VALE ET AVE! 
By John Sampson 

OKRALIS SI mulo : me jivel o kralis .' — In recording the 
passing of the Second Series of the Gypsy Lore Journal it 
is a pleasure to be able to announce in the same breath its third 
Avatar under the presidency of Mr. William Ferguson. That at 
least is the name by which this Scholar-Gypsy is known to house- 
dwellers ; the Gypsies of England and Wales, who have so often 
hailed the arrival of his caravan and enjoyed the hospitality of his 
tent, are more familiar with the Romani obverse of his name- 
plate. The new Editor will be Mr. E. O. Winstedt of the Bodleian 
Library, the Honorary Secretary Mr. T. W. Thompson, and the 
Honorary Treasurer Mr. Fred Shaw — three names which our 
members will associate with devotion to the aims and interests of 
the Society. 

It is now thirty years since Charles Godfrey Leland, in 
reviewing the work accomplished by the original Gypsy Lore 
Society during the four years July 1888 to April 1892, showed how 
entirely it had justified its existence. With a limited member- 
ship, which never I believe exceeded a hundred, it had attracted 

VOL. IX. — NOS. III. -IV. H 



114 VALE ET AVE ! 

to its ranks most of the English and Continental authorities on 
Gypsy lore and language, and greatly advanced our knowledge of 
Romani in almost every province. 

For the Second Series on still weightier grounds of achieve- 
ment the same claim may be made. The interest in Gypsy 
studies fostered by the earlier Society had grown quietly but 
steadily. New workers had sprung up wherever Gypsies were to 
be found, and it was felt that the time was ripe for the revival of 
our confraternity. At a friendly meeting in an Edinburgh 
kir^ima this long-cherished project was discussed with the 
present writer by Mr. David MacRitchie, who with the collabora- 
tion of Mr. Francis Hindes Groome had acted as p]ditor of the 
old Journal. After a survey of the held, it was decided to invite 
Mr. Robert Andrew Scott Macfie to undertake the duties of Editor 
and Honorary Secretary, and the otier was accepted. To tlie 
ability, scholarly ideals, and tireless energy of this gentleman, the 
Society owes the wonderful success which attended our adventure. 
The membership increased from an original 91 to over 200. 
The Gypsy Lore Journal, enlarged in size, became the medium 
through which eminent scholars from every part of the globe 
communicated their collections, discoveries, and theories to the 
learned world ; and the high standard maintained soon met with 
universal recognition. For this ii may bo said in a word the 
members of the Society are beholden chieHy to the personality of 
Mr. Mactie. His genius for friendship which endeared him to 
all our number, from the learned expert to the youngest tyro ; 
his ingenuity in suggesting to each lines of study which might 
profitably bo pursued : his determination that every important 
article, whether anthropological, philological or historical, should 
be written by scholars for scholars made the Journal what it is — 
or what it was until the outbreak of the War, when our Secretary 
at once joined the British Expeditionary Force in the ranks of the 
Liverpool Scottish. Ilora novissinia, tempora pessimo, ! In 
spite of the endeavours of the Rev. T'anon Ackerley to keep the 
members together, the Society languished and collapsed, and on 
Mr. Mactie's return from his four years' service in France, it was 
decided to wind up its ati'airs. 

In a short survey like the present it is impossible to deal 
adequately or in detail with all ihe important contributions to 
Gypsy Lore which appeared in this our Second Series. To do so 
would be to reprint the admirable indexes, which we owe to the 



VALE ET AVE! 115 

industry of the late Sidney W. Perkins and Alexander Russell. 
Some of the ground covered may however be briefly indicated. 

Among vital additions to our knowledge of the Gypsy 
language we should place in the foreground Professor R. A. S. 
Macalister's Grammar and Vocabulary of the Nawar of 
Palestine, a collection which enables us for the first time to 
compare with confidence and certainty this long separated Syrian 
dialect with the better known varieties of European Romani. 
Reside this, though in a different category, are Professor Finck's 
analysis and specimens of Armenian Gypsy brought together from 
various sources. Patkanoff's specimens of the speech of the 
Transcaucasian Bosa and Karaci have also been made available 
for the general reader in the translation of Dr. Fearon de I'Hoste 
Hanking. Another notable dialect has been added to European 
Romani by the copious collections of Bulgarian Gypsy recorded 
by Bernard Gilliat-Smith, with special notice of the interesting 
Drindari tribe, first mentioned by the Marquis Colocci. The 
dialect (essentially Rumanian) of the Nomad Coppersmiths, who 
visited Great Britain eleven years ago, has been studied by several 
members, and their collections have been analy.sed by the Rev. 
Canon Ackerley. Among other Romani dialects investigated and 
illustrated in our pages by Dr. Henri Bi)urgeois, Johan Miskow, 
and others, are the Gypsy vernaculars of Russia, Rumania, 
Hungary, Catalonia, and Germany. From the contributions of 
several writers our knowledge of English and Welsh Gypsy has 
also been advanced. 

A great number of folk-tales and songs, the simple staple of 
Romani literature, have been added to the common stock in the 
Bulgarian tales of Gilliat-Smith, and the German examples of the 
same collector; the Russian, French, and Spanish specimens of 
Augustus John ; the French of Bataillard, edited by E. O. 
Winstedt ; the English Gypsy tales of T. W. Thompson ; the Scotch 
of Provost Andrew MCormick, and the Welsh Gypsy tales and 
riddles of the present writer. 

From past gleaners of Romani we have also learned much. 
New collections have come to light, and old and valuable published 
material has been made accessible in reprints edited with know- 
ledge and scholarship. Among the former are the vocabularies 
of Whiter and Norwood edited by Lady Arthur Grosvenor, and 
an early glossary of Flemish Gypsy (before 1570) edited by 
Dr. Kluyver; among the latter, the earliest specimen of the " 



116 VALE ET AVE! 

Gypsy language, the Anglo-Romani of Andrew Borde (1542), 
edited by H. T. Crofton ; the later vocabularies of Bryant, Harriott, 
Bright, Samuel Roberts, and Tom Taylor, as well as the dialect 
of the Scottish Tinklers. Lastly, in his learned article on ' The 
Secret Languages of Ireland,' Professor Kuno Meyer has repro- 
duced in facsimile the two pages of Ddil Laithne containing early 
Irish references to Shelta. 

In Romani philology, apart from the informing notes which 

accompany so many of the papers, we have had special articles 

of great importance. Professor Finck has dealt very thoroughly 

with the phonology and etymology of Armenian Gypsy. Professor 

Wackernagel in his paper on ' (J and J' supplements and corrects 

the phonetic equations of Ascoli and Miklosich. Gilliat*-Smith by 

his discovery of the f in Bulgarian Gypsy has lit upon a new and 

surprising Indian survival, since this sound would seem to be 

identical with the rhotacized cerebral r (from d) of the modern 

Indian languages. In his comparison of the Gypsy personal 

pronouns with those of the Indian dialects, Professor Woolner 

prosecutes a fruitful line of research, which should lead to more 

definite conclusions as to the original ' beat ' of the Gypsies than 

have hitherto been reached. The reviews of Professor Kuhn, 

Professor Finck, and Monsieur de Goeje and the notes of many 

of our members are also of great value. 

From the historical side, in his articles on 'Gypsy Nobles,' 
'Gypsy Privileges,' and other papers, David MacKitchie has con- 
tinued the illuminating studies associated with his name. H. T 
Crofton has greatly supplemented his useful ' Annals of English 
Gypsies,' and continued his chronicle of the 'Aftairs of Egypt.' 
To Signor Spinelli we owe the early annals of the Gypsies of 
Modena ; and to Professor Leo Wiener articles on the ' Gypsies as 
Fortune-tellers' and ' Ishmaelites'; to E. O. Winstedt a helpful 
paper on the Gypsies of Modon, and to Harald Ehrenbore 
Frederick Wellstood, F. W. Brepohl, and Mon.seigneur J. de 
Carsalade du Pont noteworthy studies. Early tracts, proclama- 
tions, and ordinances dealing with the Gypsies have been re- 
printed and translated, while Pischel's suggestive Heimat der 
Zigeuner has been presented to English readers in the version of 
Miss D. E. Yates. 

In the fascinating field of anthropology we have had many 
notable contributions. Dr. Eugene Pittard supplies an authori- 
tative monograph on the physical features of the Gypsies. From 



VALE ET AVE! 117 

Messrs. Winstedt, Thompson, and Atkinson, Dr. W. Crooke, the 
Rovs. D. Bartlett and H. H. Malleson, and Miss M. E. Lyster we 
have interesting accounts of Gypsy customs, forms, and cere- 
monies. To Dr. Crooke and H. L. Williams we owe recondite 
articles on the pseudo-Gypsy criminal nomads of India, and to 
John Myers some curious information on Gypsy Drab. We have 
had papers on the ' Gypsy Lathe ' by Julius Teutsch, and on the 
Tarot or Gypsy Cards ' by Dr. Ranking. Gypsy costume has 
been interestingly dealt with by H. T. Crofton and Sir J. H. 
Yoxall. By the labours of the Rev. George Hall, our Secretary, 
and others, we have been able to print elaborate genealogies of 
English and Welsh Gypsy families. 

Regional, statistical, and descriptive accounts of various Gypsy 
tribes and bands have been given in our pages. Arthur Thesletf 
has treated exhaustively of the Finnish Gypsies, Gilliat-Smith of 
the Gypsies of the Rhine and the Lalere Sinte, and Macfie of the 
JJalkan Gypsies, with some of whom he travelled across Bulgaria. 
Andalusian Gypsies have been described by Gallichan, Bosnian by 
Gjorgjevi('', Danish by Miskow, Oriental Gypsies by Sinclair, and 
the Nawar by Pere Anastas. 

In the remlm of art, we have had literary articles by Arthur 
Symons and ( 'harlcs Bonnier, Romani poems by Sir Donald 
MacAlister, delightful presentations of Gypsies by Augustus John, 
sketches by Joseph Pennell, and photographs by Fred Shaw, 
Lastly, published as special monographs of the Gypsy Lore Society, 
we should mention the invaluable Gypsy Bibliography, a work 
initiated by >Lactie and compiled with scholarly care by Dr. 
G. F. Black; the Index of the Old Series by Alexander Russell; 
and R. A. S. Macalister's Grammar and Vocabulary of the 
Language of the Nawar already mentioned. 

Since 1914. Meriben, that merciless Ceribasi, has taken 

grievous toll of our members. 

' For some we loved, the loveliest and the best 
That from his Vintage roUint; Time has prest, 

Have drunk their Cup a Round or two before, 
And one by one crept silently to rest.' 

Reading the roll in order of membership, we have lost in 
Archibald Constable a ' verray parfit gentil knight,' and a staunch 
upholder of the Society ; and in Justin Huntly M'Carthy a gifted 
dramatist, novelist and translator of Omar Khayyam and Hafiz. 
Professor John Ferguson of Glasgow, in addition to his reputation 



118 VALE ET AVE! 

as a chemist (and alchemist), was a distinguished archt<3ologist and 
bibliographer, and a member of the Royal Company of Archers, 
the King's Bodyguard for Scotland. Dr. Ernst Kuhn's world-wide 
renown in the field of comparative philology is familiar to all : the 
Society remembers with gratitude his courteous and helpful 
response to every appeal. From the roll of original members the 
names of Colonel W. F. Prideaux and ('aptain Frederick Huth 
are also missing. Our members will regret the loss of Sidney 
Perkins, a genial personality and ardent linguist, who has 
repeatedly placed his knowledge of little-known languages at 
the service of the Society. The Rev. Herbert Harry Malleson 
will be remembered for his inimitable sketches of English 
Gypsy Life in his Napoleon Boswell. So, too, will his, and our, 
old friend the Rev. George Hall, raciest of raconteurs and author 
of The Gypsif'a Parson. The genealogies of English Gypsies col- 
lected by the latter gentleman, as illustrated by his comprehensive 
pedigree of the Herons, are a model of their kind. Our esteemed 
member Captain Charles Dennis Fisher fell at the Battle of 
Jutland, and with his name may be remembered that of Captain 
L. G. Baker. In Monsieur L«'on (.'lugnet and Senor I'rofessor Don 
Samuel Quevedo we have lost two scholars, whose Gypsy studies 
extended to almost every dialect. Arthur Thesletl", in virtue of 
his Worterhuch des Dialekts dcr Jinnldndischen Zir/cuner, takes 
rank as one of the greatest of Gypsy collectors. Tiie dialect, which 
he records in so faithful and scholarly a fashion, is of the utmost 
interest, especially to English tsiganologues, who will recognise in 
Finnish Gyp.sy a close kinship with older British Romani. The 
roll of dead members would not be complete without adding the 
names of Lord Moreton and the Honourable Robert Phillimore. 
Two other names of scholars, contributors to our Journal though 
not members of our Society, should not be forgotten, that of 
Reinhold Urban, Zigcunerfreiind and editor of the Hcfte fur 
Zigeunerkunde, and that of my one-time near and dear friend 
Kuno Meyer, to whom, as in the Transylvanian folk-tale, Death 
came indeed as a lover and a friend. 

Te soven mUtv ! 



STCDIES IN ROMANI PHILOLOGY 119 

IL— STUDIES IN ROMANI PHILOLOGY 

By Alfred C. Woolner 

I 

Personal Pronouns 

/NTRODUCTORY XOTE.—ln so far as the solution of the 
problem of the origin of the Gypsies can ever be determined 
by philology, that solution, I am convinced, will be largely bound 
up with the progress made in working out the history of the Indo- 
Aryan vernaculars. Since the days of Miklosich a great advance has 
been made in Indian philology. There is still a great deal to be 
done; but, thanks especially to the labours of Sir George Grierson, 
the editor of the Linguistic Survey of India, a new field of 
research has been opened up, and the story of the Indian 
languages has become at once more complex and more coherent. 

The publication of certain volumes of the Survey has been 
unfortunately delayed. The minute phonetic study of Indian 
dialects is only in its infancy. We may yet expect more informa- 
tion about the dialects in the Apabhramsa stage that followed 
(linguistically) the stage known to us from the literary Prakrits. 
There are many MSS. in the more archaic forms of the modern 
vernaculars yet to be critically examined. 

Hence it may seem premature to attempt any revision of 
Romani philology. 

Nevertheless there is already material available that seems to 
warrant a modification of views widely prevalent. 

Romani as it left the Indian area was not necessarily an 
unmixed dialect, hence it is desirable that any general conclusion 
should be based on an open-minded examination of particular 
features and groups of words. 

In the case of certain such particulars, the evidence seems to 
me to point to two conclusions with regard to at least the main 
part of the structure of the Indian stratum. Those conclusions 
would be (a) that this Indian stratum is in essentials later than 
Apabhrarnsa ; (6) that it belonged rather to the Central area than 
to the extreme North- West or the Hindu Kush. One of the 
features that seems to point to these results is supplied by the 
personal pronouns. 



120 studies in romani philology 

Personal Pronouns ^ 
1st Person 

Nom. Singular. me = ' I.' 

As in many Indian and Iranian languages, Romani has replaced 
the original Nominative by an Oblique form. 

The Nominative was in Sanskrit aham, in Prakrits aham,}ia'>ji, 
in Apabhrain^a haii (through *ahakain, Pischel, Prakrit Grammar, 
p. 293). From this came the archaic Hindi forms liaH, hfl, and 
old Panjabi had. It has survived in Sindhi da,d, Gujarati ho, 
and Rajasthanl ha ; also in several Himalayan dialects, e.g. Kulul, 
Camea]i (and SsTsi) JiaO, Kangri, Gujurl hn, Bhagati an, and others 
h<%, d, de. In other languages this Nominative has been replaced 
by the Agent form derived from the Old Indian Instrumental. 

Sanskrit, mayCi ' by me' ; Prakrit, mae (Magadhi, ma'i, me). 

Apabhrainsa, mai. 

Hindi, Panjabi,- mai: Rajasthani. mai and mn; Bihari, m*'. 

Himalayan dialects, ma!, mr, and mfi. 

Marathi, ??ii; Or'iy h, m>i : Bengali, 7nut; Nepali, ?/Kf. 

Apart from the nasalisation, the Romani form coincides with 
Bihari and Himfdayan dialects — Punchi, l)hundi, Tinaull. 

We may compare also the Agent forms distinct from the 
Nominative of Kashmiri and allied dialects, m?, mPh, also used for 
Accusative and Dative. The Agent forms have in fact tended to 
fuse with the Accusative-Dative ; Ardhamagadhi me (coincides 
with Sanskrit enclitic Dative-Genitive), Apabhraipi^a mai. Hence 
if Romani me is Indian we have a wide area whence it could have 
come ; but the general indication is against Sindhi and Gujarati, 
where the old Nominative survives, and the Oriya and Bengali, 
where the characteristic forms have the vowel u. The form could 
be Iranian. Persian and Baloti replace the old Nominative 
(represented by Pashtu za, Kurd <iz) with what was originally an 
Oblique form. 

Persian, man; dialects, me, mun, men, mu, mi. 

Baloci, man, ma. 

The pronominal system as a whole, however, seems to be 
Indian rather than Iranian. 

^ Miklosich, Alundarten, xi. '22-24. 

2 The pronunciation of the Panjabi word differs from the Hindi, but this 
difference is unimportant here. 



STUDIES IN ROMANI PHILOLOGY 121 

Of the Dardic forms, Kashmiri mS has been mentioned, but 
this is still distinct from the Nominative hdh. Sina has tnd, 
Maiya rnd. Other forms are still more distant, e.g. on6, awa, 
ya, unzu. 

Oblique Singular, man = ' me.' 
Ace. man. 

Dat. mande for *man+te. 
mange for *man-\-k€. 

In India the Oblique form is generally derived from a Prakrit 
Genitive ( Beames, Comparative Grammar, ii. 305). 

Prakrit, majjha\ Hindi, mxLJh ; Gujaratl-Marathi, maj. 

Apabhr., mahft ; Bengali, Oriya, Old Hindi, mo; Maithili, mold ; 
Nepali, mo\ Sindhi, mft, ma. 

Beames proposed to bring in Rom. man here by writing it ttkI ; 
but (a) Roraani has mo for the Genitive ; 

(6) the vowel of man appears to be short ; 

(c) Romani is generally letii< nasalised than Sindhi. 

Roinani man may have been borrowed from, or influenced by, 
the Persian man, which was originally Oblique, is still so used in 
the Genitive construction dost-i-man 'friend of me = my friend,' 
and is used as an Accusative in some dialects instead of mard 
(for *man-rCi). 

It is, however, probably unnecessary to go out of India to 
account for the n of man. Whatever be the correct derivation, in 
each case n or corresponding nasal appears in the following 
Indian forms. 

Dative-Acc. Gujurl, rnana; MandealT, mun-jo (also mri-jo); 

Kangri, Cameall, minjo. 

Ablative. Baghati, man de ; Chotil Banghall, mange. 

Genitive. Curahi, mindd ; Pangwali, mxin. 

Gujuri is the dialect of the nomad race of Gujurs closely allied 
to the Mewari dialect of Rajasthani ; the others are Himalayan 
dialects {vide Grahame Bailey, Languages of the Northern 
Himalayas). 

The parallels mande and mange, though used for a different 
case, are striking. We must, however, not conclude that the 
Romani forms are necessarily derived from the Northern 
Himalayas, for many of these hill dialects are derived from 
Rajputana. (See however Grierson's Pahari volume.) 



122 STUDIES IN ROMANI PHILOLOGY 

Genitive Singular. Possessive adjective =' my.' 
Romani mo ; also niinro and mro, all declined. 
Pott., i. 229, quotes also miro, Anglo-Rom. meero. 
Miklosich (xii. 9) for the Greek dialect munro. 
Von Sowa (Mundart d. slov. Zig., p. 68) also gr. mindo, mg. 
mundo. 

Of these forms we may distinguish mo from the rest. 

(1) mo is an old Oblique form used for the Genitive and also 
other cases (see under man above). It was so used in Old Hindi, 
as in Chand Bardai about the fourteenth century a.d. Romani 
declines it by analogy with minro, amaro, etc. 

This Oblique mo appears in Bengali, Oriya ='me'; combined 
with Genitive suffix r, mor ='my' in Bihari, Bengali, Oriya, 
Assamese. Dat.-Accusatives are formed from it by Curahl mdni, 
Pang wall modi. 

The Sindhi mOhnjo and Bihuri. Braj, molii show more archaic 
forms nearer the Apabhrainsa maJin. 

(2) minro was regarded by Miklosich as having developed in 
Romani from *man-ro (x. 15). Von Sowa considers it to be 
Indian. 

The suffix ro, rd, etc., is widely used in India to form the 
Genitive adjective of the 1st and 2nd person pronouns. (In 
Rajasthani it is used with nouns.) Thus we have merau, Braj, 
Kotguru; mero, Rajasthani, Gujuri, Nepali; mdro, Gujarat!, Mar- 
wail ; merd, Hindi, Panjabi; meru, Bhadrawahl. The Eastern 
languages have the short form mor. 

For the element miii we may compare Curahi mindd and the 
Dat.-Acc. minjo in Cameali and Kangri. 

Granting that min is in each case derived from man, this 
change, a becomes i, is common in Hindi and Panjabi, still more 
so in Sindhi and Rajasthani. 

Apabhr. ganSi 'he counts,' Hindi ^/gin, Rom. gen. 

Apabhr, khanani 'a moment,' Sindhi khin, Hindi, Panjabi, etc. 
chin. 

By way of contrast may be added Marathi mdjhd (Apabhr. 
majjhu, Pkt. majjha) ; Kashmiri mion" and similar forms in related 
dialects in the Northern Himalayas ; Sirajl mi no. 

For the Dardic languages other than Kashmiri Sir George 
Grierson gives I, ima, um, endei, mind, mai, md, mei, rne, and in 
one dialect mo. None of these apparently is declined. 



STUDIES IN ROMANI PHILOLOGY 123 

In the Iranian languages there is no such possessive adjective^ 
In Persian one can say dost-i-man or dostam for 'my friend.' 
In some dialects min and mun occur instead of man. A suffix 
-ro, -rd occurs and is added to Oblique forms to form Dative- 
Accusatives corresponding to mai^d. The forms in other Iranian 
languages are of no assistance. None of the Iranian forms are 
declined. 

Hence we may conclude the Romani forms are of Indian 
origin. mo is evidence against Sindhi or Kashmiri, minro, 
mindo (like mande above) suggests relationship with the Hima- 
layan dialects, the history of which has yet to be worked out. 
miro may be a later derivative of minro (for dropping of n cf. 
ydro = egg, with anlu, Apabhr. andu) or a weakened form oi mero. 
mro obviously from miro. mun for min or man could have 
originated anywhere along the line. 

Nom. Plural, amen = ' we.' 

Russian Gypsy, according to Patkanov, has ame. 

As in the case of the singular, the Old Indian Nom. plural (Skt. 
vayam and some Pkts. vaain) has disappeared in Romani and 
nearly all the modern Indo-Aryan vernaculars. It survives in 
Kothai r and Co', and in Eastern Kiiithali de (Himalayan). 

Most Prakrits had amhe, Apabhramsa amhe or amhai,\n origin 
an Oblique form ( = Vedic asmd, Dative and Locative). 

Derived from this we have amhe in Oriya ; dmhi, Marathi ; 
mlie, me, Rajasthani ; ame, Gujarati; ame, Bhili; dmi, Bengali; 
hdmi, Nepali ; hdme, Outer Siraji ; hame, Baghati, etc. ; ham, Hindi ; 
and others. 

From the same or another form such as the Apabhr. Genitive 
amhahd, hamd in Rajasthani, and amd in Bhili. 

A distinct family is foilnd in the North-West. 

Sindhi, Panjilbi, asi ; Lahnda, assd; Kashmiri, as^ ; Himalayan 
dialects dsse, asl, asd, as, as, dh. 

This group is derived from the Old Indian Genitive asmdkam 
or from asme, by assimilation -sm- becomes -ss-. Grierson has 
suggested that it is due to Dardic influence. Besides Kashmiri 
other dialects of the Hindu Kush group have the forms ase, ispd ; 
also asei = ' our,' as = 'our,' zd = ' our.' Others again show ema, 
yema, ama, hamd, dbi, heh, he, ma. 

Here again the evidence favours the Central languages as 
against the N.W., the extreme East, and the South. 



124 STUDIES IN ROMAN! PHILOLOGY 

Some of these amhe languages develop a secondary Oblique 
form by analogy with nouns, e.g. Hindi, Nom. ham, Oblique hamS. 
Yery possibly Romani has done the same. If so, am^, as in 
Russian Gypsy, is the original Nominative and amen is a secondary 
Oblique corresponding to the Oblique plural of nouns. 

Of Iranian languages Kurdish has am, dme ; the others can be 
safely ruled out in this case. 

Persian Tnd (dialects Jiamd, amd, omitting irrelevant varia- 
tions), BalocI md, and so on. 

Oblique Plural, amen = ' us.' 

Identical with the Nom., as in several Indian languages. 

Hindi hamu has been quoted above. It is a secondary Oblique 
by analogy with the noun. Cf. Nom. plural (jhore ' horses,' 
Oblique plural (jJun-u. Other Oblique forms of the amhe group 
difter only slightly from the Nominative (frequently ending in a, 
while the Nom. has c) and add nothing to the elucidation of amen. 
Similarly with the as group. 

Apart from the addition of rd for Dative-Accusative, as in 
Persian and Balori. the Iranian forms are mainly identical with 
the Nominative. In the Caspian dialects of Persian there is a 
variety of forms, including amd = ' we,' ami=' us.' 

Genitive Plural. Pos.sessive adjective, amaro = ' our.' 

The Old Indian asmdham (Gen. pi.) is represented in Apa- 
bhrainsa by amhaJtd : to a derivative of this was added a Genitive 
(adjectival) suftix. Thus with suthx -ro, -rd, or -r we have Braj, 
hamdran: Hindi, /ia?n<7m ; Gujarati, »77n«ro; Bhili,a77<dro; Nepali, 
hdm.ro; Rajasthani, mhdro, nidro; Kangii, Sasi, mhdrd ; Hima- 
layan dialects, mdhrd , mdhro ; Bhojpuri, /m77iar; Bengali, d7n<xr; 
Oriya, amhar ; with suftix -no, Rajasthani mhcino ; with -ko, 
Rajasthani mhdko: and with -tsa, Marathi dmatsa. 

Other forms are derived from the as form of the pronoim. 

So Panjabi cTsd-rfil ; Lahnda asst7f/rt ; Sindhi asd-ji'o; Himalayan 
dialects assdrd, sard, asrd, etc. 

Kashmiri has sdn^' ; Kishtawari, asun ; other Himalayan dialects 
hieun, h^n, hin. 

Other Dardic languages have forms identical with the Nomina- 
tive, and amo, homa, mo. None of them are declined. 

There is nothing in the Iranian languages that could have 
produced amdro. 



STUDIES IN ROMANI PHILOLOGY 125 

Again the indication is to the Centre, not to N.W., East, or 
South. 

2nd Feraon 

Nom. Singular, tu = ' thou.' 

This form is found in Indian, Dardic, and Iranian languages. 
. In India tu, tUy ta, tu are derived from Apabhramsa tuhil. 

Oblique Singular, tu- (Ace. ^uO = 'thee.' 

From Apabhramsa tail (Genitive) came Old Hindi to, a form 
which is still widely spread. Tu or tu appear in Marathi, Rajast- 
haiif, and in the Halabi Dat. tuke. Apabhr. tujjhu accounts for 
\V. Hindi tujh, for tvj in Braj, Gujarat!, and Rajasthani, and for 
'>idz in Marathi. 

Apabhr. tai for Panjilbi tai, Rajasthani tal, Bhili te, Nepali fa. 

Sindhi toho, Braj toJii (also Bhojpurl) are more archaic. 

None of these elucidate tut. Kalina said this was short for 
tn-tal 

Conceivably it could be a shortened form of tiite. 

There is a possible Indian derivation. Bhatefdi has the Agent 
and Prepositional form tuddh, Mandeali (another Hill dialect) has 
Ablative tuddh-ge and tut-the. This base tuddh should become 
inth in Romani. 

It is evidently related to the Apabhramsa (Genitive) tudh-ra 
given by Hemacandra, who lived in N. Gujarat in the twelfth 
century. Pischel described the form tudhra as remarkable 
{Prnkrit Grammar, p. 297). 

Dardic and Iranian dialects throw no light on the question. 

Genitive Singidar. to, tinro = ' thy.' 

These rhyme with mo, minro. Similarly in India we find mera 
terd, mdro tare, mar tor, in Old Hindi mo to, in Sindhi muliv^ jo, 
tuhn jo, and so on. Similarly Curahi mindd tindd. 

Two Dardic dialects have fo, the rest and the Iranian languages 
have nothing that can be compared with the Romani or Indian 
forms. 

Nominative Plural, tumen = ' ye.' 
Russian Gypsy tume. 

Probably tumen, like amen, is a secondary Oblique, and tume 
is the orisrinal Nominative in Romani ; while tume itself, like the 



126 STUDIES IN ROMANI PHILOLOGY 

-parallel Indian forms, is by origin Oblique. The Old Indian 
Nominative yuyam has completely disappeared. Even in the 
Prakrits it was replaced by tumhe, tuhhhe, or similar forms. 
Apabhram^a tumhe (Oblique tumhahd). In the modern vernaculars 
Ave find tiunhi in Marathi ; tumhd in Oriya ; tumJi in Eastern 
Hindi ; turn in AV. Hindi, etc. ; and in some of the Hill dialects 
tuine, tunie, tumme, tomme. Due apparently to rhyming with the 
1st person plural are Gujaratl tain, tame; Bhili tamd; RajasthanT 
tarn: Gujurl tam ; and other variants with the vowel a. 

Another method of treatment is shown in Sindhi tahvJ, tahl, 
etc. ; and Rajasthfini the, the. 

A separate group (corresponding to the as group in the 1st 
person) is represented by Panjabl f ?<-«!; Lahnda tutisd; and Hima- 
layan forms tus, tftsse, tusse, tusl, etc. 

Of the Dardic languages Kashmiri has toh\ one thft, another 
tus. The rest are entirely different. Persian .hvynd and other 
Iranian forms are irrelevant. 



OhUque Plural, tiimni = ' you.' 

Some Indian dialects distinguish an Oblique form, e.(j. Marathi 
tumhd or tumhd (Nom. tumhi), derived from Apabhrain.sa 
tumhahd ; but in the majority Nom. and Ace. are identical. 
The two forms are often used indifferently for either case, e.g. 
Bhili tamd or tamr. 

Genitive Plural. Possessive adjective, tumaro = ' your.' 

Apabhramsa tumhahd -{-su^ix -ro, cf ainaro. 

Clearly shown in Braj, tuvihdran : W. Hindi, tuinhdrd ; Old 
Awadnu77i/uTrd, modern tumdr: Oriyfi, tumhar ; Eastern Hindi, 
tamhdr; KiSthall, tumdhro; and Bundeli, tumdro. 

With a for u, Old Gujaratl tamhdran, modern tahmdro; 
Rajasthani, Bhili, tamdro. 

Shorter forms are Marathi thdro, Rajasthani thdro (also in 
the Hills). Other Genitive suffixes are shown by Panjabl, tumddd, 
tuhddd; Sindhi, tahvd jo\ Marathi, iumtsa; Kiishmiri, tuhund. 
Then there is a tus group, e.g. Kulul, tussdrd; Tinauli, tu^dd', 
Kishtawari, tusun. 

The Dardic, besides Kashmiri, have one thd. The others are 
strikingly different, e.g. §d, vima, asen, hem>d, mCy mimi, j>lsa, 
4ei. 



STUDIES IN ROMANI PHILOLOGY 127 

3rd Person 

Singular Plural 

Nom. Masc. ov (yov). Fern, (oi yoi). ol (yon, yol). 

Oblique Us. la. len. 

The Indian languages have, strictly speaking, no 3rd person 
pronouns, but have always used one or other of the demonstrative 
pronouns. 

So in Sanskrit tarn meant ' him,' ' that one ' (masc), or could be 
added to a noun ' tarn rdjCinatn ' = ' that king ' or ' him the king.' 

sah, 50 = he, sr(= she, tad = it, that; all oth'>r forms being 
derived from base ta-, rarer syah, syd, tyad (the rest from tya), still 
rarer and defective the base ena. 

Prakrit used the bases sa-, ta-, ena-, and also Ha. 

Apabhramsa also asa- (Skt. asau, ' that,' masc. noxn.),aha (s^h) 
and apparently awt- (a pronominal base also found in Iranian), e.^. 
oi nom. plural. 

Forms from sa- still survive, e.g. Hindi so (generally a cor- 
relative). 

From fa- Old Hindi had taun, Oblique tas. Modern Hindi 
has Oblique tis; several Hill dialects tSs; Sindhi tCihi, and so on. 

From aha- or ava- Hindi n,d, luh (Chand uh): Urdii wuh, 
Braj u'o ; Panjabi uh ; Sindhi a, hu, ho ; Bengali ; Bihari 6 or u = 
he, she, it. Oblique ut^, uh. Plural ve, wai, un, etc. 

The derivation of some of the forms is made the more obscure 
by the development of a formal principle by which the vowel u 
indicates the far-demonstrative ' that ' and the vowel i the near 
' this.' This was not the case in the older stages of the language. 

Turning now to the Romani forms, we find 0^ = ' he ' corresponds 
to the widely spread o (cf. *y/sov to sleep, Hindi ^so ; ^thov to 
wash, Hindi dho). 

lj^inii has o, the other Dardic dialect forms with s-, t-, or of a 
diftereut type. Middle Persian had 6, Modern Persian or u, 
Kurdish dii. 

oi 'she.' This is possibly a Romani formation, as the Indian 
languages rarely distinguish 'she,' but Apabhramsa M = 'they' 
shows the possibility of a derivation from *av%. 

The plural ol is for *on (I for n is a common change in India 
and in Romani), and the form yon is nearer the original. Cf. 
Hindi un, Awadhi on, Bhadrawahi on, etc. 

Kashmiri timan is from a different base; nor do any of the 



128 STUDIES IN ROMANI PHILOLOGY 

Dardic dialects show any form resembling on or ol. Among the 
Iranian forms the nearest are Persian ilnd (Central dialect) = 
literary e§dn ; yun (Caspian dialect) and Kurdish avdn. 

The forms in 1-, les-, la-, len- are generally referred to the Indian 
base ta-, so that les corresponds to Himalayan Us, Old Hindi tas, 
Prakrit tassa. There seems, however, to be no other instance of an 
initial Indian t becoming I in Romani; whereas in Armenian 
Gypsy, where initial d->l, this happens every time, lui = diLi, leval 
= deval, etc. Hence it seems more probable that the I- forms are 
derived from the Prakritic base na-. 

At the same time it is true that t- forms are very common, 
and nam, etc., was never common in literature, and does not seem 
to have survived in India. 

les-, la-, len- follow the nominal declension. 

The forms discussed above are all used as separate words. 
The Iranian languages use also pronominal suffixes, e.g. Persian 
da.^t-ash ' his hand,' didam-at ' I saw thee.' 

The same phenomenon is apparent in nearly all the Dardic 
languages. It is also found in India in the North- West, as in 
Sindhi and Lahnda, and in the East as in Bihari. In these the 
pronominal alHx is commoner with verbs, but instances with 
nouns occur, e.g. Sindhi piu-jne ' my father,' ^?ia-g ' thy father,' 
piu-se 'his father,' piu-va 'your father.' 

The question of pronominal affixes in Romani verbal forms 
maybe reserved for consideration in connection with the conjuga- 
tion of verbs. In the meantime I believe it is true that Romani 
does not add pronominal suffixes to nouns. 

[Nofc. — Since the above was written more volumes of the Linguittic Survey 
of India have appeared : in particular, Vol. viii. Pt. i., Sindhi and Lahnda; ' 
Pt. II., Dardic or Pisacha Languape.s ; and Vol. ix. Pt. iv., Pahari and GujurL 
Some of the dialects quoted above have been more accurately classified, and some 
modifications made in the names used. 

Kotkhfii is a small stiite about 20 miles E. of Simla, lying in the Kiuthali area, 
and divided between the Simla Siraji ami Baran dialects. 

Kotguru (Kotgarh), about 20 miles N.E. of Simla, lies in the area of Grierson'» 
SodOchi. 

Chotfi Baughali is a dialect of Mandeali spoken in the extreme X. of the 
Mandi State. 

Dhuiidi is a dialect of Lahnda spoken in the hills of the Uazara district near 
Muree. 

Tinauli is a dialect of Lahnda spoken in the Tinawal hills on the West of 
Hazara district.] 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 129 



III.— THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR 
VOCABULARY . 

By Eric Otto Winstedt 

OF the several places in England which have been famous as 
the haunts of Gypsy fortune-tellers, none has been quite so 
well known or so long patronized as Norwood. Indeed, though it 
may be true that Margaret Finch was, as she is generally said to 
have been, the first of the actual Norwood Queens, one may almost 
claim that our knowledge of English Gypsies begins there. For 
Norwood is in the parish of Lambeth : and the earliest detinite 
reference to a Gypsy in England — as distinct from Scotland — is 
one in a work of Sir Thomas More ^ to an ' Egypcian ' woman who 
was lodged ' at Lambeth and told fortunes in 1514. She was 
said — though perhaps only on her own authority — to have left 
England. But it would seem that she had successors : at any rate, 
when Pepys says that his ' wife and Mercer and Deb. went with 
Pelling to see the gypsies at Lambeth, and have their fortune 
told,'- he speaks as though Lambeth were a well-known resort of 
< iypsies, as Norwood was later. And it is probably this Lambeth 
colony which, soon after Mrs. Pepys' visit, shifted further from the 
town into the woodland district that stretched on either side of 
Norwood from Dulwich to Penge and Anerley. Possibly Dulwich 
was the next step, as on June 2, 1687, 'Robert Hern and 
Elizabeth Bozwell, king and queen of the gipsies,' were married at 
Camberwell,^ which then served as the parish church for Dulwich. 
Norwood, however, may have been their centre even then, since 
the chapel of Norwood does not seem to have contented the Gypsy 
potentates when they wished for a church ceremony. Bridget, 
a later queen, was buried at Dulwich in days when the College 
was not too exclusive to include ordinary parishioners, as it had 
been till the end of the seventeenth century : * and her aunt, 

* A dyaloge of syr Thomas More (London, 1529), bk. iii. ch. 15, fol. xci. recto; 
and J. G. L. S., Old Series, i. 7. 

- Pepys' Diary under the date Aug. 11, 1668. The connection of this colony 
with that at Norwood has been suggested by several persons, e.g. T. Allen, The 
History and Antiquities of the Parish of Lambeth (London, 1827), pp. 425-9 ; J. 
Larwood and J. C. Hotten, History of Signboards, 3rd ed. (London, 1866), 
p. 503 ; J. Timbs, English Eccentrics (London, 1866), vol. i. pp. 192-3. 

^ Lysons, The Environs of London, vol. i. (London, 1792), p. 83, and Groome, In 
Gipsy Tents, p. 109, to which I am indebted for several other references. 

* Lysons, op. cit., vol. i. p. 107. 

VOL, IX. — NOS. III.-IV. I 



130 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

Margaret Finch, was buried at Beckeiiham, though both died at 
Norwood. It is, therefore, perhaps wortli pointing out that the 
Beckeuham parish registers contain a ' curious entry in November 
1711, the meaning of which we have not been able to ascertain, 
" old Goody Musgrave (vulgo dicta ye Queene's mother)." Whether 
the old lady was so called from her resemblance to, or whether 
she claimed to have been foster-mother of, some Royal Personage, 
or possibly the mother of the Queen of the Gipsies, is uncertain.' ^ 
As the Queen of England at that time was Caroline of Anspach, it 
seems improbable that the inhabitants of Beckenham would have 
been familiar with the features of her mother, who presumably 
lived in Germany : nor is it very likely that her foster-mother 
would be living at Beckenham : and why the old lady should 
have been called the ' mother of the Queen,' if she had been the 
foster-mother of any other royal personage, is incomprehensible to 
me. There remains the possibility of her being mother to a Queen 
of the Gypsies, though one must admit that it is odd to say 
.simply 'Queen' when one means ' Queen of the Gypsies,' even in 
a district where Gypsy Queens were familiar. Also the name 
Mu.sgrave is not a known Gypsy name: indeed, I can only quote 
three instances of vagrants with a similar name — Anthony Mus- 
grove, who was sentenced at 'High holborne' to be whipped and 
burned on the right ear for his vagrancy in 1573 ;-^ 'William 
child of William Musgrave, beggar, wandering in the cuntre; his 
wyffe being delivered of her child-birth at Hibsapittes,' baptized 
November 23, 1578, at Leeds :^ and Cbristofer Mu.sgrave a 
poore travellinge boy,' buried at Whitburn, Noveniber 22, 1624.* 

Still comparatively little is known of Gypsy names of this 
earlier period, and the name of the only known Gypsy King con- 
temporary with Goody Musgrave and in the same locality, George 
Powell, who was buried at Newington, aged forty-six, in 1704 or 
1705,* will probably strike most people as equally improbable. Yet 

' R. Borrowman, Beckenham Past and Present (Beckenham, 19J0), p. 24. 

^ Mid(lkst.r Covril;/ lifcordx . . . ed. by J. C. Jeaffroson, vol. i. p. 81, iimler the 
date 17 March, 15 Elizabeth. It is, however, a name in ii.se among the iMJtters of 
the north of England. 

' Leeds Parish Church Registers (Publications of the Thorcsbj' Socict}'), vol. i. 

( Fr&iinccs \ 
part i. (Leeds, 1889), p. 22. The entry reads : - ti; ,,• .but Fraunces is partly 

erased and seems to be repeated from the previous line. 

* H. M. Wood, The Jit'jislers of Whitburn . . . Durham (Sunderland, 19Ui), 
p. 142. 

^ Aubrey, Xalural History and Antiquities of the County of Surrey, Tol. v. 
p. 136, and J. <!. L. S., iv. ;il9. Mr. G. Waine of Newington kindly informs me 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 131 

it was a Gypsy name in the seventeenth century ; for ' on the 21 
December [1658] Robert Poole and Mary his wife, of " Rumnell," 
Kent, and WiUiam Finch and Madlyn his wife, of Church Tantun, 
Devon, were sent in [to the house of correction at Marlborough] 
for travelling up and down the country "in the tire of Egiptians." 
They all had "sharp correction," and were sent home with 
passes.' ^ Nor is that the only evidence for the clan, as the follow- 
ing most unusual notice, which appeared in Mist's Weekly Journal 
for March 12, 1726, shows: 'This is to give Notice, that there are 
several idle vagabond People called Gypsies, and distinguish'd by 
the Name of Powell's Gang, about fifty in Number; and are lodg'd 
and entertain'd at a House in Kent-street, and in Bird-Cage- 
Alley opjjosite to the King's-Bench, that go about the City and 
>Suburl)s pretending to tell Fortunes, and and [sic !] thereby cheat 
and impose upon young People, and the Ignorant and Unwary. — 
Now any Person tliat has been defrauded or cajoled out of Money 
or Goods by them, are [sic!] desired to apply to William Jones 
at the Raven and Bottle in the Old Mint, who will help you to 
them, and also to a Person that will be at the Charge of prosecut- 
ing them.' No prosecution appears to have followed ; so perhaps 
the gang got wind of that vindictive person's threats and dis- 
persed. One of them was in Oxfordshire a few months later, as 
^William a Son of one Powell a travelling tinker' was buried at 
Watlington on December 20, 1726 : and that is the last occurrence 
of the name, as a Gypsy surname, known to me, except for ' Mary 
Powel, a Traveller,' who was buried at West Wycombe, Bucks., on 
July 12, 1766.- 

The tirst of these references is of special interest, as it suggests 
A connection between the Powells and the next royal dynasty — 
the Finches — in the childhood not only of George Powell but 
Also of Margaret Finch, the best known of the Norwood Gypsy 
Queens, and the one from whom the inn called the Gipsy House, 
or the Old Gipsy House, took its name. Of her and her eccen- 
tricities manv accounts have been cjiven : ^ but none of them adds 

that the register gives the date of Powell's burial as 3rd January 1705/6, a year 
later than the tombstone copied by Aubrey. 

^ Report on MSS. in Varioiiii Collection.i (Historical MSS. Commission), vol. i. 
Records of Quarter Sessions in the County of Wilts., p. 136. 

- Both these references are taken from the bishop's transcripts of the registers, 
now in the Bodleian Library. 

* E.'j. D. Lysons, The Environs of London, vol. iv. (London, 1796), pp. 301-2, 
where the entry in the Beckenhani parish register is quoted — 'Margaret Finch, 
buiied Oct. 24, 1740' — aud an account of her niece and granddaughter is given ; 



132 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

anything, except the exact date of her death, to the excellent, 
though rather incoherent, account given at the foot of the 
engraving executed in 1742 by H. Roberts from a painting by 
J. Sraeho in 1739, and printed and sold by W. Richardson. Antient 
and Modern Print Warehouse, 174 Strand. The print represents 
her squatting in the opening of what is generally referred to as 
her tent, though the catalogue of portraits in the British Museum ^ 
elects to call it a cave.- In reality the print leaves no doubt that 
it was a tent-shaped wattled hut made of boughs of trees and 
shrubs, and perhaps covered with turf. Such huts erected over 
a shallow hole in the earth were in use by Gypsies on Finchlc} 
Common as late as 18 IS.* The lettering beneath the print reads: — 

' Margaret Finch, Queen of the Gypsies at Norwood. 
This remarkable person was Born at Sutton in Kent, lived t<) 
y* Age of 108^ Years, after a Course of Traveling y*^^ Kingdom, as 
Queen of y'^ Gypsie Trii»e, her Place of residence was at Norwood 



J. Caulfield, Portrailo, Mimoirtt, and Chnracttrs of IttmnrkaUe Pertons, from . . . 
168S to t/ir mil of the litxin of tltonjt II., vol. iii. (London, 1820), pp. 247-9. witli a 
copy of .Sraeho s portrait, engraved by Cook ; R. Malcolm. Curiunifim of Bioijyaiihy ; 
T. Allen, op. cit., p. 429; A. M. Galer, Xorirootl and Dnlwirh (London, KS90), pp. 
10-11 ; R. Borr.iwman, oji. ril., p. .SI ; Grmjme, op. ril., pp. 115-16. 

' F. O'Donoghue, Catalmjio of F.wnnvid /irilish I'orlraiis . . . in tin British 
Muatum, vol ii. (1910), p. 21 J 

- Actual caves are atteste.i as iJypsy dwellings at (Jranada {J. <•'. L. S., Old 
Series, i. 2H7, ii. 15t2), at Cromarty (ibid., iii. 59), and for Austrian and possibly 
German Gyp.sies (Gnllmann, H i»torii>cher Vtrnuch, 2'« Aufl. G<>ttingen, 1787, p. 71. 
and Heister, EthnoijrajihxHcht nnd ge/icliirhtliche Xotiztn, K-'nigsberg, 1842, p. 2,'>). 
The two latter refer also to constructed caves, made either by digging up the 
ground or hollowing the side of a hill. In the first case a roof, and in the second 
an extension, made of boards and sticks and covered with straw and turf, is atlded. 
These constructions are saiil to be thick and to resemble Kalmuk 'tents,' which are 
described by Grellniann as having the appearance of ' hoopeil " petticoats. Margaret 
Finch's hut looks rather like a section of such a 'beehive 'shaped construction of 
boughs, thickened wiili straw and turf. Compare also A. F. Crosse's description of 
a colony of Gypsies near Klupotiva: 'The huts are formed of plaited sticks, with 
mud plastered in the interstices ; this earth in time becomes overgrown with grass, 
and as the erection is only some seven feet high, it has very much the appearance of 
an exaggerated mound <«r anthill' (Hound about tht (arpatfiiatui, ls7S, p. 143). 
Cf. also H. Smith, Ttnt Life with the Gypsies (London, 1873), p. 518. 
- H. Smith, I.e. 

* Her age is given as lO'J in most contemporary accounts, e.g. the Gentltman'a 
Magazine, vol. x. (Nov. 1740), p. 571, among deaths in October, 'Margaret Finch, 
called the Queen of the Gypsies, at Norwood, aged 109"; the Champion, No. 151 
(Oct. 30, 1740), 'Last Friilay Night, after a Funeral Sermon, was buried at 
Beckenham in Kent, Margaret Fy tch, for many Years called the Queen of the (iipsies : 
Her great Age, which was 109, excited the Curiosity of several to see her at her 
Palace, which was no farther off tlian Norwood, by which Means she had collected 
together a considerable Sum of Money, which enabled her Comitanions to hire a 
Hearse and Coaches, when they proceeded to the Place of her Interment with no 
inconsiderable Solemnitv.' 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 133 

about eleven Years before her decease ; & by her constant Custom 
of Sitting on y« Ground with her Chin restino: on her Knees (as 
above drawn) her Sinews became so Contracted, that she cou'd 
not extend herself or change her Position, so that when she died 
her Corps was forc'd to be cram'd into a Box sizeable to her usual 
Posture, and therein convey 'd in a Hearse accompany'd by two 
Coaches to Becknam in Kent, where she was decently inter'd with 
a Funeral Sermon Preach'd on y* Occation in y*^ Year 1740: y® 
Expence of w'^'' was defray 'd by y® Neighbouring Publicans.^ Tlie 
OJdness of her Figure & y® Fame of her Fortune telling, drew a 
vast Concourse of Spectators from y^ highest Rank of Quality, 
even to those of y® lower Class of Life ; these with many other 
Circumstances (too tedious to Mention) render her an Object of 
Admiration to this & all future Ages.' 

If the account of her age is correct, Margaret may be the person 
mentioned in the following entry in the Cranford parish registers: 

* Finch, wife of Finch, being delivered of three children, 

two of whom were baptized ; one called Faith, and the other Hope ; 
and the third was intended to be called Charity, but died unbap- 
tized. The two were baptized the 22d day of Feb. 1666, but 
they died and were buried together the next day, being the 23d 
day of February, 1666-7.'- Nothing is said of the parents being 
travellers ; but the omission of their Christian names points that 
way, as the parish clerk would have known those of his fellow- 
villairers. Finch itself is an exceedingly unusual name amoncf 
Gypsies, and I cannot quote any other earlier parallel for it, 
unless ' Johannes Finch, peregrinus,' who was buried at Birch- 
ington, Kent, on September 23, 1615,^ was a Gypsy. But 
' peregrinus ' is a very vague term. Nor is the name at all fre- 
quent later, though there are still a few travellers who bear it. 

One might infer from Pococke's statement in his travels, 
written in 175-i, that Norwood used to be a famous resort for 
Gypsies,* that it was deserted for a time after Margaret's death ; 
but in 1750 the Gypsies were there and received a visit from the 

' From this one infers that the information was obtained at Norwood at the 
time of, or soon after, the funeral— and from a publican. 

2 Lysous, Historical Account of those Parithes in the County of Middlesex tvhich 
are not Described in the Environs of London (London, 1800), p. 30. 

^ The Parish Regi)<ters of Birchington, Kent. Printed at the private press of 
F. A. Crisp (1899), p. 127. 

* The Travels . . . of Br. Richard Pococke . . . ed. by J. J. Cartwright, Clarendoa 

fioc, 1S89, voL ii. p. 17'2. 



134 . THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

Prince and Princess of Wales,^ during the reign of Margaret's 
niece and successor. Of that successor nothing seems to be 
known save that she died in her hut at Norwood on August 4, 
1768,^ and was buried at Dulwich, Even her proper name is 
not mentioned, the newspapers of the time merely referring to 
her as ' Bridget, Queen of the Gipsies,' and the entry in the 
Dulwich College register, quoted by Lysons,^ being ' Old Bridget 
the Queen of the Gypsies, buried August 6th.' She is stated to 
have left behind her a fortune varying in different accounts from 
£200 to £1000.^ This estimate did not include all she left, as 
a year later one finds a notice in the papers that ' A few Days ag<> 
a Gypsey Woman, known by the Name of Lady Lincoln, found in 
a Hole of a Wall, at her Lodgings in Kent-street, Seven Dials, the 
Foot of an old Stocking, in which was carefully tied up Twenty 
Pounds seven Shillings and Sixpence, all in Silver. The lodgings 
were inhabited, during the Winter Se;ison, for nearly thirty Year.*^ 
last past, by Old Bridget, the Norwood Gypsey, who died about 
three years ago in the same Lodgings.* Wednesday Lady Lincoln, 
the Gypsey, gave an Entertainment at a House called Allen's in 
the Wood, near Dulwich, to about twenty People, in Memory of 
Old Bridget, imagining her late good Fctrtune was owing to her. 
Lady Lincoln graced the Head of the Table, and a Per.son who 
lately kept a Public-House on Norwood-Hill, and goes by the 
Name of the Secretary to the Gypsies, sat at the Lower End. 
Music of all Sorts was played till Seven in the Evening, by Gypsies, 
and then the Company adjourned to Kent-street, Seven Dials'" — 
the street in which Powell's gang was lodged forty years earlier. 

^ Cf. Tht Diary of thf late Gtorge Bubh Dodington, Dnron of Melcomht Regis . . . 
publ. , . . b}' Henry PonrmMocke Wyiidliain (.Salishiii v, 17X4), p. 80, under the 
date June 2.S, 1750: 'Lady Middlesex, Lord Batliurst, Mr. Breton, and I waited on 
their Rojal Highnesses to .SpitalBelda, to see the manufactory of silk, and to Mr. 
Carr's shop in the morning. In the afternoon, the same company with Lady Tor- 
rington in waiting, went in private coaches to Norwood Forest to see a .settlement 
of gypsies ' ; and Groome, op. cit., p. 116. 

"" So the London Cfnonirle, vol. xxiv. No. 1S16, Aug. 4-6, 170S, and Lysons, and 
all subsequent accounts. But oddly Dodsley's Aunnaf Rfgixirr records the death 
nearly two years later in vol. xiii. (1770), oth cd.,p. 102, A]>ril. ' I)ied lately, at her 
hut at Norwood, Bridget, the Queeu of the (iipseys, who died worth above 100*11. " 
Is this the same person? If so, it is difficult to account for the change of date. 
Possibly tlie name Bridget was assumed a.* a trade name by a successor. 

^ The Environs of London, vol. i. p. 107. 

■• According to the London Chronicle, I.e., 'upwards of '2001.': 'above 10001." 
Dodsley's Anmial Regii^fer, I.e. 

' Presumably incorrect, as all other accounts say she died at Norwood ; and she 
died in the summer. 

* Jackson's O.ifonl Joitrna/. June .3, 1769. 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 135 

It would appear that a brother or sister of Bridget married 
a daughter or son of Margaret Finch, and their child, Elizabeth — 
niece of Bridget and granddaughter of Margaret — was the reigning 
' queen ' when Lysons wrote, though he says ' Her rank seems 
to be merely titular ; I do not tind that the gipsies pay her any 
particular respect ; or that she diifers in any other respect, than 
being a householder, from tlie rest of the tribe.' ^ She was in- 
habiting a cottage near the inn called the Gipsy House, which 
bore as its sign a portrait of her grandmother.- Lysons was 
probably referring to some date between 1790— when, according to 
the Dictionary of Xational Biogra'phij , he Avas appointed curate 
of Putney and began his survey of the environs of London — and 
17}»2, when the tirst volume of his work was published, as in that 
volume he gives details of Bridget in his account of the parish of 
Camberwell, and say.s that he will treat later of Margaret Finch, 
when ho deals with Beckenham. The actual account in which he 
includes the mention of her granddaughter did not appear till 
179(). 

There were, however, lesser luminaries at Norwood during the 
last -mentioned Queen's reign, since ' an aged sybil of some authority 
among them, named Sarah Skemp, died there in 1790';^ and it is 
hardly stepping out.side the prescribed area to quote the descrip- 
tion of the odd funeral at Newington Butts in October 1773 
of one who may have played the ' queen ' at Norwood between 
Bridget and her niece : ' Wednesday evening were interred in the 
parish church of Newington Butts the remains of an antient 
Gipsey Woman. The whim of the funeral procession was extremely 
remarkable; on the hearse, instead of black plumes were placed a 
number of chinmey-sweepers' boys ; the procession consisted of a 
numerous train of coaches tilled with persons of both sexes of the 
Deceased's relations, acquaintance, and complexion, which, together 
with an immense crowd of the same, who attended, not only in- 
tirely tilled the church, but atibrded to the spectators a sight as 
extraordinary as it was odd.' * Indeed, she is called the ' Queen 
of the Gypsies ' in the account of the burning of her clothes in the 
middle of the Mint, Southwark, which appears in the Annual 
Register} There her name is given as Dinah Boswell ; and, 

^ Lysons, op. cif., iv. p. 302. 

- Larwood and Hotten, History of Signboards, 3rd ed. p. 508. 

» Cf. F. W. Hackwood, The Good Old Times (Loudon, 1910), p. 215. 

* Jackson's Oxford Journal, Oct. 30, 1773. 

» Vol. xliii. p. 521, Oct. 21 ; cf. Groome, In Gipsy Tents, pp. 116-17- 



136 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

though they seldom occur in records which mention Norwood 
itself, the Boswells are known as claiming royalty among the 
Gypsies in the neighbourhood at that date. The Dianah Boswell, 
who married a Joseph Lovell at Isleworth on Auguat 9, 1771, was 
probably a near relative of the old lady buried at Newington ; and 
in the following account of the marriage, which I take from the 
London Chronicle} she is called the ' King of the Gypsies' 
daughter': — 'A few days since was married at Isleworth, the 
King of the Gypsies' daughter to a second husband : She is about 
22 years of age, and the man 17. About twenty couple walked 
from the Bell to the Church, and returned in the like manner to 
the same place, after the ceremony was performed ; only as they 
went, the women leant on the men; but on their return back, the 
men leant on the women. The dinner was served under the four 
elms on Hounslow-heath. and forty Gipsies sat down together. 
There was great plenty of all kinds of provision, fowls not excepted, 
and liquor in the same measure. When they had dined, the 
standers-by regaled themselves with what they had left, whose 
number amounted to some hundreds. The bridegroom's pockets 
were well lined with gold, and the father declared he could give 
him a thousand pounds.' This Joseph Lovell may be identical 
with one of the two persons of that name mentioned by Hoyland, 
and with the Joseph Lovell from whom Copsey derived his 
vocabulary. But he can hardly be the Joseph Lovell who was 
condemned to death for damaging houses in South wark in the 
Gordon riots in 17(S0, but reprieved; as this Joseph had a son, 
Robert, aged 26, who was executed for the same offence along with 
his paramour. Elizabeth Collins.- It was during this period, too, 
that the presence of a band of Gypsies, who spoke very bad English, 
and were ' blacker than those who formerly used to be there,' was 
noted at Norwood.-' Presumably they were foreign Gypsies, and it 
is interesting to know that the English Gypsies were already 
noticeably lighter in hue than their foreign kinsfolk. Unfortun- 
ately the meagre notice does not enable one to be certain whether 
they mixed with the English Gypsies or held aloof froni them like 
the recent bands of foreign Gypsies. The mere fact of their 

' Aug. 20-22, 1771. The namcB I owe to tlie Vicar of Isleworth. w ho lias kindly 
sent me a copy of the entry in the register, whicli runs : — 'On August 9, 1771, were 
married in Isleworth Church, Joseph Lovell. Bachelor, and Dianali Boswell, 
Spinster.' 

2 London Chronicle, July 8, 11, 1.3, 15, 29 and Aug. 8, 1780. 

' Cf. London Chronicle, Jan. 24, 1761 and J. (/. L. S., iv. 307. 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIE VOCABULARY 137 

presence at a well-known resort of English Gypsies is not sufficient 
evidence of intercourse with them, since the coppersmiths who 
visited England in 1911, almost as soon as they landed in Liverpool, 
pitched their tents on a spot much frequented by English Gypsies, 
though they were incapable of conversing with each other. But, 
as inriected Romani was in use among English Gypsies 150 years 
ago, there would not have been the same difficulty ; and, though 
it is improbable that the entire band stayed in England, it is possible 
that intercourse with, or perhaps even intermarriage between, them 
and the English Gypsies accounts for the tradition among the 
Smiths and Lees of East An<'lia, that their ancestors came from 
abroad 150 years ago. 

Those were the peaceful days of the Norwood Gypsies : but 
with the advance of civilization they soon fell on troublous times, 
and what further news one gets of them is mainly gleaned from 
police court record.s. In October 1795 Stephen Lee, John, Robert, 
Thomas, and Adam, his sons, and Ambrose BoswelH were arrested 
there on suspicion of having committed ' divers footpad robberies 
in the neighbourhood of Norwood. . . . The prisoners are all tall 
stout men, and under the denomination of Norwood Gypsies. On 
the magistrate asking them how they got their living, they replied, 
by fortune-tolling and horse-dealing. It appeared that the prisoners 
were the terror of the neighbourhood of Norwood ; and not one 
of them has any visible means of getting an honest livelihood.' ^ 
From which it would appear (perhaps with justice) that horse- 
dealing is not an honest means of livelihood : also that a fortune- 
teller should carry an outward and visible sign about with him. 
It was wiser, however, for him not to carry a watch at this 
■date, as it was specially noted as a suspicious thing that between 
the six of them they had two silver watches and had recently 
tried to sell a gold one.^ L'nfortunately I have not been able to 
find out what their fate was; but, as Adam appears again in 1812 

' The London Chronicle, vol. Ixxviii. No. 5672 (Oct. 13-15, 1795), p. 363, gives 
the names as above. I was. therefore, probably wrong in calling Adam Lee the 
father of the rest of tlie party in the J. G. L. S., vi. 19-20. When I did so, 1 
had not seen the account in the London Chronicle, and was combining the statement 
of Frost (Reniini-^ctnces of a Country Journalist, 1886, pp. 4 seqq. )tha.t Adam Lee was 
the father of Thomas, who was executed with him in 1812, and the account of this 
band as ' John, Stephen, Robert, Adam, and Thomas Lee (father and sons) ' given 
in Jackson"s Oxford Journal (not The Times, as there stated) for Oct. 17, 1795. 
Apparently the Thomas of 1812 was dififerent from the Thomas of 1795, and was a 
grandson of Stephen. 

^ London Chronicle, I.e. 

' Jackson's Cv/ord Journal, Oct. 17, 1795. 



138 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

as an elderly man, charged with a similar crime, I infer that they 
escaped execution, the surest means of getting one's name 
mentioned in a newspaper at that date. Indeed, they may have 
been falsely accused and maligned, as, though Adam was con- 
demned on the next occasion, we shall see that the neighbourhood, 
of which the family are said to be the terror, regarded him as an 
inoffensive old fiddler,^ unjustly condemned. 

If, however, as is probable, the John Lee of 1795 was identical 
with a Gypsy of the same name who was arrested in London only a 
few months later, in January 179G,- the family, if altogether innocent, 
had a faculty for getting into trouble. He was arrested in a 
public-house in Butcher Row, the police having traced him thither 
by following a messenger, whom he had sent to Bow Street to 
make inquiries after his wife and brother, who liad been committed 
to prison the day before. All were suspected of being concerned 
in the burglary of a farm-house at Mencedon in Essex. A day 
or two earlier a Gypsy named Richard Lee had been arrested 
on the same charge in another pulilic-house in the parish of St. 
Giles : ^ and probably he was John's brother, though one cannot 
be sure of that, as two others were already in custody.* His 
arrest was due to the energy of a parson, ' the Rev. Bate Dudley, 
one of the Magistrates of the county of E.ssex,' who, knowing him 
by sight and hearing of his habit of visiting the house in question, 
obtained a search warrant, which resulted in the arrest of thirty-two 
men, mostly chimney-sweeps, dustmen, and such like, who, ' with 
a number of women, had assembled at what is termed a Cock and 
Hen Club.'* Richard was found in a cellar, and taken to the 
watch-house, ' but in the cour.se of the night got rid of a coat he 
had on, every button of which was made out of a dollar, and had 
been particularly described by the persons robbed.' Evidently 

' Cf. T. Frost, I.e. 

- London Chrouiclt, vol. Ixxix. No. 5715 (Jan. '_M-2.S, 1790). 

* Ibid., No. 5714 (Jan. 19-21, 1796). The Minut:." of Evuhnct on Mindicity, 
1814-15, vol. iii. p. 66, mention an inn in St. Giles kept first by a man named 
Hughe^5, which is known as a traveller's name, then by one Eiukley, who mafif 
£loUO to £'25(10 there. A Sheen kept another (p. 65), and a Mary Hearn and a 
Jones are mentioned as living in St. Giles, as well as a Gypsy girl be^ginjj then . 

* Their names are not given in the Loudon Chronicle ; but in the ludfx to the 

Times, 1796, .<. r. Police Court, the names of Richard Chilcott, \Vm. Smith, and 

Lee are quoted for Jan. 21, from which it seems probable that Smith and John Lee's 
wife were the other two, as Chilcott will be seen to be an alias of Richard Lee. 

* A strange place to find a Gypsy : but probably he was a fiddler and was there 
to 'e.xcite the unholy dance, teclinically called the two-penny hop." like the three 
Gypsy fiddlers of Crabb's acquaintance, who succeeded each other in a house of ill- 
fame in Southampton (The Gipsies' Advocate, 3rd ed., London, 1832, p. 37). 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 139 

John had worn a similar coat, as a pawn-ticket for a watch was 
found on him, and on going to the pawn-broker the police learned 
that he had pledged thirteen buttons made of dollars on the 2nd 
of January, suspiciously near the date of the robbery. However, 
at the Assizes at Chelmsford in March John's name does not 
appear, though Richard Chilcott, alias Lee, and George Smith, 
both belonging 'to the fraternity of Gipsies,' were condemned 
to death for the robbery at Mencedon, and were informed that 
they must not entertain the least hope of mercy on this side the 
grave, as the robbery had been 'accompanied with several acts 
of cruelty.'^ John presumably had been discharged; and it 
seems probable that he is the John Lee who appears twenty years 
later on the list of metropolitan Gypsies procured for Hoyland- 
by William Corder of St. Giles and his son. 

As charges of highway robbery and burglary may come as 
a surprise to some of our members, it may be as well to add that 
many instances of the former, and more than one would have 
supposed of the latter, may be found in old newspapers; also that 
there is at least one old Gypsy, a nephew of Kyley Boswell's wife 
Yoki Shuri, still living in London, who makes no secret of having 
been a burglar in his younger days. 

It is noticeable that Stephen Lee and his sons openly professed 
to fortune-telling as though it were permissible, but two years 
later that alone brought on the Norwood Gypsies a raid by the 
police: 'On Sunday morning, about five o'clock, ten Police 
officers came to Norwood in three hackney-coaches, threw down 
all the gypsey tents, and exposed about 30 men, women, and 
children, in the primitive state of man. They carried them tO' 
prison, to be dealt with according to the Vagrant Act. 

' It appears that they have made good harvest, this summer, of 
female credulity, and have often gained a guinea on a Sunday. Not 
only young girls, panting for matrimony, have been their dupes, but 
the well-experienced dames, curious to trace the steps of their dear 
spouses, have paid liberally for discovery, as the following story 
will prove : On Thursday, as two Gentlemen, who dined at 
Norwood, were looking out of a window, they observed a respect- 
able, well-dressed woman in deep consultation, for a sum paid 
to the old gypsey. They observed the good(?)' woman greatly 

^ London Chronicle, vol. Ixxix. , No. 5737 (March 12-15, 1796). 
- Historical Survey . . . of the Gt/psies {York, 1816), p. j.8o. 
^ The query is my own. — E. O.W. 



140 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

agitated, and heard her ask " If she was sure it was true ? " On 
being answered, " As sure as God was in heaven," she gave the 
gypsey a further sum, and made further enquiry, and at last gave 
her a good pocket-handkerchief, and departed seemingly full of 
vengeance. The gentlemen, curious to learn the nature of the 
good woman's consultation, sent for the old gypsey, who candidly 
told them that she enquired of her if her husband was continent, 
and that she answered he was not, and thereby obtained three 
presents instead of one.'^ 

In spite of danger attaching to the practice of their most pay- 
ing profession Gypsies still clung to the neighbourhood. Mary 
Howi.., when a child at school at Croydon in 1809, in walks to 
Norwood sometimes ' came upon an encampment of gipsies, with 
their tents and tethered horses, looking to us more oriental than 
any similar encampment in our more northern lane.s,"- and Byron, 
when a lad at school at Dulwich, used to visit them there and 
picked up some cant from them, but so far as one knows, no 
Romani. That is natural enough, if the Gypsies with whom he 
consorted were like those who came into prominent notice in 
1802, when arrested on suspicion of the murder of the Dulwich 
Hermit.'* This eccentric personage was a man named Samuel 
Matthews, who had lived for some twenty-eight or twenty-three 
3'eais in a cave with a hut over it, which he had obtained the 
permission of the authorities of Dulwich College to make on 
Sydenham Common at the back of the College wood. Of his 
previous life little is known. All authorities agree that he had 
lived in London with a tradesman for some time, and he is 
generally credited with a wife and daughter, the former of whom 
died, while the latter either obtained a situation or married a 
respectable tradesman in London, before he started life as a hermit. 
He was seventy at the time of his death, and had come to Dulwich 
some thirty years earlier, according to the newspapers, as a 
gardener to some gentleman, though later he only did odd jobs 
as a gardener and subsisted on gifts from visitors who came 
to see the ' wild man of the woods.' Kirby, however, denies that 

* An extract from The Times, Aug. 22, 1797, in J. Ashton's Old Times (London, 
1885), p. .'?32. 

- Mary Howitt, an AxUohio'jraphy, ed. by Margaret Howitt (London, 1891). p. 
50. Her home was at Uttoxeter. 

^ The details of his life and deatli are gleaned from R. S. Kirby, The H'ondfr/iJ 
and Scientific Museum, vol. i. (London, 1803), pp. .'53-67 ; the Gtntleman'$ Mmjazine, 
vol. 73 (1803), pt. i. pp. 84 and 280; and the other papers mentioned in the next 
note. 



I THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 141 

he was ever a proper gardener, and says that he came to Dulwich 
as a vagrant, and was frequently sent away as such before he built 
his hut. Visitors to the cave were sufficiently plentiful, for people 
to suppose that Matthews had a hoard of money, and it is 
commonly stated that he was attacked by Gypsies some live years 
before he was murdered; that they broke his urm and robbed 
him of 12s., all that he had on him, and that he vas absent from 
his cave for a year and a half, and had to make another on his 
return. But this again is denied by Kirby, who says he went 
away for three months to Pembrokeshire or to Shropshire, of 
which he was a native. At any rate, on the 28th of December 
1802 he was found murdered near the mouth of his cave with an 
oak stick under him ; and a Gypsy chimney-sweep, named Joseph 
(or Benjamin) Sprague, Spragg, Cragg, or Craggs,^ with his wife's 
8on-in-law,2 Arthur Bowers, and the hitter's son Robert, who were 
camping within two hundred yards of the cave, were arrested on 
suspicion. Sprague, whose movements were suspicious, as he had 
got up at one o'clock to go chiumey-sweeping, and one of the 
Bowers,^ were tried at the Surrey Assizes in March, but acquitted 
— and rightly so apparently, as one Isaac Evans, known as Wry- 
necked Isaac, is said to have confessed to the murder when dying 
in Lewisham workhouse in February 1809.* 

To what extent there was any Gypsy blood in these people it 
is impossible to say ; but they travelled after the manner of Gypsies 
of those days before the invention of caravans. Arthur Bowers in 
his evidence said that ' they, when they could not get permission 
to sleep in the barnes and outhouses of the farmers, generally 
pitched their tent as near a farm-house as they could.' They had 
come from Dorking, stopped near the Half Moon on the 26th, 
on Sydenham Common on the 27th, and were moving on to Green- 

' This person's names are given in a different form in almost every account. In 
the i7t}itleman'3 Ma<jfizinn he appears as Spra^'iie : in the London Chronicle, vol. 
xciii., Dec. 30- Jan. 1, li»03, as Spraggs ; Jan. 1-4 as J. fipragge ; Jan. 4-6 as Joseph 
Spragge : in Kirby's book he is Joseph Spragg : in the index to The Times of 1803, 
on Jan. 3, he is J. Sprague; on Jan. 6 Sprague; on Jan. 13 Scraggs ; on Jan. 

20-25 Cragg : in the Bending Mercury, Mar. 28, 1803, and the Leicester Journal, 

Apr. 1, 1803, Benjamin Craggs. 

- As all other accounts agree that Bowers was Spragg's son-in-law, it is presum- 
ably a mistake on Kirbys part when he makes Bowers say that ' his only relation- 
ship to Spragg was, that the latter lived with his wife'e daughter by a former 
husband ' (p. 65). 

^ In the Lticestfr Journal Ephraim Bowers appears as a witness, being ap- 
parently identical with the Arthur Bowers of the other accounts ; while Arthur is- 
here spoken of as the lad and at the same time as Craggs' son-in-law. 

■* Blanch, Y' parish of Carrier well (London, 1875), p. 385. 



142 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

wich when arrested, having been warned to quit. Still Sprague 
or Craggs does not sound at all like a Gypsy name, though the 
variety of form may be due to it being an indefinite alias : but his 
trade is against him. Bowers, who sold trifles, did odd jobs and 
befTr'ed, stransrelv claimed to be a native of South Carolina ; but 
his claim can hardly be taken seriously, unless he was the son of 
transported parents. At any rate, it seems probable that he wa- 
connected with the Bill Bowers whom Leland ^ knew, and another 
Bowers who was transported some seventy years ago with Hector 
Buckland, the eldest brother of Nili Buckland or Fenner, for 
horse-stealing. The grandson of this latter Bowers assures me that 
his ancestors were ' Barks,' thereby proving that they were both 
Irish and speakers of cant; and by other travellers all the family 
are regarded rather as Irish travellers than as Gypsies. On the 
whole, it seems not improbable that they have long been on the 
roads, since Henry Bowcr,^ with John Allen and others, was 
arrested at ' Harrowhill ' and .sentenced to be flogged and burned in 
the right ear for vagrancy on March 29, IG Elizabeth.^ 

Oddly the name Allen too occurs among a band of Norwood 
Gypsies who appeared at the Surrey Quarter Sessions in October 
LSO.S, when 'Charlotte Allen, Jane Hern. Mary Ann Hern. Harriott 
Lee, Pentevinny Lovell. and John Lovell, all of the Gipsy 
tribe, were put to the bar to answer the matters of complaint 
exhibited against them.'* The prosecution was brought by the 
Society for the Suppre.ssion of Vice to prevent the Gypsies from 
' bringing idle persons about them at Norwood, to have their 
fortunes told on a Sunday.' It was a common practice, the i)ro- 
secutors stated, for 'abandoned libertines' to take young and 

1 The Gtjpsies, p. 141. 

- The omission of the rinal s is of no importance, as the name seems to be spelled 
indifferently in either way ; cf. the prosecution of 'James Bower, dealer," for letting 
horses stray at Tiddington (Oxford Times, Nov. 12, 1910), and of 'James Bowers, 
gipsy" — doubtless the same person — for the same oETence at Hartlebury Common 
two years later ( \Vorce.'*ter Herald, Dec. 7, 1912). 

» Middlesex County Record*, vol. i. p. 87. Compare also ' James Bower of 
Mottram, Cheshire, paup. viator,' M-hu was buried at Fanidon. Notts., on .Sept. 18, 
1703 {Tiie Parish Register of Farndon. . . . Ed. by Thos. M. Blagg (Worksop, 1899), 

p. 10). 

* London Chronicle, vol. xciv.. No. 6948, Oct. 13-15, 1S03. On Allen as a 
' Gypsy ' name see J. O. L. S., iv. 311-12, and to the referenceB there collected add 
* Isabell daughter of One Thomas Allen a Tr.ivailer out of the Orene Lane, buried 
the 3 of ffeb. 1.593' at Dagenhain, Kssex i J. 1'. Shawcross, Ilislorii of ])a<jcnham, 
London, 1904, p. 147) : ' William Allen, a vagrant,' buried at Wolstanton, Stafln. , 
June 2, 1706 ( Wolstanton Parish Re<ji<ter, pt. i. p. 21U) ; and ' Hannah, ye daughter 
of Eliz. Allen, Traveller,' baptized Feb. 10, 1735/6 at Little Biickhill. 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 143 

inexperienced females to Norwood ; and there, after a dinner, 
' the poor girls, tiushed with wine, sally forth to get their fortunes 
told ; the Gentleman has his fortune told first. The plan is then 
laid what is to be said to work upon this feelings of the poor 
victim, who thus, by a combination of circumstances, is plunged 
into inevitable ruin. This fact, melancholy as it is, has been 
established beyond contradiction.' At least so said the Society 
for the Suppression of Vice, which, like man}' people, seems to 
have believed that vice is peculiar to the male sex. 

The Society asked for the acquittal of the prisoners, if there 
were any hope of amendment, and ' the whole were examined, and 
the charge of fortune telling proved against them, but on expressing 
their contrition for the past, and promising never to offend again 
in like manner, they were liberated.' Clear as that statement 
seems, it is not to be taken to mean what it says, since the writer 
of the paragraph adds that Charlotte Allen, who ajipeared to be 
the ' mother and leader' of the party, was discharged on finding 
bail for her future good behaviour, mainly because she had six 
young children, and that Pentevinny Lovell, who had offered to 
' so work upon ' a girl, brought to her by a young gentleman, that 
she would be 'subservient to all his desires,' was sentenced to six 
months' imprisonment in tlie house of correction at Newington. 

Five years later, according to Sir Walter Besant,^ the common 
at Norwood was enclosed ; and Caulfield,^ writing in 1820, asserts 
that about thirty years earlier the Gypsies began to desert 
Norwood, and that since the murder of the Dulwich hermit 'it is a 
rarity to meet with a single straggler of that description.' Yet, 
when Cox the artist first went to live at Dulwich in 1808, 'it was 
much frequented by gipsies, who hovered about the extensive 
woods belonging to Dulwich College ' ; and he is said to have made 
many studies of their donkeys and encampments on the common.^ 
On the other side of Norwood Gypsies were plentiful in the woods 
at Penge and Anerley, among them the Adam and Thomas Lee, 
who have already come under notice at Norwood, until they were 
hanged in 1812 for a highway robbery, of which they were 
commonly believed to be innocent. At the time of the robbery 
they were living in a hut at Rixton causeway, and produced an 

^ London South oftht T/iames (London, 1912), p. 271 ; T. Manning and W. Bray, 
The History . . . of the County of Sumy, vol. iii. (1814), p. 4.34, refer to this common 
as ' now enclosed,' and say that Dulwich Common was enclosed in 1805 (p. 435). 

- Portraits, Memoirs, etc.. I.e. 

^ X. N. Solly, Memoirs of the Life of David Cox (London, 1873), p. 21. 



144 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

alibi to that effect. The proceedings in the case were a little 
extraordinary, as Adam was not arrested, but merely promised to 
come up for examination, and did so ; and even after the pre- 
liminary examination he was released on a promise to come up for 
trial, which ao^ain he carried out. One would have thousrht that 
his readiness to appear, in days when he could quite easily have 
disappeared with little chance of being found, was sufficient 
evidence of his innocence. However, he and his son were hanged 
and buried at Streatham, close to Norwood ; and a few days after 
their burial both graves were rifled.- 

Again, it is stated that a celebrated King of the Gypsies. ' after 
lying in state on Penge Common, was followed to the grave by a 
number of his tribe, clad in velveteen coats, the buttons of which 
were made of half-crowns, those on their waistcoats being made 
of sixpenny pieces,'- and was buried at Beckenham. Norwood 
itself was not deserted, and still retained its fame ; and it was to 
Norwood that those in search of knowledge about Gypsies or their 
language naturally made a pilgrimage. Bright, the discoverer of 
the disease named after him, wishing to compare English Komani 
with specimens he had collected from Gypsies during his travels 
in Hungary, went straight to Norwood in 1815^ and collected 
there the words and sentences printed in the Appendix to his book 
of travels. He had better luck than Hoyland, who paid the place 
a visit later in the same year, and heard from the deputy constable 
that about two months before the Gypsies in the neighbourhood 
had been apprehended as vagrants. He also states that ' having 
been considerably inclosed of late years, it [Norwood] is not now 
much frequented by the Gypsies,' * so that probably at tliis date, 
and perhaps at any time, one must take the name Norwood, as I ^ 
have taken it, to embrace the neighbouring commons and woods 
for several miles on either side. 

The raid mentioned by Hoyland took place in July 1815, as the 
following extract from the London Traveller^ of Julv24 shows: — 

1 T. Frost, I.e. ; Tht Times, ISl'J, Apr. S, 7, and 'JO; J. G. L.S., vi. 19, 20; 
and Groome, In Oipay TeJils, pp. 245-6. 

^ R. Borrowman, op. cit., p. 31. 

^ R. Bright, Travels from Vienna throwjh Lower Hungary (Edinburgli, 1818), 
p. 528, and Preface, pp. i.\. -x. His vocabulary, though far better than Hoyland's 
or Copseys, is not included in this article, as the editing of it had already been 
undertaken by Mr. Russell. 

* J. Hoyland, A Historical Survey of the Customs, Hahi s, and Present State of the^i 
Gypsies (York, 181(3), p. ISO. 

* Quoted in Niles' iVeckly Register, vol. ix. p. 41 (Sept, 16, 1815). 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 145 

' On Sunday the police officers attacked the Gipsey encamp- 
ment at Norwood, from which they made a precipitate retreat ; 
they, however, captured three coach loads, together with their 
queen and princes Thomas and John ! The officers were attacked 
by a rallying party of about 40, in an attempt at rescue, in which 
they failed. They were committed as vagrants.' 

It is probable that this party consisted largely of Lovells, and 
that their sentence was light, since Hoyland, following the direc- 
tions of the deputy constable and the landlord of the Gipsy House, 
visited the winter quarters of the tribe in London, and on the list 
of Gypsies living there he obtained from James Corder^ are 
two Thomas Lovells and one John. Charlotte Allen, the ' mother 
and leader' of the party arrested in 1803, is on the list too, and 
probably Harriet and Pentevinny Lovell were wives of some of the 
Lovells mentioned by Corder. Nor is there much doubt that the 
Joseph Lovell, tinker, aged about sixty, from whom Copsey^ 
obtained his vocabulary at Braintree, in Essex, was also one of the 
two persons of that name who appear on the same list, especially 
as he told Copsoy he spent the winter months in London. So 
Copsey's vocabulary may be counted as that of a Norwood Gypsy. 
So, it seems, may the list collected by Marsden and Sir J. Banks 
in 17tS3 or 1784, though one can hardly assert it definitely. Cer- 
tainly some of the words collected by Banks were obtained from a 
gorgio, married to a Gypsy, who was also interviewed by Sir J. 
Phillips in 181G somewhere between Mortlake and Kew.^ On the 
latter occasion this gorgio stated that he was a tinker and lived in 
Shoreditch in the winter ; and in his company were his wife's 
mother, his brotber-in-law, and a young couple recently married 
at Shoreditch. Now, on Hoyland's list there are three persons 
mentioned who lived in Shoreditch, among them Mansfield Lee, 
married but childless. If, as is probable, this means that he was 
recently married in the autumn of 1815, he may well be identical 
with the youth mentioned by Phillips, and possibly the Diana Lee, 
widow with one child, of Hoyland's list may be the mother-in-law 
of the ororijio traveller. Next to Mansfield comes Zachariah Lee, a 

1 Hoyland, pp. 184-5. 

' Cop-iev's Article appeared in t\\e Monthly Magazine, vol. xlvi. (London, 1818), 
pt. ii. pp. .39.S-5. It has been reprinted— without commentary on the words — by 
W. E. A. Axon in the Antiquary, New Series, voL iiL (1907), pp. 181-4; and the 
reprint was reviewed in the ./. G. L. S., New Series, i. 183-5. 

^ Cf. the M iiiihly M I'jcLzint, vol. xlii. (1816;, pt. ii. pp. 218 and 506; and 
J. G. L. S., New Series, i. 184, and ii. 162. 

VOL. IX. — NOS. III. -IV. K 



146 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

fiddler, unmarried, and he is identical with the Zachariah Lee who 
travelled about Morwood and Epping Forest with his second wife, 
Charlotta Boswell or Boss, and was son of Samuel and grandson of 
another Zachariah Lee.^ Mansfield himself was arrested a few 
years later in company with Ezechiel, Arthur and John Lovell for 
theft somewhere in the neighbourhood of London.- 

Again, it seems likely that Corder's Lusha Cooper is identical 
with Elisha Cooper, who with Ann his wife, Eve Cooper, Anne 
Cooper, Anne Maria Cooper, Sabraina Cooper, Jane Cooper, junior, 
and Mary Ann and Sophia Lee appeared at Union Hall police 
court in August 1823 on a charge of vagrancy at Norwood. 

In the same year a Gypsy woman, ' whose appearance is far 
superior to that of those who generally go about in gangs,' ^ was 
arrested at Southwark for stealing lace, and refused to give a 
name or address. She was, therefore, locked up with a ' female 
nose,' who extracted the information from her that she was living 
near Norwood ' in one of those buildings which a donkey can 
remove in a short time.' Her name turned out to be Sarah Lamb, 
still a name of travellers, though judging by specimens of the 
family whom I have seen at Maidenhead and in Norfolk, the 
Lambs have no claim and lay no claim to Gypsy blood. Still her 
husband seems to have professed the Gypsy trade of tinkering, if, 
as is probable, it was a child of theirs who was baptized at Putney, 
May 22, IcSOS, as ' Henry s. B. Lamb, travelling tink^ by Sarah, 
b. May 6,' * and travellers of that name occur fairly frequently in 
registers from the seventeenth century to recent times. Proceed- 
ing on the information obtained by the ' nose,' officers went to 
Norwood and found in a lane between there and Peckham a 
'gipsy's hut,' guarded by two fierce dogs. In the hut were two ^ 
donkeys, and thirty pounds' worth of lace was found in the donkeys' 
hampers. The children were questioned, but naturally nothing 
was got out of them. Sarah herself, within a week of her arrest, 

^ Cf. Notes and Qutries, 6th Series, vol. i. (1880), p. 258, where details of the 
family of Zachariah and Charlotta are given. Presumably he is identical with the 
Zachariah Lee, fatlier of Blind David Lee, who gave the copper and brass tobacco 
box to George Smith of Coalville (./. G. L. S., Old Series, i. 170), though David's 
name does not occur in the genealogy given in Xotes and Qiierie". Was his father 
Samuel the Samuel Lee, ' gipse},' who was condemned to death for horse-stealing at^ 
Gloucester in 1813? (Jackson's Oxford Journal, April 17, 1813). 

- The Tiynes, October 12, 1821. 

' John Bull, Aug. 4 aud 11, 1823; and Jackson's Oxford Journal, Aug. 16, 
1823. 

■* A. G. Hare and W. B. Bannerman, The Parish Register of Putney, vol. ii, 
(Croydon, 1915), p. 492. 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 147 

' made her way through the Borough Compter, by forcing the roof 
of the cell she was confined in, and effecting her escape by letting 
herself down the outer wall by a water spout ' ; and what became 
of her, her silent children, and her two donkeys is not recorded. 

There is one mystery in this account, the portable hut. It can 
hardly have been a caravan of any sort, since the donkeys were in 
it : nor can this mean that they were harnessed in it, as they were 
obviously intended to carry the hampers mentioned pannier-wise. 
That the donkeys were in it at all seems odd ; for no traveller, 
least of all a ' superior ' one, would put a donkey in a hut inhabited 
by herself; of course they may only have strayed in ; or one may 
assume that the hut was erected solely for their benefit, and the 
family lived in a tent which escaped observation. But the assump- 
tion seems to be unwarrantable : and, in any case, it still leaves the 
portable hut to be accounted for. Nor is this the only case in 
which huts have been mentioned. That in which Bridget died in 
1762 may well have been a fixed hut, as she possibly stayed 
permanently at Norwood like her aunt ; but Thomas Lee, who 
certainly travelled, was arrested in ' his hut,' and caravans were 
unknown till nearly twenty years after the date of his arrest.' 
When a marriage took place between the daughter of one of 
the kings of the Boswell gang to Pho-nix Boswell at Leicester 
in 1785, the party is described as 'hutted in Humberstone-field.' ^ 
Presumably the same kind of structure is referred to by 
Peter Pindar as a 'humble shed';^ and if so the huts cannot 

' Cf. J. O. L. S., New Series, ii. 96. ^ Kcadimj Mtrciiry, Aug. 1, 1785. 

* In a poem called 'A Gipsy Ballad,' of which an English and a Latin version 
appeared in the Keiitixh RegiMtr and MonUdy Mtsctllany, vol. i. (Canterbury, 
1793), p. 194. Tlie poem, which does not seem to be reproduced in the collected 
works of ISIG, runs : — 

A Wandering Gipsey, Sir, am I, 

From Norwood, where we oft complain. 
With many a tear — and many a sigh, 

Of blustering winds and rushing rain. 

No rooms so fine, nor gay attire, 

Amid our humble sheds appear, 
Nor beds of down, nor blazing fire, 

At night our shiv'riug limbs to cheer. 

Alas I no friends come near our cot — 

The red-breasts only find the way, 
Who give their all — a simple note, 

At peep of morn or parting day. 

But Fortunes here I come to tell, 
Then yield me, gentle Sir, your hand : 



148 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

have been merely vwattled huts like that in Sraeho's picture of 
Mareraret Finch. On the other hand, it seems hardlv conceivable 
that Gypsies would burden themselves with planks and construct 
huts at every stopping-place ; nor is any other evidence of such a 
habit forthcoming, so far as I am aware. Still it is difficult to 
avoid the conclusion that these Norwood Gypsies did use and move 
about some kind of structure, either of planks or of boughs, that 
could be called a hut. The point is of some interest for the history 
of Gypsy tents. For as Groome ^ has pointed out, there is no direct 
evidence for the use of tents in England until towards the end of the 
eighteenth century ; and the English Gypsy tent difters entirely in 
shape and construction from that used by their foreign kinsfolk. 
It is possible that the more or less beehive-shaped tents, used by 
some Gypsies in the East and North of England, may be develo])- 
ments of a kraal like that in which Margaret Finch is depicted ; 
but the ordinary low long tent of the South of England would seem 
to be modelled rather on the tilt of a covered cart, or, in its frequent 
form of a double tent, of two such tilts facing each other a few feet 
apart and joined by sacking or blankets in the centre — indeed, of 
precisely such a camp as that in which Borrow first saw Ambrose 
Smith's parents.- If so, the latter type of tent, at any rate, cannot 
have Ijeen in use till the days when panniered donkeys were 
replaced by covered carts; and for the use of such carts 1 caimot 
recollect any evidence earlier than the Jiorrovian pa.ssage just 
mentioned. Before their introduction, and indeed up to about one 
hundred years ago, Gypsies were far less afrai<l of living within four 

Amid tlinse lines wliat thousands dwell ! 
And lile.is me, what a heap of Ian<l ! 

This, .surely. Sir, must plea.sinK \>e. 

To hold sucli wealth in every line ! 
Try* pray now try, if you can see 

A little treasure lodg'd in mine. 

' In Gipsy Tents, pp. 54-9. 

* Lavenyro, ch. 5. The resemblance of such tents to waggon-tilts is frecjucntly 
noticed. Cf. the description of a tent in an article in the Ghrislian G'uitrdiaii for 
1812 (p. 100): — 'These tents are formed by fastening wooden hoop.'; into the 
ground, and then covering them with blankets, so that they resemble the tilt of a 
waggon ; they are open at one end from the wind, and which can be closed by a 
kind of curtain' ; or that in An Arlint's /'nnini^anceo by W. Crane (London, 1907, 
pp. 11-12) of encampments at Newton Abbott, ci/ra IS.'iO: — 'Low-pitched, semi- 
circular, arched tents, canvas over hooped sticks, somewhat like the tilts of 
waggons.' The 'beehive' tent is less frequently described; cf, however, the 
following description of two kinds of tents at Hogdiggen-corner between St. Mary 
Bourne and Whitchurch, Hants, circa 1840, 'one circular with a semi-elliptical 
entrance-hole,' the other long enough to lie down in (J. Stevens, A Parochial 
History of St. Mary Bourne, London, 1888, p, 32). 



t 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 149 

walls and beneath a roof than their descendants would have one 
believe. Barns, outhouses, and hovels sheltered them during their 
travels in the summer and sometimes in the Avinter. For early 
days Groome quotes a reference to their meeting in Somersetshire in 
' a great hay house ' ; to which may be added Decker's testimony 
in 1G09 to their lodging in the ' Out-barnes of Farmers.'^ The Gypsies 
in the Canning case move from one lodging in house or hovel to 
another; so apparently did a much earlier band, who passed 
through Norwich in 1544.- On Jan. 14, 1G99, 'James Young 
the Son of James Young and Elizabeth his wife, travellers (shee 
lay** in at Honor- Inn barne in her necessity),' was baptized at Great 
Hampden, Bucks.^ On May 23, 1693, 'a Travelling man, y' dyed 
in Mr. Norden's barn' at Ongar, Essex> and on Feb. 8, 1748, 
'John Smith, a traveller, who died in Mr. Martin's barn' at 
Lewisham,^ were buried. These may, of course, have been gorgio 
travellers; but no such doubt attaches to 'Sophia Boswell, 
Boswell [sic!]\ d. of Abraham Boswell and Sarah his wife (travel- 
ling Gipseys), born in a barn in North Lane, the parish of Westgate 
Without,' and baptized at St. Peter's, Canterbury, Oct. 5, 1788;^ 
n»»r to Sarah Aycrs, ' otherwise Shooler, a Gipsey found dead in 
Priler barn in Crafton Field 21 Feb.,' and buried Feb. 24, 1806 
at Wing.^ 

1 1 is noticeable that all these cases except one apply to the 
winter months. Against them I can only quote from registers one 
in.stance of a traveller — an undoubted Gypsy on this occasion — 
who disdained such a refuge : — ' Plato son of Peter Ov: Dorothy 
Buckley, a gipsy. Born under the Hedge in Crafton Field in the 
great Snow,' and christened at Wing, Bucks., on Feb. 9, 1772.^ If 

^ Lanthomtand Candle Light (London, 1608), sig. G5 [ = G3] verso ; /. G. L. S., 
Old Series, iii. '248-50. 

- J. G. L. S., iv. 159. 

3 The. Parish Refjii,teri of Great Hampden. ... Ed. by E. A. Ebblewhite 
^ Loudon, 188S), p. 34. 

•» The Pai-ish Re'ji-'ler-: of Owjar, Essex. Privately printed for F. A. Crisp 
(1886), p. 116. 

^ The Rnjister . . . of Saint Mary, Lewisham. Ed. by L. L. Duncan (London, 

1S91), p. 135. 

« J. M. Cowper, The Booke of Regester of . . . St. Peter in Canterbury (Canter- 
bury, 1SS8), p. G-2. 

■ The Register of the Parish of Wing. . . . Transcribed by A. V. Woodman, pt. ii. 

p. 279. 

* Ibid., pt. ii. p. 210. A Peter Buckland, King of the Gypsies, is said to have 
been buried in the chancel of Steeple Barton church in Oxfordshire in 1794, though 
unfortunately I have not been able to verify the fact. He would probably be 
identical -with the Peter Buckley here mentioned, though another Peter Buckland, 
' a Gipsie,' was buried at Shipton-under-Wychwood, June 10, 1809. 



150 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

tents were used in early days, registers join in the universal con- 
spiracy to ignore them. The earliest instance known to me in 
which one is mentioned in a register is in 1828: — John, son of 
Edward and Jane Chariot. They were in a tent on the Hill. 
Traveller,' baptized March 23, at Cowley, near Oxford. Compare 
an entry among the baptisms in the Launton parish registers : 
'1852, June 1st. Jane (daughter of) Susannah Wood, traveller, 
Child born in parish in a camp on roadside. Single woman.' ^ The 
Sprague-Bowers party, whose habits seem to have been more Gypsy- 
like than their names or occupations, only erected a tent when they 
could not get a lodging in a barn. The Wood family in their early 
days in Wales used to beg lodgings in barns and other buildings.^ 
Some of Hoyland's friends, the Corders, had for three generations 
allowed Gypsies to occupy such places on their farm ;^ and Crabb 
speaks of Gypsies fifty years before the date of his work as often 
staying for a month or two in farmers' l)arns.* In a play written 
about that date one of the characters, on being asked if there were 
not a good many Gypsies about, answers : ' I have a whole gang 
of them here in our barn ; I have kept tliem about the place these 
three months.' It must be admitted that he speaks of it as an 
exceptional thing to do, and adds, ' Father is as mad with me 
about it, as Old Scratch.' * During the winter months Lysons says 
the Norwood colony mostly took to houses in London,*' like Bridget 
and Lady Lincoln ; and the arrest of William and John Lee there 
in 1796 supports the statement. Hoyland found them doing the 
same thing. Three Gypsies were killed in the fall of a liovel in 
which they were stopping at Hammersmith in October 1780.' 
Nor did they live in this way only near London. A few words 
recorded from a family living in Birmingham during the winter of 
1811-12 will be mentioned later. That family used tents in the 

^ For these two references I am indebted to the incumbents of Cowley and Laun- 
ton, who kindly allowed me to search their registers for (iypsy baptisms and burials, 
and to Mr. Atltinson, who as.sisted nie in searching them. 

- Groome, p. 58. ^ Hoyland, p. 155. 

•• J. Crabb, Theflipsieh' Advocate (London, 1831), p. 22. 

^ The Maid of' the Mill, by Isaac Bickerstaffe, otii ed. (London, 1765), p. 21. 
Elsewhere in the play they are described as ' skulking about from barn to barn, and 
lying upon wet straw, on commons, and in green-lanes' (p. 59) ; and in a song by 
one of the Gypsy characters occur the lines — 

' Clean straw shall be our beds of down, 
And our withdrawing room a barn ' (p. 64). 

^ Lysons, op. cit. , vol. i. p. .302. Others, he adds, ' take up their abode in barns 
in some of the more distant counties.' 

' Jackson's Oxford Journal, October 21, 1780. 



» 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 151 

summer time ; but, when asked whether the women were 
deHvered in their tents, they replied that they Avere not, but at 
public-houses.^ Norwood's friend, Ned Buckland, had been a 
house-dweller for many years in his youth;- and some of another 
Ned Buckland's family had settled in Chipping Norton before 
1822.^ Hoyland quotes statements applying to Cambridge and to 
Northamptonshire, and William Bos, speaking for the Gypsies of 
Norfolk and Sutlblk — which would probably include the Hearns, 
Boswells or Bosses and Smiths of Borrovian fame — in 1822, said 
that ' most of us " house" in winter.'* 

That being the case, it is just possible that John and Matthew 
iiock, who were arrested in a cottage at Norwood in January 1817, 
on a charge of robbing a man on the highway between Sydenham 
and Dulwich, were Gypsies.^ At any rate, Matthew^ was the 
name of the grandfather of Esmeralda Lock, the wife of Hubert 
iSraith and Groome; and though at the time of Matthew's birth 
the family still passed under their original name of Boswell, not 
under the alias of Lock by which they have generally been known 
for the last century, that alias had already been adopted before 
1817, as on October 24, 1815, ' Unity, second daughter of Henry 
Locke, a gypsey,' was married at Chedworth, Gloucestershire, to a 
' Mr. George Payne, late of Terrington.' Henry was father of 
Matthew, and so little averse was he to house-dwellers that, though 
the marriage took place in a ' Gypsey encampment,' he offered to 
give a dowry of ' 500 guineas with each of his two unmarried 
daughters, provided they marry men of good character, and 
householders.'' 

It may seem improbable that the Locks, who now travel 
mainly in and on the borders of Wales, especially North Wales, 
should be found so far south as Norwood ; but within the memory 
of the older living members of the family Gloucestershire, still the 
habitat of Mairik Lock's descendants, was the home of all the 

1 Christian Guardian, vol. v. (1813) pp. 412-14. Contrast the refusal of a Gypsy 
woman, who had a son born in a tent under Leckhampton Hill in severe weather 
in January 1S.30, to accept accommodation offered her in a room at Charlton Kings 
on the ground that 'if she or any of her tribe were to be confined in a room, they 
were sure to be unlucky ' (Jackson's Oxford Journal, February 6, 1830, from the 
Chdtenham Chronicle). Does this indicate a difference in the characters of the two 
bands of Gypsies, or a change of custom due to the development of better tents ? 

- J. G. L. S., New Series, iii. 216. * /. O. L. S., Old Series, ii. 252. 

* J. G. L. S., New Series, ii. 279. * The Times, Jan. 8, 1817. 

^ S. B. James, ' English Gipsies ' (Cliurch of England Magazine, vol. 79, pp. 
97-100). 

' Jackson's Oxford Journal, Nov. 11, 1815. 



152 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

family ; and it was not till after the middle of the last century 
that Matthew and his descendants migrated, first to Shropshire, 
where some may still be found, and then to North Wales as a 
centre. One is more surprised to hear that one who may have been 
akin to the Welsh Gypsy Woods was landlady of the Fountains 
Inn at Southwark. But Mr. Thompson was assured by Saiki 
Heron that it was kept, probably about 1790, by Wester Boswell's 
grandmother, Cinderella Wood. 

In 1827 the guests at the wedding of another house-dwelling 
Gypsy, ' Miss Nancy Cooper, the celebrated beautiful Gipsy of 
Hoop-cottage,' with Mr. William Sharpe, of Willow-cottage, 
were sumptuously entertained at the Gipsy House after the wed- 
ding ceremony at St. Luke's. Norwood. ' If the entertainment, 
the liberal gratuities to the officiating parties, the splendid habili- 
ments of the nut-brown lass (white satin, lace, etc.), and the 
bridal favours displayed by the numerous group in the shape 
of white gloves and ribands, may be taken as earnest of the 
dower the bride is said to have received, it must pertain to some- 
thing considerable.' ^ 

It would seem that in spite of enclosures and of prosecutions 
Norwood was still sufficiently well known to make it a profitable 
residence for Gypsies up to about 1830 ; but thereafter one hears 
little of it. About that date an attempt was made to turn Nor- 
wood into a health resort: and building began there. The Beulah 
Spa Gardens were opened in 1831 and a Guide to the Beulah Spa, 
published seven years later, refers to them as ' the sole remaining 
vestige of the former haunts of the gypsies.' = This they were in 
more senses than one, since ' an old Avoman, the mother, I believe, 
of Gipsy Cooper, of pugilistic renown, was for many years allowed 
to pretend to reveal the fortune of all inquirers who crossed her 
palm with a piece of silver in the Beulah Spa Gardens.' ^ And even 
as late as 1876 some Gypsies still ren)ained in the neighbourhood, 
as the inhabitants of Dulwich were annoyed by the presence of 
one or two hundred of them on a field purchased by a 'gipsy 
capitalist' ; * and in 1878 there was a quarrel at Christmas between 
a large party of Gypsies occupying a piece of land called The 
Freehold at Penge.' 

1 The Times, Sept. 1, 1827. ^ Galer. op. cit., p. 14. 

3 Frost, op. cit., p. 4. Jack Cooper's mother was Truffeni Lovell : cf. Borrow, 
LaTO-Li7 (London, 1907). p. 6.3. 

* The Builder, Nov. 11, 1876. ' Tht Times. Dec. 30, 1878. 



the norwood gypsies and their vocabulary 153 

Hoyland's Vocabulary 

Hoyland's contribution to the knowledge of English Romaiii 
consisted of two short lists obtained for him by others: for though, 
when he visited Uriah Lovell's family, they were ' greatly delighted 
at meeting with a person, acquainted, as they thought, with their 
language, and were remarkably free in speaking it,' Hoyland 
himself does not seem to have made any attempt at recording 
what they said. Indeed, his only personal contribution consists of 
two words, sonnaka and roop (p. 179), obtained from some Stafford- 
shire Gypsies camping near Dagenham in Essex, who, though 
they promised to tell him anything he wished to know, did not 
explain their well-known pseudonym, Corrie,^ to him. 

Though he was too bashful to take advantage of his oppor- 
tunities of collecting words, and, in spite of knowing of Marsden's 
and Bryant's vocabularies, still wished to do something to com- 
pare Knglish Komani with that of Grellmann, he sent a list of 
words to James Corder, the son of the obliging grocer who had 
introduced him to Uriah Lovell. The list presumably consisted 
solely of English words, as he adds that the recorder did not know 
of Grellmann's work. One form however, sonnekar instead of the 
usual soiidkai, suggests that he may have mentioned to Corder 
this — one of the only two words he had recorded himself in what 
amounts to the same form, sonnaka. 

Corder obtained his words from some of the Gypsies living in 
London — presumably from some of the Lovells mentioned on pp. 
184-0 of Hoyland's work; and it seems probable that Hoyland's 
other co-operator, Robert Forster of Tottenham, recorded the few 
words he contributed from some of the same family, especially as 
they both have the remarkable form tal for tatto, hot. Not that that 
is strong evidence, as one can hardly attribute such an absurd form 
to any Gypsy, and it is more likely to have arisen from co- 
operation between the two workers. Hoyland's associates were 
not expert at hearing or recording words. For example s is 
represented by sh (shil), by rh {charro), and by che (dyche), the two 
latter presumably being due to a delusion on Corder's part that 
all tongues except English used French spelling, i as usual is 

* Harman's ' Core the cuckold ' maj- perhaps be worth mentioning in this con- 
nection. Corry, Corrie, or Currie, is however an Irish name, and therefore might 
possibly be the actual name of travellers. But — so far as I am aware — there is no 
evidence that it is or ever has been. 



154 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

represented by ee, i% in a monosyllable by a redundant e at the 
end of the word {rupe), elsewhere by ou and ew (joukal.jewcal) 
and by simple u (duee); a by au, or, and in one case by o {hdlo= 
halo) ; while conversely o is represented by an {maurau, parnau). 
This last o would seem to have been of the low-back-narrow- 
round variety, which was used occasionally by the Coppersmiths ^ 
— sometimes, unless my memory misleads me, in final syllables as 
here, e.g. in the name WorSo. 

I have combined the two short lists in one, leaving unmarked 

the words which occur only in Corder's longer list ; and marking 

Corder's form with (C.) and Forster's with (F.) when the same 

word occurs in both vocabularies : and in Forster's case I have 

marked similarly the few words that he alone records : — 

bdlo, hair. This extraordinary form must represent the plural 

bald. But the turning of a short (t into d is most unusual, 

especially as it would cause a confusion of this word with 

the next but one. < f Marsden's bokni. 

holko, sheep. A strange form due to substitution of I for r and 

metathesis of the two consonants. 
borlo [ = bdlo\ hog. 
charro, head. Presumably pronounced ^aro, or perhaps §,yro. 

Cf. dyche [ = dU\ jewcal [ =j ukal]. 
dewes (C), deues {¥.), day, in shill-deuea, cold day; du (¥.), in 

taldu, hot day. See under tal. ( "f Marsden's dewas. 
duee [ = d'di], two. 

dyche, ten. Presumal)ly pronounced dU. Cf. charro. 
grarre (C), gur (F.), horse. Both these forms of grai seem to l>e 
caused by the pronunciation of a real — and in the first case 
a very forcibly pronounced — r, which so surprised its 
hearers that they heard nothing else except the initial g. 
jewcal (F.), [=jld•^l], juhou (C), [=jiiku\ dog. I cannot find 
the form jukiX recorded elsewhere, though a shorter form 
juk is to be found in S. and C, and is heard occasionally, 
especially from po^-raU. Final i\ for ordinary o is heard 
sporadically in England, but most frequently among Eng- 
lish Gypsies who travel or have travelled in Wales, and 
among these most of the Lovells who remain in England 
may be counted. 
kare [ = kair\ house. 
kau, ear. A misprint for kan. 

1 J. G. L. S., vii. 123. 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 155 

kit, butter, in Jdl-mor (C), kil-maurau (¥.),[ = kil-indro],hTesid 

and butter. 
livenar {¥.), limhar (C), beer. The latter form is probably due 

to a mixture of indistinct pronunciation and mishearing. 
mauraiL (F.), Tnor (C), \^ = 7ndro], bread. See kil. 
niarcho, fish. Apparently pronounced mOxo, though the a is 

usually, if not always, short. 
moila, ass (F.). 
nack, nose. Nearer the Continental Gypsy ndk than the ordinary 

English Gypsy form nok. 
pan, tive. A mistake for jMnj. 
I'iLrnee [=pdni], water. 
paniau, white. Again more correct than the normal English 

form porno, 
raut, night. Normally rati in English Romani, and surprising 

here, since in parnau, nack the usual change of a io d 

does not occur. Cf. Marsden's rautee. 
rupe [ = rdp], silver. 
Sei'o, see charro. 
shil, cold. Substantive misused as an Adjective in shil-dewes 

(C.) and sli ill-deue.s (F.), cold day. 
>iinekar, gold. Normally sonekai; but cf Hoyland's sonnaka 

(p. 179). 
stor, four. 
tal, hot, in tal-dewea (C.) and taldu, (F.), hot day ; unless in the 

latter case taldu is a mishearing for tato, the proper form 

of the word. The form tal is senseless and unexampled. 

It suggests co-operation between Forster and Corder, one of 

them, who wrote t like I, passing his list to the other. 
trin, three. 
yake, one. Apparently xjik instead of the ordinary yek. 

At the end of Forster 's list Hoyland adds four words, or rather 
five (as one is a compound word), printed ' in the conversa- 
tion a clergyman had with the Bosswell gang, as published in the 
Christian Guardian for 1812 and 1813.' The words are : — 
chum, sun [ = kam, confused with the next word]. 
chilli, moon [misprint for chun\ 
kcd-mdro, bread and butter. [Really ' cheese and bread,' unless 

kal is a mishearing of kil. Note nidro with the correct 

foreign a, not (^, as is usual.] 
livina, drink. 



156 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

Unfortunately I have not been able to verify this list, as 1 
cannot find it in the Christian Guardian for 1812, and have not 
seen the volume for 1813.1 But in the volume for 1812 (pp. 98-101) 
there is an interview by a curate, v/ho signs himself ' A Clown,' 
with some Gypsies who settled in Birmingham in the winter; and 
that interview contains also four Romani words, though they were 
referred to as ' cant ' by the Gypsies : — 

kal, cheese. 

mauro, bread. 

llvtnd, drink. 

rashe, parson. 
The name of the Gypsies is not stated, but, as Birmingham 
has for many years been a centre for Smiths, it would at tirst sight 
seem probable that they belonged to that clan rather than to ' the 
Bosswell gang,' by which Hoyland probably meant the Derbyshire 
Boswells, who are mentioned under the same name on pp. 181-2 of 
his book, especially as the two parties ditt'ered in their trades. 
The 'Clown's' Gypsies were tinkers, fiddlers, and tambourine- 
players, and they also harvested and gathered hops ; whereas 
' Bosvile's gang,' a few years later, professed to be knife-grinders, 
chair-bottomers, and china-menders.- However, the Boswells 
were not unknown in Birmingham and its neighbourhood, as 
Riley Boswell wintered there on at least one occasion,^ and some 
of the Boswells married into a Warwickshire Burkland family. 
And when one finds that the ' Captain ' Bosvile mentioned in Tlte 
Gypsies, like the grandson of the i)arty met some ten years before 
by 'A Clown,' had a wife who could read, and that her stock of 
literature consisted of a ' frairment of an old Testament and an old 
Spelling Book,' which were precisely the two things that were ' 
given by the 'Clown' to the woman who could read, it seems 
likely that the two parties were identical. That woman had been 
in service in a farmer's family, and was probably a gorgio, as the 
family admitted that they intermarried with gorgios as well as 
with Gypsies.* Though this party certainly cannot be counted as 

' Vide note 4 below. 

"^ Cf. The Gypsies by 'a clergyman of the Church of Knglaixl " (York, 1S22), 
p. 21 ; or, as the tract is, I believe, rare, the quotations from it iii Crabb's Gipsies' 
Advocate (1831), p. 134, or in S. Roberts' C.»//w»€« (1836), p. 90. 

' Roberts, p. 63. 

* Since writing the above I have seen a copj- of the ChriMian Guardian for 1813, 
and find that it contains a supplementary article by the same writer (vol. v. 
pp. 412-14). The only Romani worde in it are chvm, sun : chun, moon ; hal mard, 
bread and butter ; so Hoyland's list combines the words given in the two articles, 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 157 

Norwood Gypsies, it may be noticed that the ' Clown ' asked 
whether they had been there, and they answered, ' We were there 
once. There is an inn there called the Gyptian Inn. The qual'ty 
visited us on a Sunday in their carriages ' (p. 99). 

Intermarriage with gorgios at this date, or at any other, as I 
have argued elsewhere,^ need not surprise any one ; but one is a 
little surprised to hear Gypsies of a hundred years ago — the days 
of open commons and free camping-grounds, of which the older 
living Gypsies talk wistfully — answermg a question as to whether 
there were many Gypsies in Birmingham, with the modern 
complaint, " Formerly there were. At present there are but 
few, owing to so many inclosures.' It would seem, however, from 
the dates of the enclosure of the commons at Norwood and Dul- 
wich, that such enclosures had already begun. 

Copsey's Vocabul.\ry 
As has already been mentioned, Copsey obtained his list of words 
from a Gypsy named Joseph Lovell, presumably at or near Brain- 
tree, as his letter to the Montldt/ Magazine is addressed from that 
place. Joseph ho describes as a man of about 60, and the family 
onsistcd of him, his wife, a daughter aged 18, and a boy belong- 
ing to another family. They were encamped in a tent ' which 
would not have protected them from a smart shower of rain,' which 
may be evidence of the flimsy character of the summer shelters of 
Gypsies at that date, who were accustomed, as this party was, to 
spending the winter months from the beginning of November to 
the end of March in houses in London. On the other hand, as 
Gypsy tents are often deceptive in their appearance, it may only 
show Copsey's inexperience of their quality. The family had 
spent the whole summer of 1818 in Essex, meeting, they said, 
only three or four travelling companies of other Gypsies during 
the season ; and the previous summer they had travelled in the 
, West of England. 

' They denied practising fortune telling ; but the old woman 
had too much the appearance of a sibyl to countenance such an 

misprinting chun and omitting mshe. In this second article the Gypsies are 
described as 'the Bosswel Gang ' ; and the sister-in-law of the woman who could 
read had a child baptized by the Clown with the name Sportcella, which they 
declared was a "Scripture name.' The women said they disliked Gypsy life, and 
one of them had married a small tradesman in London about a year earlier, and 
-till lived there. Mr. Thompson suggests that Sportcella may be Spoti, daughter 
of Peter and Waiui Boss. 
1 J. G. L. S., vi. 335. 



158 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

assertion.' They also denied eating mulo mas, and asserted that 
they married in church and buried in consecrated ground ; which 
last assertion was no doubt true, though one may have more 
doubt about the others. The girl had been to school in London, 
and had been taught to write ; but the old people were (naturally) 
illiterate. They readily communicated all the information Copsey 
requested, and he put them through a catechism consisting of 
Hoyland's words, and found they knew nearly all of them. But 
he seems to have aimed at adding to the list rather than revising 
it. Only six of Hoyland's words occur in Copsey, and though two 
of these — gri and rattee — may have been corrections of Hoyland's 
forms, they were more probably volunteered by the Gypsies after- 
wards, as no alternative for the absurd fal (hot) is given. 

Of his own spelling Copsey says : ' I am aware that my mode 
of spelling the words is open to much dispute and objection ; I 
have endeavoured to choose such combinations of letters as servo 
to express, as nearly as possible, the sounds pronounced by the 
gipsies. In the phrases, I could not exactly discover the separate 
words of which they were composed, as these persons uttered 
them with great rapidity, and were unable to give me any infor- 
mation on this point.' One inay doubt the inability of the Gypsies 
to separate one word from another, if they had wished to; but I 
fear there is no doubt at all that Copsey 's method of spelling, like 
that employed by most, if not all, the pioneers of Gypsy lore, is 
open to much objection. Of course he employs the usual double 
vowels, e.g. aa (=d), ee ( = f), and oo\ but the latter seems to 
represent two sounds, the long o in dooster ( = d6sta) and 4 in mooi 
and probably in all other cases, while a is possibly represented by 
ah in the first syllable of ahicah as well as by aa : il is also repre- 
sented by 6e in doe. There may be a subtle distinction between 
00, 00, and o6, all of which are used : but it is improbable. 

d is represented by aiv {jaw) and or (jortookee). The kh in 
chaokhor may represent x^ ^^'^ so apparently must the rh in 
chorhor (cf the Northumbrian r). /«,when it occurs after final a, 
even when the a is not long, and the e in naave, are obviously 
redundant. 

Besides Copsey's oddities in spelling, it may be well to note 
one peculiarity of pronunciation used by his Gypsies. They 
confused r and /, especially in the termination of the third person 
singular of the present tense. With the correct forms dellah 
( = dela) and kannella ( = kanela), one finds jara for jala, and the 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 159 

Stranger forms poorah, ' it blows/ and hilarrah, ' kettle ' (a mistake 
for ' it boils '). In the two latter cases there has been a shifting 
of the accent which has caused further corruption. The steps 
seem to hQ pudela> pi%dera> pudra> pura \ bilarela>hilarera> 
bildrera > hildrra. 

From these instances it will be seen that the third person 
singular of the present tense was in frequent use among these 
Gypsies. The first person occurs in an abbreviated form in savdh 
(^ = suvd) and in jau\ the second in jasha. Of the auxiliary 
verb the first person occurs four times as shum. the second once 
as shin, and once by mishearing as sutyi for san. The second 
person plural of the past tense is also represented by veean. 

Considering how few sentences Copsey obtained, it would seem 
that verbal intlexions were used fairly regularly and correctly by 
this family. 

Of nominal infiexions the only examples worth noting are the 
use of a vocative singular, ^ja/ia {=pala) and peniiah {=pena), and 
the instrumental plural, deverusa { = develesa). The two vocatives 
occur in the list of words as though they were nominatives; but 
this is probably due to a mistake on Copsej'^s part. In the 
sentence sarsum judlah the first is used correctly, and it is quite 
possible that he obtained the second by asking how they would 
address a woman. Here again the paucity of material makes it 
uncertain how ' deep ' the Gypsies were ; but they seem to have 
been quite up to the average as regards inflexions when compared 
with other early lists. 

The list consists of forty-three words and seventeen phrases or 
sentences. The latter I propose to print first in their original 
form ; and then a list of words in alphabetical order, including 
both the words in Copsey's list and those in the phrases, with 
remarks when necessary. 

Sentences 

1. nah falee shum — I am sick. [ = ndfcdi i'wm.] 

2. jortookee — I walk, or am going away. [ =jd tuki,'go' (imp.),] 

3. kdzo hobben ^ — good food. 

4. sdrsuvi pdllah ? — How do you do, brother? 

5. very dooster shum — very well. 

^ This occurs in the list of words, not in the phrases. But, as the single word 
praastr occurs among the phrases, I have replaced the one by the other. 



160 THE XORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

6. pen your naavel — What is your name? [Tell your name.] 

7. how doevee dnkee deviis 1 — How far have you travelled 

to-day ? [ = how ditr vidn ke-diviis ?] 

8. gri jaramlshts — The horse trots well. [=gr<:iijala miSto.] 

9. kyshinJca jdsha kdta devus ? — Whither are you going to- 

day ? [kai San kaJdSa kdta diviis.] 

10. I go kdta kongrie — I go to church. 

11. hdval poorah shil — The wind blows cold. 

12. bokolo shum — I am hungr}'. 

13. Jina deviis — Fine weather. 

14. shillaUe devus — Bad weather, 

15. hlshenoo delldh — It rains. 

16. sootee shum, iniissa jaw savdh — I am sleepy, and must go 

to bed. 

17. ah deveriisa — Farewell. [The word ' ah ' is omitted in 

Axon's reprint of the Vocabulary.] 

Vocabulary 

ah, in ah deveriisa, farewell. Sent. 17. Probably a mishearing 
of jCi deveresa {^=jd develesa], go with God, a farewell greeting 
to a departing person, rather than a^ dcvelesa, the departing 
person's farewell to those who remain. Cf, J. G. L. S., Old 
Series, iii. 75, where both expressions are recorded from 
Philip Murray, who, however, did not understand them ; 
Bright, Travels in Hungary, Appendix, p. Ixxix., AcJie mai 
deviel, 'May God bless you'; and Crabb, Gipsies' Advocate 
(1831), p. 127, Artmee Devillesty [ = ast^ mi develesti, a mis- 
take for develesa] from William Stanley, who regarded it as . 
an obsolete expression. 

ahivah [ = diva\ yes. 

ankee, see av- and ke. 

[av-], come, veedn [ = vidn], have you come. Sent. 7. 

bdngaree, waistcoat. 

bdval, wind. Sent. 11. 

bildrrah, kettle, = bilarela, ' it boils,' as explained above. Groome 
{In Gipsy Tents, p. 83) takes this word as English 'biler' = 
' boiler.' But this would leave the last syllable unaccounted 
for ; and the parallel corruptions cited above leave no doubt 

^ art seems more easily explained as a misprint for nsf, which is still in use in 
Welsh Romani (cf. J. G. L. S., viii. 94), than as a mistake for ar. 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 161 

that it is the third person singular present indicative of the 
verb bil-,^ 'melt' (which is used by Greek, Rumanian, and 
Hungarian Gypsies ; of. Miklosich, vii. 22), with the suffix -yar 
or -tfr added, as in most English Romani verbs, even when 
they have not a causative sense. 

A more corrupt form is found in Lcland's Englisli Gipsy 
Songs, p. 253, buller, to boil, bullerin, boiling, and in Way's 
No. 747 (p. GH), bullerin. 

Probably the mistake as to the meaning^ was due to 
Copsey, both in this case and in the similar mistake, 
kannella, ' bad food.' But it is perhaps worth pomting out 
that exact parallels for the misuse of the same verbal form 
for a substantive do occur among Gypsies and travellers 
nowadays, e.g. rokerela, 'conversation,' heard from Mrs. 
Cosby, a daughter of Spencer Draper ; brUinela, ' rain,' from 
Esmeralda and Joe Lock. An even closer parallel, since the 
meaning is the same as that assigned to billarrah by Copsey, 
is a word I heard tirst from some of Dosi Gaskin's wild 
brood in the form singwela, which can hardly be anything 
but s'lngavela (from English 'sing'), and afterwards in a 
curious back-slang form, traUingd, from Tom Porter, a gorgio 
traveller's boy, who said he had picked up the word from 
Hampshire travellers. 

binhenoo, rain. Sent. 15. 

bdkolo, hungry. Sent. 12. 

hoolingorcf, breeches. 

bdshtn, saddle. 

chdavo, boy. The long a is unusual. 
^ chaokhor, coat. Presumably 6>x<J^. 

chug, girl. Presumably pronounced cai, not ^e, in spite of the 
spelling, as ce is unexampled in England. 

chokenee, whip. Usually cdkni. 

chooree, knife. 

chorhor, shoes. Presumably an attempt at writing cO')((l. 

chorrov, plate or dish. 

\da-\ give, delldh, Sent. 15, in bishenoo delldh (bisenu deld), 
'it gives rain,' the usual phrase for 'it is raining' among 
foreign Gypsies, but only recorded from English Gypsies by 
Bright (p. Ixxxix., dalo breschen), whose vocabulary was also 
obtained from Norwood Gypsies at much the same date as 

' A shortened form of hHav-, for wyii(;h see ./. G. L. S., viii. 87. 
VOL. IX. — XO.S. IlL-IV. L 



162 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 

Copsey's. Cf., however, a modern form, 'it's delin' binsin, 
which I have heard from Geors^e (alias Tiiriits) Green, whose 
' old people ' on his mother's side said they were Lovells, 
though their name for some generations has been Smith. 
[devel, God], devenisa (instrumental case). Sent. 17. 
deviis, day. 

doe { = dur), far. Sent. 7. 

dooster ( = ddsta), well. Sent. 5, 'very dooster sJium' an answer 
to the preceding question sarsiim, pallah {=sar san, pala). 
It is hardly conceivable that the Lovells can have used 
dooster in the sense of 'well,' especially as mUto occurs in 
another sentence. Probably they gave Copsey the answer 
oniSto dosta — usually given even now by elderly (iypsies; 
and Copsey in recording it omitted mi.Uo and inserted in its 
place ' very,' given as the meaning of dosta. 
falde. See nah falee. 
Jina, fine. Sent. 13. An English loan-word found in many of the 

older vocabularies, but very seldom used now. 
fjdodloo, sugar. 
gri (=grni), horse. 
hobhen, food. 

hoovelah, stockings. The normal English Romani form is olivas. 
For the metathesis of the two consonants cf. Leland, English 
Gypsies,-^. 1^5, hovcdos; and for the incipient h, which is 
probably a relic of the original ^, cf. also Bright, p. Ixxxii.. 
hoJowai, breeches ; holove, hole/, stockings ; Harriott. 
./. G. L. S., iv. 10, holarea and the form honlavers jjiven 
in S. and C, s.v. olavas. 
hormiiigoree {=hdmengri), iork. The word does not seem to be 

recorded in this sense elsewhere. 
[is-], to be. shum, I am, Sent. 1, 5, 12, 13; shin, are you. Sent. 9 ; 

suvi ( = san), are you, Sent. 4. 
[ja-], go. mussa jaw, I must go. Sent. 16; jdsha, are 3'ou going, 
Sent. 9 ; jara ( =Jala), it goes, Sent. 2 ; jortookee ( =jd tuki), • 
go (imperative), mistranslated 'walk.' 
ka, that (?). Sent. 9, Kysh'inka jasha =kai san kajaslia, 'where 
are you that you are going' — a strange expression for 
' where is it that you are going,' unless the Gypsies altered 
Kai sanjaslng into the more correct kaijasa, and Copsey 
recorded a mixture of the two alternatives. Cf., however, 
J^orrow Lavo-Lil, p. 5. 'Necessity is expressed by the 



THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIR VOCABULARY 163 

impersonal verb and the conjunction "that" . . . shan te 
jdllan, they are that they go.' 

kair ( =ker), house. 

kdt'i, to (prep.). I go kata kongree, Sent. 10. Also strangely used 
in Sent. 9 to render the ' to ' in ' to-day ' — kata devus, unless 
in this case it is the pronoun, which is found in the Eastern 
European group of dialects as kadava, kado, ' this,' which 
seems unlikely. 

For the preposition cf. ./. G. L. S., New Series, iii, 222 : 
i.\. 179 ; and Way, No. 7^7, p. 42. 

kannella, bad food =kanela, ' it stinks,' as pointed out by Groome 
{In Gipsy Ttnts, p. 83) and Sampson (,/. G. L. S., New 
Series, i. 185). 

kee {=ke) in kee devus, to-day, Sent. 7. Usually explained as a 
shortened form of a^-a, this; cf. Bright, p. Ixxviii., Chericloi, 
givella, ako dives. But the use of kafa devus above suggests 
that ke- in ke-dicus. like te in te-diuus, may be simply a 
preposition translating the English ' to.' Bright, it may be 
I, observed, gives an alternative form of the phrase quoted 

I above — Chericlo give to dives. 

kit, butter. 

kongree, church. 

koshdw, wood. Plural for singular (kos), with the final t omitted, 
as is not infrequently the case. 

kozo, good. Sent. 3. An unparalleled form of the English Komani 

^ kuMo, kosto, ko.sko. Possibly the z should be pronounced ts 

as in German, in which case this form would be nearer to 

the foreign Romani kutS than the ordinary form, in which 

the t and ^• have been transposed. 

ky (=zkai), where, whither. Sent. 9. 

inooi, face. 

niislds, well. Sent. 4. A misprint for mishto. 

moomler, candle. 

moamlingoree, candlestick. Dr. Sampson has pointed out that 
this is unrecorded otherwise in England, and quotes 
Liebich for momelinengero {J. G. L. S., New Series, i. 185). 

moosh, man. 

mootamongree, tea. Generally mutamongri, not mutamongri as 
here. 

ononishce, woman. A corrupt form of monishni, which, though 
not recorded in S. and C, still exists. 



164 THE NORWOOD GYPSIES AND THEIU V(3CABULARV 

rmissa, it is necessary. Sent. 16, imissa jaw savah = mu88a [te]jd 
[te] suvd. I cannot find any printed instance of this use in 
English Roraani : hut viiis te lei has been recorded from 
Kadilia Brown. It is not the English ' must,' but a Slavonic 
loan-word (cf. Mik., v. p. 40). 
naave {=n(lu), name. Sent. 6. Usually pronounced nav. 
nah, no. 
nah falee ( = ndfali), ill. 

pdilah (=pala), brother. On the list as though nominative, but 
correctly used as vocative in Sent. 4, from which it may 
have been transferred to the list. 

Ijdwnee ( =pdni), water. This pronunciation of the word, though 
found in most vocabularies, is seldom, if ever, used now. 

pen, tell (imperative). Sent. 6, mistranslated ' what is.' 

pennah (=pena), sister (vocative). Possibly given correctly as an 
alternative for pallali in Sent. 4, though recorded in the 
list as though nominative. 

pero, foot. An unusual pronunciation of piro, unless e stands 
for I, not merely for accented e as in Icannella. 

[poodr^], blow. Sent. 11, poorah = pi%ddn, v. supra. 

praaser, I run, =prdster, to run. The omission of the t is 
unusual. 

rdttce, night. Usually rati, not rati, which is presumably implied 
by the double t. 

rotsch, spoon. Tills interesting form of roi should probably be 
regarded as a misprint either for roitsch or for roisch. In 
any case the ending is the diminutive suthx -iSa, foun<l in 
English Romani also in the word hokoco, hokaSa, and 
possibly in a form recorded by Miss Gillington in the New 
Forest, kussnitch for kusni. Cf Philij) Murray's form ruix 
(J. G. L. S., Old Series, iii. 78), which is found also in 
(ierman Romani (Liebich, Die Zigcuner, p. 156 (roich); 
and Pott, ii. 268). 

sar, how. Sent. 4, sar surti ( =8ar san). 

savdh, see suv. 

shil, cold, in ' the wind blows cold.' Sent. 1 1. 

shillalee, cold (adj.). Sent. 14. 

shin, see is. 

shuTTi, see is. 

sootee, sleepy. Sent. 16. 

stddee, hat. 



bricht's anglo-komani vocahulaky 165 

autn, see is. 

[suv-], sleep. Sent. 16, suvah =suvd, a shortened lorin of suvdva. 
siueglah, pipe. 

[<ft], you. taki {dii.ti\e) in jortookee. 
(ooroloo, tobacco. 
vast, hand, 
tire. 



^ yog. 



I 



IV.— BRIGHT'S ANGLO-ROMANI VOCABULARY 
By Alexander Russkll 

IN these days of book-makin^j^ it is surprising that no one has 
reprinted chapter xi. of Richard Bright's Travels from Vienna 
through Lower Hunjary (1818), for these pages 519-544 and the 
Appendix,' written by a friend' on the 'State of the Gypsies in Spain, 
1817,' contain more valuable inforn)ation than any other English 
books on the subject, till we come to the time of Borrow. Grell- 
mann's work first gave Bright an interest in Gypsies, and ' when he 
found himself surrounded by these people in Hungary, he was 
naturally led to inquire into their habits and condition.' It is to be 
regretted that his modesty made him abandon, on the appearance 
of Hoyland's book, his project of investigating the subject, for he 
had more understanding of the Gypsy character than had the 
Yorkshire Quaker, and he was singularly I'ree from that attitude 
of mind, common to Hoyland, Crabb, Baird, and Roberts, which 
would lose a friend to save a soul, forgetting, as a great living 
essayist has said, ' that souls are many and friends are few.' 

Bright's sympathy with the race is shown in that noble 
passage quoted by Groome,^ the echo of which we hear again in 
Smart and Crofton's introduction to their Dialect of the English 
Gypsies. His remarks on the dithculty of collecting the language 
and on its value for light on the origin and history of the race 
show equal wisdom and clear-sightedness. 'No one who has not 
had experience can well conceive the difficulty of gaining intel- 
ligible information from people so rude, upon the subject of their 
language. We all know how difficult it is to translate literally 
from one language into another ; but with these people, who have 
never weighed the import of a single Avord, and scarcely know 

1 In Gipsy Tenia, p. 226. 



166 BRIGHT's ANGLO-ROM ANI VOCABULARY 

how to divide their phrases into words, it is laborious, and 
almost impossible. If you ask for a word, they give you a whole 
sentence ; and on asking a second time, they give the sentence a 
totally different turn, or introduce some figure altogether new. 
Thus it was with our gypsey, who at length, tired of our questions, 
prayed most piteously to be released, which we granted him, only 
on condition of his returning in the evening ; and it will be seen, 
by the shortness of the vocabulary which is preserved in the 
Appendix, how little, by our exertions, in five hours, we were 
enabled to extract from him.' 

His remarks on the language as a proof of the common origin 
of speakers of Romani are also worth quoting : — ' The identity of 
this people in the difterent countries of Europe is so obvious, from 
a comparison of their manners, that on this alone we might rest 
our conviction of their common origin. Tlieir peculiar cast of 
countenance, their complexion, their gay and cheerful turn of 
mind, their bodily agility, are all distinctly marked, and specifi- 
cally mentioned by difterent travellers who have met with them 
in distant regions. But the great confirmation and completion 
of the argument lies in the similarity of their language. That a 
race of beings, in the lowest degree of civilisation, who, for four 
centuries, have been wandering about in every part of Europe, 
acquiring the language of every country which they have fre- 
quented, and claiming no country of their own, should have lost 
their original language altogether, would not be a matter of 
astonishment. That they should have retained their peculiar 
language would have been little less than miraculous; if, there- 
fore, we can trace but a few words, common to the whole race in 
every country, and which have no aflfinity to the language of any 
nation inhabited by them at present, we are led irresistibly to the 
conclusion, that they are derived from a common source. This 
fact has been established by former writers, and the result of my 
inquiries can only be considered as an additional evidence in its 
favour. Having collected a few words from the Cyganis, in the 
south of Hungary, I lost no time, on my return to England, in 
seeking out a family of gypsies at Norwood. I commenced my 
inquiries, without much expectation of success; but my doubts 
were immediately dispelled, and almost every word which I could 
recall, was at once recognised by the first gypsies I accosted. 
To find, crouched beneath a hedge at Norwood, a family who 
expressed their ideas in the same words as those with whom I 



rright's anglo-romaxi vocabulary 167 

liad conversed but a few weeks before, in the most distant corner 
of Europe, and having no relation whatsoever to the languages of 
the countries in which they were respectively settled, gave rise to 
ii singular train of feelings, and to a confirmed conviction in the 
fact, that they had been derived from one common stock. The 
specimens of the language which I have obtained from Spain are 
not so satisfactory upon this point ; yet the perfect accordance 
which will be seen in a few cases, such as dog, bread, wine, an 
old man, water, child, the nostrils, the mouth, and some others, 
appear to nie so convincing, that the circumstance scarcely 
admits of any other solution ; and it must always be remembered, 
that the situation of the Gitano of Spain is infinitely more 
exposed to that intercourse with the people of the country, which 
must be instrumental in contaminating their language, as well 
as their character, than either the Gypsey of England, or the 
Hungarian Cygani.' 

He anticipates the theory worked out by Miklosich : ' Vocabu- 
laries formed of the gypsey languages, used among their different 
tribes, might probably throw much light upon the era in which 
these people quitted the east, and even on the route by which 
they entered Europe ' ; though he does not avoid the error, very 
disastrous in this connection, of suggesting to his Enghsh Gypsies 
words which he had learned in Hungary, and of taking for granted 
that they were Anglo-Romani also, if his hearers said they knew 
them. 

Bright's list is important also because it contains sentences as 
well as single words, and so preserves grammatical forms and 
infiexions all too rarely recorded for Anglo-Romani. To save 
space and for convenience of reference, these sentences are here 
gathered together and given numbers, by which they will be 
referred to in the Vocabulary. 

1. me oium, boot, mauro ' I eat much bread.' 
[me hawom ^ hiU mawro I ate much bread.] 

2. du, chi, oias, boot Jcal ' thou, wife, eatest much cheese.' 

[t^ii, — tshai hau'as but leal thou — the girl ate much cheese.] 

3. jov ne oila, kek, kill ' he eats no butter.' 
[yov ne haivla kek kil he eats no butter.] 

4. soimende, oaim, jan^oi ' we all of us eat eggs.' 
[saw mende haivam yaraw we all ate eggs.] 

' See footnote to ha- in Vocabulary. 



168 bright's anglo-uomani vocabulary 

5. jov soimende oias macho (or) machai (pi.) ' ye all of you eat fish.' 
[yov (saw inende) hawas mafsho {matshe) he (we all) ate fish 
(fishes).] 

6. kek, da oitnas, bitta, haben, salco, devis 'I shall eat no food 

to-day, lit. not, shall eat, little, food, all this day.' 
[kek na hawvias bita haben sa'ko dives I had not eaten a 
bit of food all day.] ^ 

7. oisa du, kosliko haben, akai, rat ' thou wilt eat a good supper 

to-niffht, lit. thou wiltst eat a »ood food this nijrht.' 
[hawsa du koshko haben ake rat wilt thou eat good food this 
night ?] 

8. jov oila, Cidlako, haben ' 1 will eat breakfast to-morrow, lit. 

you will eat, to-morrow, food.' 
[yov haivla ladako haben he will eat food to-morrow.] 

9. soimende, oissa, schach ' we will eat cabbage, lit. all of us. we 

will eat, cabbage.' 
[saw mende hawsa sha^ we all shall eat cabbage.] 

10. jov emenga, keti, varingera ' I go to the fair, lit. I go, to, the 

fair.' 
[dzhova vienga keti varingera I go me to tlio lair.] ^ 

11. chericlo give to dives (or) cheridoi, givella, ako dives ' tho 

birds sing to-day, lit. the birds sing this day.' 
[tsheriklo giv to-dives (or) tsheriklaw givela [givena] ako dives 
the bird sings to-day (or) the birds sing this day.] 

12. sesso dove, kere, jekos 'was that once a house, lit. was that, 

a house once.' 
[ses odova ki'r yekos was that a house once ?] 

13. bisto dikclo temn akonan ' the country looks well now, lit. 

well, looks, country, now.' 
[bisto diked o tent akonaw the country looks well now.] 

14. ee rukoi, rudai, kennessij ' the trees will be dressed bye and 

bye.' 
[i rukaw rude kene-sig the trees (will be) dressed by and by.] 

15. rudoman me kukero ' I dress myself.' 
[rudom man me kukero I dressed myself.] 

16. sair sortisi ? ' what sort ? ' 
[savi sorti si what sort is it ?] ^ 

' Dr. Sampson prefers hoiom mas, taking l>itfi hahrn as an explanation of nias. 

" Possibly a confusion of two alternatives, dzhora nirtrit/i and dtham tiirpyi (let 
ns go). 

' Or possiblj- an answer to the question 'what sort?' t-nir sorti ni 'it is all 
sorts ' : but mi- appears as so* {=x(i) on all other occasions. 



bright's anglo-romani vocabulary 169 

17. savo teTnn ? ' what country ? ' 
[savo tern what sort of country ?] 

18. mochto, panda, touvelo ' a box full of tobacco.' 
[mo^to paivdo tuvelo a box full of tobacco.] 

19. o tascho ivast, es kee ivangesto ' the fingers of the right hand.' 
[o tatsho icasteski wangestaw the fingers of the right hand.] 

20. 7)iiro romni an rai chi ' my wife and daughter.' 
[viiri romni and mi tshai ray wife and my daughter.] 

21. Iro gri houdic ' catch the horse.' 

\le o grai bondik take hold of the horse.] 

22. chidom, ho gri, dre, puv ' I have taken the horse into the 

field." 
[tshidom le[8\ — o gnii — 'dre puv I put it — the horse — into the 
field.]! 

23. soi, chor, oias, ogrl ' the horse has eaten all the grass, lit. all, 

grass, eaten, the horse.' 
[saw tahor hawns o grai the horse ate all the grass.] 

24. dictani, egreski, hoshtoi ' have you seen the saddle of that 
horse ? lit. have you seen, that horse, the saddle ? ' 

[diktan e grenki hoslito saw you the horse's saddle ?] 

25. jah dicfove ' I go to see.' 

[dzhd t' dikov I go that I may see.] 

26. deh, acove, a gresti giv chi (or) ri ' give this corn to the horse, 

wife (or) sir, lit. give this to the horse, corn, wife, or sir.' 
[de akova gresti — giv, tshai (rai) give this to the horse, corn, 
girl (sir).] 

27. h'o giv, away, gredi, chi " take the oats from the horse wife, 

lit. the oats away from the horse, wife.' 
[le o giv away gresti, tshai take the corn away from the horse, 
girl] 

28. dictom, chov, gri edou, drum ' 1 saw six horses in the road, 

lit. I saw six horses in the road.' 
[diktom shov grai adre o drum I saw six horses in the road.] 

29. dictom, mai chov, gri, cheroi ' I saw the heads of six horses, 

lit. I saw six horses heads.' 
[diktom ine shov grai sheraiv I saw six horses' heads.] 

30. dalo breschin ' it rains.' 

[dalo hreshin it rains, lit. it gives rain.]' 

' More probably perhaps leo has been introduced from the preceding sentence. 
- These sentences are suspicious, having evidently been suggested from Bright 
own ' Hungarian Gypsey.' 



\ 



170 bright's anglo-romaxi vocabulary 

31. dalo ogive ' it snows.' 

[dalo o giv it snows, lit. it gives suow.]^ 

32. mai is na falo ' I am ill.' 
[Tne is nafalo I am ill.] - 

33. pre si okani ' the sun is up.' 
['pre si o kann the sun is up.] 

34. kam pes ' the sun shines.' 
[kavi 'pre si the sun is up.] 

35. sodiekaba ' what do I see.' 
[so dikaba what do I see ?] ^ 

36. cana and sego ' now, and make quick.' 
[kana and sigo now and quick.] 

37. ma pehn pokopen 'don't tell any stories.' 
[ina pen hokopen don't tell a lie.] * 

38. mai mang tut del mando wai ' I pray you, give me that 

Avhich I have deserved.' 
[me mang tut del man lowe I beg you to give me money.] 

39. me prautanui waffro manush 'avoid, at all times, wicked 

men.' 
[me prast' away; wafro manush I run away; had man.] 

40. ashto leshto j)re skainin ' I heave up this chair.' 
[ashta lest' opre, akamin I lift it up — a chair.] 

41. j>aulae skamin ' I push back the chair.' 
[j^awle skamin, back the chair.] 

42. manga tut muk mon keres, ' I beg you, humbly, let me go 

home.' 
[manga tut muk man kcre I beg you let me home.] * 

43. me romni a eke kere mavgi ' my wife awaits me at home.' 
[mi romni atshe[l] kere mangi my wife stays at home 

forme.] 

44. aclie mai deviel ' may God bless you.' 
[atsli me develesa stay with God.] 

' These sentences are suspicious, having eviileutly l>een euggesteil from Bright's 
own ' Hungarian Gypsey." 

- Dr. Sanipsoti suggests mai naisfalo, for which strange transposition cf. sen- 
tence '2."), dirton . 

^ The ' long ' i is an echo of Bright's Hungarian record. 

^ The spelling ;)€/(7i appears to be copied from the Hung. j9aram»^i'7'e/ine< three 
sentences above. Bright misprints p also in Hung. Gyp. opto ' eight,' and in apak 
and depenemengro, q.v. 

^ This sentence can hardly be accepted as English Roman!, every word of it 
having been suggested from Bright's Hungarian record. A similar influence can 
be traced in sentence 43. 



bright's anglo-romani vocabulary 171 

The inflexions recorded by Bright may be classified as 
follows : — 

Noun 

(1) voc. sing, dievla [from Hung.]. 

(2) gen. sing, tvasteskee, of the hand, e greshi, of the horse. 

(3) dat. sing, gresti, to the horse. 

(4) abl. sing, grexti, from the horse. 

(5) locat. sing, kere, at home. 

(6) nomin. plur. (a) in aw : ca^saw, scissors ; cAeWcZo/, birds ; 

cheroi, heads : clanoiv, teeth ; jan^oi, eggs ; koschtoi, 
sticks; ranjoi, rods ; riikoi, trees ; wangesto, fingers. 

(6) in e : holoivai, breeches; jackai, eyes; machai, 
fish ; matschkai, cats. 

(7) gen. plur. formations boschemengero, fiddler (mistr. 'to 

fiddle'); depe^emengro, mirror; kumnangero, soldier; 
nuisengero, butcher ; maffhumangri, violin ; porengri, 
pen, feather. 

Pronoun 





1st Person 


2nd Person 


3rd Person 


Nom. sing. 


iiiai, me 


du 


jov 


Ace. sing. 


man, mon 


tut 


? le [les 


Prep. sing. 


mende 




lesht 


Dat. sing. 


mangiy menga 






Abl. plur. 


mende (in sol mende). 





Verb 
Present and Future 

1st pers. sing, ashto, I lift ; diekaha, I see; jovjah, I go; kamawa 
[I owe] ; manga, I beg ; soxvaiva [I sleep]. 

2nd pers. sing, oisa, thou eatest. 

3rd pers. sing, dalo, it gives ; dikel, it looks ; givella, he sings ; 
oila, he will eat ; si, is. 

1st pers. plur. oissa, we will eat. 

Past 

1st pers. sing, chidom, I put; dictum, I saw; oium, I ate; rudom, 

I dressed. 
2ad pers. sing, or plur. dictan, saw you ? 
3rd pers. sing, oias, he ate ; sess, it was. 
1st pers. plur. oaim, we ate. 



172 



bright's anglo-romani vocabulary 



Pluperfect 
1st pers. sing, oimas, I had eaten. 

Imperative 
2nd pers. sing, ache, stay; deh, del, give; le, take; muk, let ;pe/m, 
tell; scAioitn^a, hearken. 

Subjunctive 
1st pers. sing, dictove [te dikov\ to see [that I may see]. 

Participle 
rudai dressed. 

We have uninflected verbal forms in del, give; (five, sings; 

mancj, I beg ; praut, I run (?). Pes, translated " shines,' can hardly 

be anything other than 'pre si, 'is up.' 

Phonetics 
Bright's knowledge of a Continental dialect has influenced his 
spelling of the Anglo-llomani forms, but he has not used any 
system consistently. The following table exhibits in the first 
column phonetic symbols from MacHe's System of Anglo- Romani 
Spelling using x ^or his ch, and in the others Bright's symbols, with 
one example of each. 



a 


a (baro) 


ah ijah) 








a 


a (hdl) 










aw 


an (mauro) 


aw (catMiiD) 


ow (danow) 


oi (rukoi) 


(xcaiigisto) 


I 


eh (deh) 


r (rat/) 


ai (machai) 


a« (paidae) 




e 


e (rhero) 


e..e (kere) ? 








e 


e {hev) 










t 


ie (tie) 


ee (waitegkee) 






i 


i 


e (manenche) 


i ijxMi) 


ee (kahngcree) 


t . . « (give) 







1) {lovo) 


(gouro) 


o..e, (Jtone) 


oi (bosh tot) 







(bock) 










a 


00 (boot) 


ou (gouro) 


ew (jew) 






u 


n (buko) 










n 


n (drum) 










ai 


i (chi) 


at (dai) 


ei (meila) 






s 


s (saro) 


ts (tsap) 








sh 


sh {hoshtoi) 


nrh (bre^chin) 


ch (chero) 


zh (trnzhilo) 


schi(.ochioHnta) 


tsh 


tsrh (fKchani) 


Ach (nch^imoben) 


ch (macho) 


tzh (pufzhum) 




z 


z {ziinin) 


.V (klcnn) 








dzh 


dg igoidgi) 


g (gatige) 


j (jew) 


eh (chvqiiii) 




k 


k {kehr) 


c (cana) 


ck (ncuk) 


ch (richini) 


qn (chuquil). 


y 


j ijov) 










X 


ch {mnchto) 











Note also the interchange of b and m: histo for uiisto, 
bosrhemengero and mashumangri, and perhaps mukso for burks. 



f 



I 



I 



bright s anglo-romani vocabulary 173 

Misprints, Words wrongly Divided, Mistranslations 

(1) Misprints : boudic for bondic, chacan for chacau, depese- 
mengro for dikesimengro, goro for gono, goururiiin for 
gourumni, keski for ke.shi, kosliko for koshkojcurhai for 
kurkai, jyunim for purum, pokopen for hokopen, praut 
for prast, spak for shak, tukel for jukel, vachi for raati, 

and others. 

(2) Words wrongly divided: See sentences 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 

19, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 31, 32, 33, 35, 38, 39, 40. 

(3) Mistranslations : In addition to those corrected in the 

sentences numbered 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 34, 38, 39, we have 
the following among the single words: — 
hoschemmgero ' to fiddle ' [fiddler] ; bukelo ' hunger ' [hungry] ; 

heretzi ' breeches ' [duck] : kamaiva ' debt ' [I owe] ; kdlepen 

to dance' [dancing]; puro' age '[old]; rate' dark '[at night]; 

richini 'beauty' [beautiful]; t<ik 'diligence' [quickly]; 

soivaiva 'sleep' [I sleep]; swa 'fear' [a tear]; truzhilo 

'thirst' [thirsty]. 



Foreign Influence 
Of words absolutely foreign to Anglo-Romani Bright has intro- 
duced chaori, gal, liprrai, kevivah, swa, tscharamedini, traster, 
vachi, if it is anything other than a misreading of 7'aa^i, and perhaps 
buck and others. On the other hand, the spelling and form of 
many of his words have been influenced by his reading of Grell- 
mann and his study of the Hungarian dialect. Since in the past 
this fault has proved a dangerous trap for collectors who knew 
Bright's work, parallel forms from Raper's translation of Grellniann 
(marked 'Gr.') and from Bright's own Hungarian Romani columns 
(marked ' Hung.') are given in the vocabulary. 

Vocabulary ^ 
ache. See atsh-. 
acove, akai, ahh See akova. 

akonau, now. In sentence 13 ; also kene in kennessij (14) and 
cana (36). [S. and C. kondiv p. 180, kendw, kdnna.] 

r 1 Bright's order of arrangement is not an alpliabetical one either in the Englisli 
or in the Romani, but a rough division into parts of the body, occupations, food, 
dress, animals, weather, money, common objects, adjective;?, verbs. I have 
arranged the words from the Sentences and the Vocabulary in alphabetical order 
according to Bright's spelling, inconsistent though it is, adding cross references to 
forms which would have been brouglit together, if he had used any regular phonetic 
svsteni. 



k 



174 bright's anglo-romani vocabulary 

akova, this. In sent. 26 acove a [ = a}cdva]; in sents. 6 and 11 

ako and salco [sd 'ko] ' all this ' ; in sent. 7 fern, akai [ake]. 
[S. and C. akova.] 
ashto, I lift. Sent. 40. [S. and C. azer. Mik. viii. 5.] 
[atsh-], stay : ache[l] 3rd sing. pres. indie, in sent. 43 ; and sing. 

imperative in sent. 44. [S. and C. atch.] 
bal, hair. [S. and C. bal.] 
halo, swine. [S. and C. bdulo. Gr. 6'^^'^] 
balowas, bacon. [S. and C. bdlovds. Mik. vii. 15.] 
bangeri, waistcoat. [S. and C. bdngaree.] 
bango, crooked. [S. and C. bongo. Gr. bango.] 
bar, stone. [S. and C. bar.] 
baro, great. Also in barajil ' cold ' [baro ahil, great cold. j [S. and 

C. bauro. Gr. baro.] 
bascheno, cock. [S. and C. boshno. Mik. vii. 18.] 
beng, the devil. [S. and C. heng. Mik. vii. 19.] 
brrsch, year. [S. and C. besh. Gr. berscJu Hung, bcrsh. Mik. vii. 19.] 
bis, twenty. [S. and C. bl<^h. Gr. bis. Mik. vii. 23.] 
bisto, well (adv.): in sent. 13. [S. and C. misid, mlshto. Mik. 

viii. 17.] For the form in b, cf. J. G. L. S., Old Series, 

i. 46 ; New Series, iii. 208. 
bitta. See bitfe. 
bitte, little. Also bitta in bittnchericle 'small bird': bitta krhr 

'small cottage'; })itta habni in sent. 6. [S. and C. p. 28.] 
bock, a letter. [I can make nothing of this unless ' letter ' was 

mistaken for ' let her ' and bock = mttk. Dr. J, Samp.son 

suggests English ' book.' R. A. S. Macfie says, ' The Gypsy 

may have been telling Bright's fortune — "You will have 

luck {bok), you will receive a letter," and Bright took bok 

and " letter " as synonymous.'] 
hondic, hold; in sent. 21 misprinted txriidic. [S. and C. bonnek.] 
boot, a multitude. Also as adj. 'much' in sentences 1 and 2. 

[S. and C. boot. Mik. vii. 26.] 
boschemengero, tiddler. Mistranslated ' to fiddle.' [S. and C. 

boshomengro. Mik. vii. 18.] See also onashrimangri. 
boshtoi, saddle ; in sent. 24. [S. and C. bdshto. Mik. vii. 20.] 
breschin. See brischin. 
brischin, rain. Also in sent. 30 dalo breschin ' it rains.' [S. and 

C. brishindo. Mik. vii. 24.] 
bukelo, hungry. Mistr. 'hunger.' [S. and C. bokalo. Mik. vii. 

22.] 



} 



brkjht's anglo-romani vocabulary 175 

bu/co, liver. [S. and C. houko. Mik, vii. 25.] 

burk. See rmikso. 

I'litin, labour. [From Gr. butin. S. and C. booti. Mik. 

vii. 26.] 
' . See also k. 

■Ilnko, to-morrow: in sent. S. [S. and C. kdliko.] 
'■una. See akouiu. 

catsaiv, scissors. [8. and C. kaisers. Mik. vii. 75.] 
ch. See also sh, tsch. 
' hacan. See choik. 
cluiori, female children. [A diminutive from Hung, chaori. S. and 

C. p. 18. Mik. vii. 30.] 
chare. See ')(Cire. 

chavais, male children. [S. and C. chavies. Mik. vii. 30.] 
chericlo, bird. Mistr. 'birds.' Also in bittachericle 'small bird.' 

Sing, and plur. chericloi in sent. 11. [S. and C. cheriklo, 

cherikli. .Mik. vii. 34.] 
chcro, head ; cheroi (plur.) in sent. 29. [S. and C. shero. Gr. cheru. 

Mik. viii. 71.] French ch. 
t, daughter: in sent. 20. Also in Romani chi 'a Gitana (or 

female Gypsey).' Mistr. ' wife' in sents. 2, 26, 27. [S. and 

(J. chei. Mik. vii. 30.] 
chidom. See chiv-. 
chilri, cold (adj.). The noun appears in barajil. [S. and C. shirilo. 

Mik. viii. 72.] French ch. Cf. also Simson's form slteelra, 

J. G. L. S., viii. 64. 
chiv, tongue. [S. and C. chib, chiv. Mik. vii. 31.] 
[chiv-, to put]: chidom, 1st sing, past indie, in sent. 22. [S. and 

C. chiv. Mik. vii. 34.] 
choik, shoe. Misprinted ' shoes.' The plur. appears as chacau, 

misprinted chacan. [S. and C. chok.] 
choko, coat. [S. and C. chokka, ehoxo. Mik. vii. 35.] 
chor, grass. Also in sent. 23. [S. and C. chor. Mik. vii. 29.] 
chov, six ; in sents. 28 and 29, and in schuchare ' sixpence.' 

[S. and C. shov. Mik. viii. 73.] French ch. 
chuquil. See jukel. 

churl, a knife. [S. and C. choori. Mik. vii. 39.] 
corodo, blind: corodo goidgi 'the blind' [lit. blind men]. [S. 

and C. koredo, korodo. Mik. vii.. 86.] 
coshko, Ejood, brave. See kosliko. 
da. See na. 



176 bright's anglo-romani vocabulary 

[da-, to give, strike] : dalo, 8rd sing. pres. indie, agreeing with 

Hung., in sents. 30 and .SI ; <leh [de],2ad sing, imperut. in 

sent. 26 ; uninflected verbal stem dd in sent. 38. 
dcvde, father. [S. and C. dad. Gr. and Hung. dade. ^ Mik. vii. 40.] 
dai, mother. [S. and C. dei. Mik. vii. 40.] 
danoiv, teeth. [S. and C. ddnyaw, damiic, phir. of dan. Mik. 

vii. 41.] 
deklo, pocket-handkercliief. [S. and C. dildo. Mik. vii. 43.] 
depesemengro, mirror. [A misreading oi dikesimengro. S. and C. 

dikomenrjro. Mik. vii. 43.] For the s in this form Dr. 

Sampson compares the Welsh-Gypsy diK-Mben and 

diKsino. 
deveL God. Also dieiia [vocat., agreeing with Hung.], and apoco- 
pated instrumental deviel [derelesa] in sent. 44. [S. and 

C. diivel, doovel. Mik. vii. 42.] 
devis. See dives, 
dievla. See devel. 
[dik-, to sec] : 1st sing. pres. indie. dieJcuba in sent. 35, cf. Hung. 

dirlcab; 3rd sing. pres. indie, dihi in sent. 13; 1st sing. 

past indie, dildom in sents. 28 and 29; 2nd sing, or phir. 

past indie, diktan in sent. 24 ; 1st sing. subj. didove [t'dikor] 

in sent. 25. [S. and C. dik. Mik. vii. 43.] 
dives, dav : in sent. 11; devis in sent. 0. [ S. and C. divvus. 

Mik. vii. 44.] 
dori, string. [S. and C. dori, doori. Mik. vii. 45.] 
dre, into : in sent. 22. Also edoii \adre o] in sent. 28. [S. and C. 

'dre, adre?^ 
fZr«,7n., road : in sent. 28. [S. and C. '/ro7H. Qtx.drum. Mik. vii. 40.] 
du. See in. 
dugilla, lightning. [Cf. Hung, derguner ' it thunders,' p. Ixxxix. 

S. and C. i). 159.] 
dui, two. [S. and C. do(H. Mik. vii. 47.] 

dummo, back. [S. and C. dixhno. Gr. dumiiv). Mik. vii. 47.] 
edou. See dre. 
ee. See o. 
gad, shirt. Also gadaiv [plur.]. [S. and C. gad, plur. gddaiv. 

Mik. vii. 53.] 
gal, village. [S. and C. gav. Gr. gal : but this form has been 

recorded in England. Mik. vii. 54.] 
gauge, woman. Also the plur. masc. in corodo goidgi ' the blind,' 
gero, man : jpurogero ' old man.' [S. and C. p. 22.] 



bright's anolo-romani vocabulary 177 

[giv; to sing]: give, the uninflected verb stem in sent. 11; also 

givella, 3rd sing. pres. mistr. 3rd plnr. in sent. 11. [S. and 

C. ghiv, ghil. Mik. vii. 56] 
ylv. See give, 
gire, wheat. [One syllable.] Also giv in sents. 2G and 27. [S. 

and C. ghiv. Mik. vii. 56.] 
give, snow. [One syllable.] In sent. 31. [S. and C. ghir, iv, etc. 

Mik. vii. 66.] 
goldgi. See gauge. 

gojee, pudding. [S. and C. got. Gr. goji. Mik. vii. 57.] 
goro, a knapsack. Misprint for guno. [S. and C. gono, gonno. 

Mik. vii. .57.] 
govA'o, ox. [S. and C. gooro ' bull,' p. 16S. Hung, gouro. Mik. vii. 58.) 
gourumin, cow. [S. and C. groovni. Hung, gourumni. Mik. vii. 

58.] 
gra, greski, greati. See gri. 
gri, gra, horse. Nom. sing, also in sent. 23 ; gri tor ace. sing, in 

sent. 21; greski, gen. sing, in sent. 24: gresti, dat. sing, in 

sent. 26, abl. sing, in sent. 27 ; gri for ace. plur. in sents. 

28 and 29. [S. and C. grei. Gr. gra, etc. Mik. vii. 58.] 
giidlo, sugar. [S. and C. goudlo, goodli ' sweet.' Mik. vii. 58.] 
[//f(-. to eat] : 3rd sing. pres. oila [hawhi] in sents. 3 and 8 ; 2nd 

sing. pres. oisa [liawsa] in sent. 7 ; oium [liawoiii] 1st sing. 

past in sent. 1 : 3rd sing, past oias [luiwas] in sents. 2 and 

5 ; 1st plur. past oaim [Jiawoiii] in sent. 4 ; 1st sing, pluperf. 

oimus [Itaivuias] in sent. 6 ; 1st plur. fut. oissa [hawsa] in 

sent. 9. [S. and 0. haw, hoi. Mik. vii. 59.] ' 
hahen, food: in sents. 6, 7, 8. [S. and C. hohen. Mik. vii. 59.] 
hascht, wood. See koscht. 
heretzi, duck. [Gr. hiretza. Cf. herrai. S. and C. retsi, retza. 

Mik. i. 35; viii. 54.] 
heretzi, breeches. [A misunderstanding. Bright was wearing 

• ducks ' that day he strolled by the hedges of Norwood.] 
herrai, gentleman. [A Spanish form, though Bright's Spanish 

form is gerres.] See ri. 
herree. See herroi. 
het^oi, herree, leg. [S. and C. hero, herer. Gr. heroi. Mik. vii. 55.] 

' The retention of Bright's oi, preferred by Dr. Sampson, suits the words where 
01 is followed by a vowel, but not the inflexions of the present tense, nor plurals 
like riikoi. Its use in soi (=!iaw, 'all) seems to show that it was Bright's strange 
method of representing the vowel in Eug. ' law ' and that he noted no i-glide between 
it and the terminations of the past tense. 

VOL. IX. — NO.S. in. -IV. M 



178 bright's anglo-romani vocabulary 

hev, hole, window. [S. and C. lev. Mik. vii. 62.] 

hokopen. See pokopen. 

holove, holef, stockings. [S. and C. hoolnrers.] See holowai. 

holowai, breeches. [Mik. i. 14.] 

hard, sword. [S. and C. hadro. Mik. vii. 61.] 

[X<^(re, pence]: in schuchare 'sixpence.' [S. and C. hdrri. Mik. 

vii. 61.] 
[is-, to be]: 3rd sing. pres. si in sents. 16, 33, and 34: 3rd sing. 

past sess in sent. 1 2. 
[jii- ( =zdzha), to go]: 1st sing. pres. [jow] in sent. 10; jah contr. 

from Java (cf. manga) 1st sing. pres. in sent. 25, 
jack ( — yak), ^\. jackai, eyes. [S. and C. yok. Mik. vii. 67.] 
jarroi { = yaraw), eggs: ace. plur. in sent. 4. [S. and C. ydi^o. Mik. 

viii. 93.] 
jeg { = yeg), one. [Hung. j^f/. Mik. vii. 68.] Seejrkos. 
j('9^ 3^0 ( = y^'O^ y^)> ^re. [jcij is from Hung. S. and C. yog. Mik. 

vii. 67.] 
jekos ( = yekos), once : in sent I "2. [S. and C. yekorus. Mik. vii. 68.] 

See jcg. 
jeiv ( = dzhil), louse. [S. and Cjodrxi. Mik vii. .52.] 
jil, in harajil ' cold ' [baro shil. great cold]. See shil. 
jog. See jeg. 
jov. Seeja-. 

jov { = yor), he: in .sents. 3, 5, 8. 

jukel {=(lzlLukel), dog: naisprinted tukel. Also jakli [fem.J and 
Spanish form chuquil. [S. and C j<inkcl,jo6kli. Gr. jukcL 
Mik. vii. .51.] 
k. See also c. 
kahngeree, church. Cf. Hung, kahugeri. [S. and C. kdiigiri. Cir. 

Jcangheri. Mik. vii. 73 ] 
kal, butter. In sent. 2 transhited ' cheese.' [S. and C. kal ' cheese.' 

Mik. vii. 76.] See kil. 
kalo, black. [S. and C. kaiilo. Gr. kalo. Mik. vii. 71.] 
kam, sun. Also in sents. 33 and 34. [S. and C. kam. (ir. cam. 

Mik. vii. 77.] 
Jcaniaiva, I owe. Mistr. 'debt.' [J. G. L. S., viii. 81-2. Gr. kam- 

ma'wa, accusation, debt. S. and C. kam. Mik. vii. 71.J 
kan, ear. [S. and C. kan. Mik. vii. 72.J 
kani, hen. [S. and C. kdnni. Mik. vii. 70.] 

kanivoro, hare. Perhaps a misreading of kaiiengro or an adjectival 
form from kan. 



bright's axglo-romani vocabulary 179 

kassain, fork. [S. and C. kasoni ' billhook.' Hung, kastoni.] 
kehr, house. Also in bitta kehr ' small cottage ' ; l:ere also as nom. 

in sent. 12; locat. sing ./.rre in sents. 42 and 43. [S. and 

C. kdir. Hung. kehr. Mik. vii. 79.] 
kek, not or no. Also in sents. 3 and 6. [S. and C. kek. Mik. vii. 73.] 
keleso, bone. [S. and C. koknlo, kokalon?. Mik vii. 85.] 
kellepcn, dance, dancing. ^listr. ' to dance.' [S. and C. kelopen. 

Mik. vii. 78.] 
kemf'ah, book. From Hung. Cf, J. G. L. S., Old Series, iii. 7(5 ; 

New Series, ii. 6 ; v. 31 ; vii. 176.] 
kmneftsij, bye and bye : in sent. 14. [S. and C. kendiv-sii/, 

kdnna-sig 'just now, immediately.'] See akoiiau. 
kero, cherry. [./. G. L. S., Old Series, iii. 76, kera. Mik. vii. 76.] 
keski, silk. Either a misprint of /•: for A, or a contraction of kesheski, 

of silk, silken. [S. and C. kaish. Mik. vii. 77.] 
keti, to : in sent. 10. [Leland, Eng. G. Songs, p. 202, keti ; J. G. L. S., 

New Series, iii. 222, kHty, kety; ix. 163. kat<i.] 
kil, cheese. Translated ' butter ' in sent. 3 {kill). [S. and C. kil 

' butter.'] See kal 
kindo, wet. [S. and C. kindo. Pott, ii. 103.] 
kirmo, worm. Al.so kirina,^. Ixxviii. [S. and C. kirmo, kermo. 

Mik. vii. 76. J 
klcsin, a key. [S. and C. kllnin. Mik. vii. 84] 
'ko. See ako. 
koscht, pi. koschtoi, stick. [S. and C. kosht. Mik. vii. 74.] See also 

hascht. 
kosliko, good: in sent. 7. A misreading of koshko. [S. and C. 

p. 26.] See coMco. 
kukero, self: in sent. 15. [S. and C. kokero. Mik. vii. 86.] 
kuremangero, soldier. [S. and C. kooromdngro. Gr. kuromangri, 

infantry. Mik. vii. 88.] 
kurhai, Sunday. Probably a misprint of h for k. [S. and C. 

ko6roko, kooroki. Mik. vii. 88.] 
[la-, to take] : (e, 2nd sing, imperat. in .sents. 21, 22, 27. [S. and C. 

lei. Mik. viii. 3.] 
lav, an answer. [S. and C. kiv. Mik. viii. 5.] 
Ifs. See lest. 

hst, it: in sent. 40, leshto pre = lest vpre; le[s] in sent. 22. 
l<me, salt. [One syllable.] [S. and C. Ion. Mik. viii. 8.] 
lovo, loivo, money. Perhaps disguised in sent. S8, mando wai = 

TTian lowe. [S. and C. loovo, l6vo,luva. Mik. viii. 9.] 



180 RRIOHT's ANGLO-ROM an I VOCABULARY 

ma, not: in sent. 37. [S. and C. maa. Mik. viii. 9.] 

macho, fish; plur. machai : in sent. 5. [S. and C. mdtcho. Mik. 

viii. 10.] 
malo. See nnauro. 
mandi, mangi. See me. 
[ynang-, to beg]: 1st sing. pros, mnnc/a in sent. 42, agreeing with 

Hung.; uninflected verb stem mang as 1st sing. pres. in 

sent. 38. [S. and C. mong. Mik. viii. 11.] 
manescJie, woman, in puromanescUe 'old woman.' [S. and C. 

manooshni, monoshi. Mik viii. 12.] 
mamish, man. Also in sent. 39. [S. and C. manush. Hung. 

manusli. Mik. viii. 12.] 
TTUis, tlesh. Perhaps also in sent. 6. [S. and C. mas. Mik. viii. 13.] 
Tnasengero, butcher. [S. and C. mnsengro.] 
'mcis]iU)ruingri, violin. See also hoscheinengcro. 
matschbtl, cats. (S. and C. mdtchka. Mik. i. 23.] 
mauro, malo, bread. Also in sent. 1. [malo is ' suggested ' from 

Hung., cf. Gr. malum. S. and C. maiiro. Mik. viii. 12] 
vie. See mi. 
me, I : Nom. sing, mr in sents. 1 and 39; mai in sonts. 29, 32, and 

38; ace. sing, man in sent. 15; mon, agreeing with Hung., 

in sent. 42 ; dat. sing, man in sent. 38, rnangi in sent. 43 ; 

abl. plur. mende in sents. 4 and 5 ; menga [ethic dat.] in 

sent. 10. 
meila, mila, ass. [S. and C. p. 22. J 
meja, mile. [S. and C. meea. Mik. viii. IG.j 
men, neck. [S. and C. men. Mik. viii. 15.] 
mevihen, death. [S. and C. meriUn. Mik. viii. 15.J 
mi, my: in sent. 20; mai in sent. 44; me in .sents. 15 and 43. 

See miro. 
mila. See meila. 
miro, ray: in sent. 20 (with false concord). [S. and C. meero, 

meiro. Mik. viii. 17.] 
mischeUi, table. [S. and C. misali. Mik. i. 24; viii. l(j.] 
mochto. See mokto. 
moi. See m,ui. 
mohto, box. Also in sent. 18 mocfito [ = moxto]. [S. and C 'inokto, 

moxto- Mik. viii. 18.] See also rmiLso. 
mon. See me. 
mor, wine. [From Hung., cf. also Bright's Spanish form. S. and 

C. mul. Mik. viii. 18.J 



BUIGHT's ANGLO-ROM ANI VOCABULARY 181 

Tnotto, drunk. [S. and C. motto. Mik. viii. 14.] 

Ttini, mui, moi, face, mouth. [S. and C. modi. Mik. viii. 19.] 

[miih-, to let] : imperat. in sent. 42. [S. and C. mook, viuk. Mik. 

viii. 19.] 
iiiiikfio, breasts. Possibly a misprint for viuJdo, chest. Or m may 
stand for h ; cf. mashwniangri and boschemengero, and 6 
for m in bi'ito. [S. and C. burk. Mik. vii. 24.] See also 
Tnoldo. 
na, not : misheard as da in sent. 6. 

7iack, nostrils or nose. [S. and C. nok. Gr. ndk. Mik. viii. 22.] 
nafalo, ill: in sent. 32. [S. and C. ndfalo, ndsfalo. Mik. viii. 23.] 
ymi, nail. [S. and C. nei. Gr. naj. Mik. viii. 21.] 
Tiaivjo, naked. [S. and C. nongo. Gr. naiigo. Mik. viii. 22.] 
ne, no, not: in sent. 3. [S. and C. ne, naiu. Mik. viii. 21.] 
nf'vo, new. [S. and C. iievo. Mik. viii. 24.] 

o, the: sing. masc. in sents. 13, 19, 21, 22, 23, 27, 31, and 33; sing, 
fern, perhaps in heretzi; oblique sing, in sent. 24; nom. 
plur. in sent. 14. 
odore, that: in sent. 12. [H. and C adoora. Mik. vii. 4.] 
oias, oila, oinias, oium, etc. See ha-, 
opre, up : in sent. 40. [S. and C. tipre, 'pre. Mik. viii. 26.] See pre 

and pes. 
pa7u, water. [S. and C. phi/. Mik. viii. 31.] 
ya/n, goose, agreeing with Hung, and Gr. For interchangeability 
of -i and -in terminations see Pott, ii. 403 f.n. [S. and C. 
pdpin. Mik. viii. 31.] Cf. skatni and tri. 
patrin, leaf. [S. and C. pdtrin. Gr. patrin. Mik. viii. 35.J 
paitdo, full: in sent. 18. [S. and C. pordo. Mik. viii. 41.] 
patdae, back (behind) : in sent. 41. [S. and C. paule. Mik. viii. 30.] 
paunch, five, agreeing with Hung. [S. and C. pandj, pansh. 

Mik. viii. 31.] 
[2)€n-, to toll]: 2nd sing, imperat. pe/ni in sent. 37. [S. and C. 

pen. Mik. viii. 41.] 
peneka, nut. [S. and C. p. 161. Mik. viii. 36.] 
per, belly. [S. and C. per. Mik. viii. 37.] 
pes ' shines ' in sent. 34 = >e si = 'pre .si ' is up.' Cf. ./. G. L. S., New 

Series, iv. 183, no. 135. 
pias, fun, frolic. [S. and C. peias. Mik. viii.' 37.] 
piro, feet. Mistr. for ' foot.' [S. and C. piro, peero. Mik. viii. 47.] 
plak, cup. ? Some confusion with Eng. ' plate.' 
plasta, mantle. [S. and C. pldshta. Mik. i. 30 ; viii. 48.] 



182 hright's anc;i-o-romani vocabulary 

pokcypen, stories: in sent. 37. Misprint or misreading of p for h ; 

cf. spak for shah. [S. and C. hookapni, hoyjihni. ]\Iik. vii. 

63.] 
par, 2^orenr/ri, feather or pen. [S. and C. por. Mile. i. 29: viii. 

50.] 
poshnechosh, neck-handkerchief. [IS. and C. posJinrckus, p. 175.] 
[prast-, to run] : 1st sing. pres. in sent. 39 ; reading either prasia 

'way, or prast away. [S. and C. praster. Mik. viii. 52.] 
pre, up: in sent. 33. See opre and pes. 
pull. See piiv. 

pul, straw. From Cir. [S. and L. j^ooa. Mik. viii. 45.] 
pnnim, onion. Misprint for piirnm. [S. and C. poorumi. Mik. 

viii. 53.] 
puro, old. Mistr. 'age.' Also in /'(/>'"7e?'o 'old man' and pur o- 

vianesche 'old woman.' [S. and C. pooro. Mik. viii. 45.] 
piUzhum^^ea. [S. and C. pr)oVut7»ui. Gr. pntzjum. Mik. viii. 54.] 
piuv, field : in sent. 22. Also pnk ' the earth ' for ' earth.' [S. and 

C. poor. Gr. pv , the earth. Mik. viii. 4G.] 
rai. See hrrai and ri. 

rakli, young woman. [S. and C. rakli. Mik. viii. 55.] 
raklo, servant or boy. [S. and ( '. rdklo. Mik. viii. 55.] 
ran, rod; pi. raiijoi. [S. and C. ran. .Mik. viii. 55.] 
rasrliei, preacher. [S. and C. rdshei. Mik. viii. 56.] 
rat, blood. [S. and C. ratf. Mik. viii. 56.] 
ra^e, dark [at night]. Also rat in sent. 7. [S. and C. radti. Mik. 

viii. 56.] See rachi. 
ri, sir: in sent. 26. [S. and C. rri. Mik. viii. 54.] 
ricliini, beautiful. Mistr. 'i)eauty.' [S. and C. rikcno, rlnkcno. 

See also p. 27.] 
[riv-, to dress]: 1st sing, past rwiom in sent. 15. Past partic. in 

sent. 14, 7'nrZai [?'^tf7e]. [S. and C. rii*. Mik. viii. 8!».| 
rohi, spoon, agreeing with Hung. [S. and C. roi, rdi. Mik. viii. 58.] 
[Romano, Gypsy] : Romani cki ' a Gitana (or female Gyp.sey).' 

[S. and C. roniano, romani. Mik. viii. 58.] 
romni, wife, woman. Also in sents. 20 and 43. [S. and C. rdmni. 

Mik. viii. 58.] 
rudo. See riv. 

ritk, tree. Plural rukoi in sent. 14. [S. and C. rook. Mik. viii. 59.] 
mtj), silver. [S. and C. roojy. Mik. viii. 60.] 
sair. See savo. 
sako. See saiv and akova. 



r 



BRIGHT S ANGLO-ROMANI VOCABULARY 183 

[i><a/>]. See tsap. 

savo, what : in sent. 17 savo temn ' what country ' : in sent. 16 sair 

[savi] sorti ' what sort.' [S. and C. sdv<K Mik. viii. 63.] 
[saw, all] : soi in sents. 4-, 5, 9, 23 ; compounded with ako in sent. 

6. [S. and C. sar. Mik. viii. 63.] 
schich, cabbage : in sent. 9. Also with misprint oi p for li in spak. 

[S. and C. shoh. Gr. schach. Mik. viii. 70.] 
schik; mud. [S. and C. chik. Gr. schik. Mik. vii. 32.] 
•ichioiinta. See shuit-. 

schoschi, rabbit. [S. and C. slioshi. Gr. schoschi. Mik. viii. 73.] 
schuckare, si. x pence. [S. and C. shookhaiiri, shaahaiiri.] See 

chov and ;^a7'e. 
.schud, vinegar, agreeing with Hung. [S. and C. shoot. Mik. viii. 75.] 
schumohni, kiss. [S. and C choomahen 'kissing.' Gr. tchumohen. 

Mik. vii. 38.] 
sli. See also cJi. 

sKjo, quick: in sent. 36; also sij in kennessij 'bye and bye 'and 
sik 'diligence.' [S. and C. sig. Gr. sik, diligence. Mik. 
viii. 64.] 
sess. See is-, 
shil, cough. Also jit in barajil ' cold.' [S. and C. shil. Mik, 

viii. 72.] Cf. chilri. 
[shun-, hear] : imperat. in schiounta ' harken,' with emphatic suffix 

-ta. [S. and C. shoonta. Mik. viii. 75.] 
s'i. See is-. 

sie, heart. [S. and C. zee. Gr. siV.] 
•sy, siA". See ^Cf/a 

skami, seat or chair. [Apocopated form from Hung. Cf. j^api, 
</•«.] skamin in sents. 40 and 41. [S. and C. skdmin. 
Mik. viii. 66.J 
skoni, boots. [S. and C. skdjii. Mik. i. 37 ; viii. 72.] 
so, what ? in sent. 35. 
sodiekaba. See dik- and so. 
.-«n. See sa?c. 

soiinende. See 7ne and saio. 

sonokai, gold. [S. and C. soonakei. Mik. viii. 68.] 
.so>'<<, sort: in sent. 16. Eng, word with Romani termination. 
sowaiva, I sleep, from Gr. Mistr. ' sleep.' [S. and C. sov. Mik, 

viii, 67.] 
spak, cabbage. See schach. 
sta, four. Cf. Hung. stah. [S. and C, stor. Mik. viii. 73,] 



184 bright's axglo-romaxi vocabulary 

.^fadi, hat. [S. and C. staddi. Mik. iii. 40: viii. 68.] 

Mara'pen, prison. [S. and C. 'sUirihen. Mik. vii. 11.] 

swa, tear. Mistr. 'fear.' From Gr. [S. and C. p. 162; J. G. L. S., 

iv. 177. Mik. vii. 12.] 
swer/Ji, pipe: turinli swff/li 'tobacco pipe.' [S. and C. p. 22. 

Mik. iii. 41.] 
tascJio, T\^ht : ta.sclio icdtit ' right hand.' Al.so in sent. 19. [S. and 

C. tdtrho. Mik. vii. 27.] 
tato, hot. [S. and C. hitto. W\k. viii. 78.] 
trmn, country. Also in sents. l.S and 17. [S. and C. tfm. Gr. 

femn. Mik. viii. 82.] 
thu,smoki\ [S. a.nd C. toov. Gr.thu. Mik. viii. 83.] Hee iuviali. 
to. [? En«<.] in sent. 11. 

toh'r, axe. [S. and C. tdhdr, tnber. Gr. tober. Mik. i. 42 : viii. 85.] 
touvelo. See tuviali. 
irast. Sec truster. 
trasteVy trust, iron. Hung, trasi, cf. Gr. trasclit. [S. and. C. sdster. 

Mik. viii. 70.J 
tri, three. Bright, misled by Grelhiiann, has omitted the final n. 
trupox, body. [S. and C. iroupus. Mik. i. 42 ; viii. 87.] 
triiz}iilo,th.\YSty. Mistr. thirst.' [S. and C. trodshlo. Gr. iruz- 

hilo. Mik. viii. 87.] 
tsup, snake. From Gr. 

tschavi, cheek. [S. and C. chain. Gr. tscham. Mik. vii. 28.] 
tschamnu'dinl, a slap on the face. From Gr. [ThesletF, Worter- 

huch des Dialekts der Jiniddndhschrn Zir/finier, p. 16, 

^ammedlni. S. and C. p. 163.] 
tschanga, knee. [S. and C. chong. Gr. tschanga. Mik. vii. 28.] 
tu, thou : nom. sing, dti in sents. 2 and 7 : ace. sing, tut in sents. 

38 and 42. 
tad, milk. [S. and C. tood. Mik. viii. 83.] 
tukd. Misprint for jukel. 

tnlihen, fat. [S. and C. tiillipen. Mik. viii. 83.] 
tut. See til. 
tuviali, tobacco: tiiHali swegli, 'tobacco pipe.' Tuviali agrees 

with Hung. Also touvelo in sent. 18. [S. and C. tuvlo, 

tuvli. Mik. viii. 83.] See thu. 
vachi, night. Can only be a misreading of a very badly written 

raati, unless it represents rdtshi and has slipped into the 

wrong column. See rate, 
vadrosi, a bed. [S. and C. woddrus, wddrus. Mik. i. 27 ; viii. 90.] 



AN AMERICAX-ROMANI VOCABULARY 185 

raringera, fair. [S. and C. p. 149.] 

iiiiffro, wicked : in sent. 30. [S. and C. p. 28.] 

uxihliv, bottle. [S. and C. wdlin, vdlin. Gr. ivahlin. Mik. iii. 

40 ; viii. 92.] 
v-ai. [In sent. 38 may have crept in from j)'>^(iutaicai in sent. 39 

below, or it may be a corruption of lowe. Leland, Enig. 

G. Smigs, p. 275, adopted it as wye 'due.'] 
vnngar, coal. [S. and C. vdngar. Mik. vii. 8.] 
wnngesto. See wangisto. 
inmgisto, lingers. Also wangento in sent. 19. [S. and C. vongusti, 

wovgusJii. Mik. vii. 9.] 
vdngustri, ring. [S. and C. wongushi. Mik. vii. 9.] 
i/v(.s'f, hand.s. Really 'hand.' Also in tascho u-ast 'right hand'; 

zezro vast 'left hand ' ; and in sent. 19 wasteskee, gen. sing. 

[S. and C. vast, wast. Mik. viii. 94.] 
?/• See j. 
zezro, left: zfzro ir<ist 'left hand.' [S. and C. p. 163. Mik. 

viii. 98.] 
zimin, broth. [S. and C. zinien. Mik. iii. 39: viii. 99.] 



v.— AN AMEKICAX-KOMANI VOCABULARY^ 
By George F. Black, Ph.D. 

IN one of his manuscripts, apparently written in 1910, the late 
Mr. A. T. Sinclair states that, when learning to speak the 
American-Gypsy dialect, he prepared a list of words which he 
carried about in his pocket when visiting the Gypsies. All the 
words were collected by himself irom Romani vusta before he had 
read any publications about Gypsies. The vocabulary, he added, 
was the result of inquiries among hundreds of Gypsies in different 
sections of the United States and Canada, and was confined 
strictly to the English-speaking Gypsies born in Great Britain, or 
their American descendants. He also says that no one Gypsy 
was familiar with all the words he had noted, but many of them 
knew nearly all. Most of the younger Gypsies born in the United 
States, however, understood very few of them. The Gypsies also 

^ A provisional issue of this vocabulary was published iu the Bulletin of the 
New York Public Library, v. 19, pp. 727-738. New York, 1915. 



186 AN AMERICAN-ROMA XI VOCAHDLARY 

knew some slang and tinker words, but never used them in 
conversation. The Continental Gypsies in America speak a 
very different dialect. 

The vocabulary above referred to, a small leather-bound note- 
book, is now in the New York Public Librar}', It contains 481 
words, and has been labelled by Mr. Sinclair ' American-Gypsy 
JJictionary.' The words are not in alphabetical order, but are 
grouped under their initial letters. In addition to this there is 
also a larger list of words written out on quarto sheets in a roughly 
alphabetical order. This list includes nearly all the words con- 
tained in the ' Dictionary.' These two collections have been made 
the basis of the vocabulary here published, with considerable 
additions derived from other loose sheets of manuscript and from 
a number of note-books the entries in which are written with 
lead pencil. 

A good deal of Mr. Sinclair's information in later years appears 
to have been obtained from Cornelius Cooper and his sister-in-law 
Lydia Cooper {lu'f Hicks), both American-born Gypsies. The 
latter was described by Mr. Sinclair as an industrious, shrewd, 
and very intelligent woman. 

A large number of words in this vocabulary do not occur in 
the Engli.sh-Ronunany list published by Professor Prince.' Where 
Professor Prince gives a ditl'erent spelling or a ditVerent meaning, 
it has been added here in brackets. For comparison I have also 
added references to Enfdish-Romani sources as noted in the list 
of abbreviations. 

The words and sentences are given here exactly as recorded in 
Sinclair's manuscripts. I have not ventured to take any liberties 
with his system of spelling or with his definitions, as my inter- 
course with American Gypsies has not been sufficiently extensive 
to allow of ray attempting emendations. The sentences have been 
gathered from a number of loose sheets of manuscript, and for 
convenience of reference they are arranged here in alphabetical 
order under the first word, 

Arhreviations 

C. Crofton (H. T.), ' Additions to Gypsy-English Vocabulary ' 
(Gypsy Lore Society Journal, v. 1, pp. 40-48. P^dinburgh, 
1889), 

* ' The English-Rommany Jargon of the American Roads.' By J. Dyneley Prince 
(American Oriental Society Journal, v. 28, pp. 271-308. New Haven, 1907). 



AN AMERICAN-ROMANl VOCABULARY 187 

r. Prince (J. D,), ' The English- Rommaiiy Jargon of the American 
Roads' (American Oriental Society Journal, v. 28, pp. 271- 
'AOH. New Haven, 1907). 

Si. Sampson (John), 'A Contribution to English-Gypsy' {G}/2)si/ 
Lore Society Jmirnal, v. 2, pp. 2-5. Edinburgh, 1891). 

S2. Sampson (J.), ' Romani Flotsam ' {Gypsy Lore Society Jour- 
nal, V. 3, pp. 73-81. Edinburgh, 1892). 

SC. Smart (B. C.) and Crofton (H. T.), The Dialect of the English 
Gypsicfi, 2 ed. London, 1875. 

KeV TU the PUONUN'CIATIOX 

a as in rm ia as in //ard r as in chin 

d „ „ tWtlier le „ „ yd <j „ „ ^yate 

a „ „ yau-n iu „ „ yim y^ „ „ Scottish loc/i 

ai „ „ I o „ „ nr>t j „ „ jest 

ftn„ „ cow 6 „ „ no n;f „ „ singer 

f ., „ met ol ., „ hoy ngg „ „ finger 

e „ „ h'^.v u „ „ cur n „ ,. .sin 

' „ ., 't a „ „ miiifn i „ ,, .9/iin 

7 „ „ hnrd ni „ ,. gl?<^?/ z ., „ zeal 

/', (/, /, /(, Ic, I, m, n, 2>, r, t, r, w, are pronounced as in English. 

Vocabulary 

1. at-, to stay, stand, remain, pitch (camp). [P. hnch. SO. afch, 

hatch.] 

2. addrde. See under ddrdi. 

3. adoi, there. [P. adoi. SC. adoi.] 

4. adre, in, into. [P. adrie, ' in, within, into.' SC. adre.] 

5. akai, here. [P. ahy. SC. akei.] 

6. and, han, to bring, to fetch. [P. rXldar, 'bring, fetch, carry.' 

SC. and, hand.] 

7. dnj, hdnj, to scratch. [SC. honj, ' the itch, to itch.' C. honjer, 

' to scratch.'] 

8. dnjahen, the itch ; vb. scratches. 

9. dnjen, hdnjen, to itch, itching, .scratch. 

10. anji, dnji, it itches. 

10a. anker, dnko, life (?). Cf. sent. 66. 

11. aj)opU. See under popli. [P. apopli 'back' (adv.). SC. 

ap6p>li, ' again.'] 



188 AN AMERICAN-KOMANI VOCABULARY 

12. aj)rB, upri, uprB, fijyro, iiprO, opri, pre, pro, up, upon. on. [P. 
apree, 2)re. SC. apre, ojyre. ] 

18. dra, cent (U.S. coin). [C. haure, a. pi., ' pennies/ lit. ' coppers. ' 

S2. x^''^''''^> ' penny.' SC. koi^^o, hoi'ro.]' 

14. atras. See under tras. 

15. <2i/U, come. [P. at, ' come' (only imperative). SC. ar.] 

16. rfm, yes. [V. dro. SC. adm.] 

17. avail, yes indeed, that is so. [P. dvali, longer form of dvo. 

SC. advali.^ 
IS. arelen, cvelen, coming. [SC. are7in.] 

19. arri, dvrl, ovri, out, away, oh'. [V. avree. SC. avree, avri] 

20. hnidtigrro, haidi\gro, baiengero, baiengro, vaidiyger'i, vest, 

waistcoat. [P. voiigrec, ivongrc^'. SC. bdngnrec SI. 
bai-eiigri.] 

21. hdkdro, Itdkaro, hdkcro, sheep, lamb. [P. Wcro, ' goat, sheep.' 

SC. hokoro, bdkro.] 

22. bakt, bnx, '"'x'- ^"^^' fortune. [P. bok. SC. bok, boxt.] 

23 bal, hair. Cornelius Cooper, May 11)00, gave bdl. [P. bdl. 
SC. bal.] 

24. bdbivas,bdlc'vaK, vdlevas, bacon, ham, Y>ork. [F. bdllovas. S( . 

bdb'no-iiian, bdlovda.] 

25. 6a^o, pig. [P. trtuZo. SC. 6<nt/o.] 

26. bar, stone ; a pound sterling. [P. bar. SC. bar.] 

27. 6a?', fence, hedge. [P. bar, 'garden, hedge'; bur, 'hedge.' 

SC. bor, ' hedge.'] 

28. bdri, enceinte. [SC. bauri, ' pregnant.'] 

29. bdro, b&t^o, pdro,^ big, heavy. [P. boro, ' big, large.' SC. bauro.] 

30. bars, testicles. [P. pUe. SC. bdryaw.] 

31. bd^dmengera , fiddle. See under bosamengrro. 

32. bd.<av, to play. [SC. bosh.] 

33. bd.snven, to play. [ ? Rather ' playing,' cf. sent. 21. See also boi*.] 

34. bdvio, rich. [P. bdrvelo. SC. bdrvalo.] 

35. 6dw>/, wind. [P. bavol, ' air, wind.' SC. bdval.] 

'SC). beng, devil, temper. [? Is the definition ' temper ' due to con- 
fusion with ' tempter ' ?] [P. btng. SC. bang, bnuj. 
S2. bing.] 

37. bengald, bad-tempered, peevish. [SC. bdiigaU, ' wicked, devilish ' 
C. bengales, ' wickedly.' Si. bongalo, ' blackguardly.'] 

^ Possibly a survival of p'aro, ' heavy " ; but, as that is not fouDcl in auy vocjibu- 
lary of English Romani, it is probablj' only Mro mispronounced. 



AN A^rERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 189 

38. bera, biro, boat, ship. [P. beero. SC. bairo, bero.] 

89. bes, a year. [P. b^sL SC. besh.] 

40. bes, to sit, stay, live. [P. b^sh, ' sit, lie.' SC. be.^h.] 

41. bibi, blbJ, bivi, aunt. [P. beebee, 'aunt, any elderly female 

relative.' SC. beebee or beebi.] 

42. 61^1, 6/rar, to send. [P. bicher. SC. bitcher] 

43. 6i7.v'w, to sell. [P. biJckin. SC. 6a-/».] 

44. 61710, born. [P. beeno. SC. beeno.] 
45 6i.'?e7i, rain. [SC. brishindo, bishno.] 
45a. biseno, rainy. 

46. bi^ens, bisevens, bi^uvis, it rains. [SCJ. brishinda.] 

47. 6<7a, 6<7a, 6i^o, little, a little. [1\ hitti; as adj. 6i^to. SC. 

bitto (masc), bltti (feni.).] 

48. bivi. See under bibi. 

49. bivlijnvol. Hee vxnder piviijif vol. 

50. bdiKjfjo, vonrjga, lame. [P. bongo, ' crooked, left hand.' SC. 

boiif/o, ' left, wrom.,', crooked, lame.'] 
50:i. bdro. See under 6f?rc». 

51. bo.s, Hddle, music. [P. bilsh, 'violin.' SC. bosh, 'a fiddle, to 

Hddlo.'J 

52. boti, bdfinren, to play, playing. 

53. bokimengct'o, bCiMdmeTujcra, bosemengero, Hddle, any musical 

instrument. [P. bdnliomengro, ' violin player.' SC. boslio- 
mengri {-gro), ' piper, tiddler, a riddle, music.'] 

54. bosfo, bosto, saddle. [P. boshto. S(J. bushto, boshta.] 

55. br(')kla, cauliHower. [Eng. broccoH-l 

56. badika, biitehi, store, shop. [SC. boodega, boodika.] 

57. biigenis, biignis, smallpox. [P. bugnee. SC. booge iiyas.] 

58. biijenggeros, bujengeros. See under buSengeros. 

59. bnklo, hungry. [P. bokkalo. SC. bokalo.^ 

60. 6(T?, a7ius, buttocks. [?.bidl. SC. 6oo/, ' rump.'] 

61. ' hnX'-jnkol, bull-dog. This name is applied to a man, mean- 

ing, ' a disagreeable fellow.' 

62. busengeros, bicjenggeros, bujengeros, spurs. [P. biisaha, ' spur.' 

SC. poosomengri, ' spur.'] 

63. biisnikost, Q. s}^\\.. [SC. sy^wgradrus, 'skewer, spit.'] 

64. bnsno, a spit. 

65. busnol, a spit for meat. 

66. bicso grai, a stallion. [P. iMengro. SC. barengro-, bareskro- 

grf^i.] 

67. but, much. [P. but, bufi, ' much, very.' SC. boot, booti.] 



190 AX AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 

68. hutedSr, more, better. [See also under feterder.'] 

69. hnteka. See under hndika. 

70. hvti , work, to work. [P. JiTit, bdti. S( '. booti, hootsi] 

71. rd,cdr, gra^s. [[\ c/kiv. 'SCchor.] 

72. cd, cok, boot, shoe; pi, ms. [P. rhokkcv^, 'shoes.' 8C cholc, 

clioklccr, ' shoe, boot.'] 

73. rd, lid, to eat, to chew. [The form rd is probably due to the 

influence of American dialectal 'chaw.' P. hmi'. S< ' 
Jtaw, hoi, kol. S2. ;^d.] 
74-. aif'i, rdfo, rfifa, cufa, coat, skirt. [P. rhukko. SC chokk". 
chu-)(o, chakka. See also under cnkn.^ 

75. ('dkenffcrd , cokengero, shoemaker. [S< '. chokengro, chokengri.] 

76. ctil, rdlov, to take hold of, to strike. [SC chdlav, ' to touch, 

meddle.' Paspati tchaUivdca, ' to beat.'] 

77. cdr. See under rd. 
77a. cave, child. 

78. cdvl, girl. [SC vhnrl, ' child,' fern.] 

79. rdvo, boy. [P. chavo. SC. chdv<>, ' child,' masc] 

80. cereno. See under 'V?***. 

81. Mriklo, ririkln, bird. [P. '•/"'/•/V.-A*. S< ". elm riklu, muse. ; cfm- 

rikli, fern.] 

82. (•t'j'o, cdrfiio, vevino, ceritim, roro, v6r<>, cdreno, lean, jjoor, not 

rich. [P. choro. S< ' rli<»',r<i. masc; c/iodri. fern., 'poor, 
humble.'] 

83. ci/>, tongue, lanouage. [V. ch'di. S(\ chlh, rhiv,jib.] 

84. cftT, vicf, very cheap, nothing [P. chichi. SC. chichi, 

'nothing.'] 

85. cik, mud, dirt, ashes. [P. chU: SC. c/< //.-.] 

86. c"(Ho, dirty, muddy. [P. chlklo. SC. chiklo (masc). chikli, 

(fem.).] 

87. cil. See under <?7. 

88. ^in, to cut. [P. r/tln. SC. chin.] 

89. Sinemdngpra, rineiningero, a letter. [S(v. chinomeskro, ehivo- 

mengro, rhinomongri.] 

90. cinemeskero, razor, axe, cutting instrument [in general]. [P 

chlnameskro 'chisel.' SC. chinomenkro, chinomeiigr< ' . 
chinomovgri.] 

91. cinger, to tear, to quarrel. [P. chlnger 'to tear, rip.' SC. 

chingar.] 

92. cingeren, quarrelling. 



AN AMERICAN-ROM AXI VOCABULARY 191 

93. 6ir'iklo. See under ceriklo. 

94-. cirus, Stria, time. [P. cherus. S(J. cheerus, cheer.] 

95. cir, CUV, to put, to place, to bury. [P. chiv, 'put, set, place.' 

SC. chiv, ' to put, place, pour.'] 
95a. civet, placed, buried. 

96. coli. 8ee under cd. 

97. cokeiKjero. See under mkingerd. 

98. ktn, moon. So said Cornelius Cooper in 1909. [?.chOn. SC. 

choumJ\ See also under kam. 

99. (for, to steal. [P. c/iot-. S( '. chor.'] 

100. J(7r, a thief. [P. chdramtngro. SC. c//w', choromeiigro.] 

101. (Tt/ro. See under ceVo. 

102. <rrf/«. See under c<7/<'. 

lO.S. <;<<A.vf, <'»/)«, sack, coat, a woinans jacket. [P. chukko. SC. 
chuoko. See also under 6dfa.] 

104. ^keni, Sfikni, a whip. [P. chukurc SC. chookni, choohi^e.] 

105. crfwrt, a kiss. [P. c/m7Vier. SC. ch(f6ma.] 

106. Mmlxi, Sdmho, a hill. [P. chumha. SC. choomha, choombo.] 

107. 6ihnini, iumeni, something. [P. chnmanis, ' anything, 

soiiiething ' ; chnmano, 'any oue, some one.' SC. choo- 
vioui.] 

108. <?iip(/. See under cnka. 

109. {lireiKK See under ci?ro. 

1 10. Sflri, knife. [P. churee. SC. chooi'i.] 

111. <fitro. See under (TM^. 

112. (Ttti', to bury. See under c^ir. 

113. J'rfiuAon, a witch. [P. c/toi'iArfiic?. SC. choovikon, chovihdni.] 



114. (^((d, (/tt(/, father. [P. dad, ddckis. SC. cZarZ, dddus.] See 

115. cZdrff. See under ddrdi. 

116. dfidengero, bastard. [SC. dndengro, dadomengro.] 

117. ddduff, dddis, father. See dad. 

118. dai, mother. [P. dy. SC. dei.] 

119. c?«)i, tooth ; pi. dans. [P. ciaw^. SC. dan.] 

120. ddnda, ddndar, dander, to bite. [P. fZan^. SC. dander, 

dand, dun.] 

121. (Zarrf?', do^^li, ddde, addrde, here, hither, look here. [P. gives 

dordi as an exclamation, ' my ! ' SC. as an interjection, 
'lo, behold,' etc.] 



192 AN A.MEUICAN-110MANI VOCABULARY 

122. (Id, did, to give, to strike: dulen. apre, reading. [1*. dtl. SC. 

del, ' to give, kick, hit, read.'] 

123. delaben, a present. [SC. dino, del-lo-mdndi] 

124. delded, given. 

125. de§, ten. [P. dish. SC. desk.] 

126. dik, to see, look. [P. dik. SC. dik.] 

127. dlkelo. See under dikld. 

128. diken, looking. 

129. dikio, bed-bugs [? a corruption of lik]. 

130. dikld, dikf'lo, a handkerchief, table-cloth, towel, napkin, shawl^ 

[P. dlklo, ' tiag, rag, dishclout.' SC. dlklu, ' handkerchief, 
necktie, etc.'] 

131. dinlo, a fool, foolish. [P. dtninio. SC. dinilo, dlnh, dhd^e 

(foTii.), ' fool ' ; dlnveri, ' silly, foolish."] 
IS2. dives, divit<,diviis, day. [P.dlvvus. SCdivvu^i. S2. diress.] 

133. divia ?ml*f, crazy man. [V. dtviiui,' m&d, crazy.' SC. div to, 

divioo, ' mad, wild.] 

134. diris. Hee under dives. 

135. divus. See under dives. 

136. dordi. See under ddrdi. 

137. d'lvl, ribbon. [P. dori, ' rope.' SC. d4ri, ' string, twine, riband, 

navel.'] 

138. ddrls, reins. [Colloquially ' ribbons.'] 

139. '/f'/sfa, enough, plenty, nuich, too much. [P.dosta. SC.ddsta.} 

140. dovCi. See under duva. 

141. dnd), medicine, poison. [P. drab. SC. di^ih.] 

142. drahemjero, doctor. [P. drabemjro, ' physician, chemist.' 

SC. drabei}(/ro, drubengri, ' druggist, doctor.'] 

143. dril, pedere. [SC. 7nl.] 

144. drill. See under trin. 

145. drum, road. [P. drain, ' way, road.' SC. dnwi.] 

146. dild, a light. [P. dud, ' light, moon, lamp, month.' SC. doofl.] 

147. dili, diir, two. [P. duee. SC. do6'i. S2. dwl] 

148. fZu/uv/, diiker, to hurt, to ache, pain. [P. duk, 'pain, spirit'; 

dukker, 'hurt.' S(A dooker.] 

149. dfiker, to ache. See under dvka. 

150. diiker, diika, dnh'ren, to tell fortunes. [P. dukker. SC. 

(/u/c/c67'.] 

151. dukeren. See under diiker. 

152. rftti. See under rfz-^ 
152a. diden, kicking. 



I 



AN AMERICAN-ROMAXI VOCABULARY 193 

152b. ddly^r, to hit, to strike. 

1 53. diimo, back. [P. dumo. SC. doomo.] 

1 54. dur, diiro, far. [P. duro, ' far, distant.-" S( '. door, ' far, long.'] 

155. diiva, dovd, that (pronoun and conjunction, of. sent. 52). [P. 

dovo. SC. dovn, ' that, it.'] 

156. diiva cirus, then. [Lit. 'that time.'] 

157. duvel, duvahel, God. [P. durel. SC. c/oo're/, ' God ' ; davel, 

' God, sky, star." ] 

158. evelen. See under 'f^Vert. 



I 5f). /tx^'no, false, counterfeit. [V.fdshono. SC. foshono] 

I tJO. fer, circus, fair. [ = Eni,dish ' fair.' SC. fdirus.] 

1(51. feterder,fetrrder,hettGT. [P. f^dednr. SQ. fin^adair, fetta- 

dnir, fetUiddiro.] 
I(j2. fettrderus, best. [The only example of a superlative.] 
1G3. tick, hog's fat. [English dialect ' Hick.'] 
I(j4. tiick, flick( n, flip, ipiick. [P. /f?c/t, 'clever.' Cf. Eng. dialect 

' flick ' = a sudden jerk or movement, to move rapidly.] 
I(i5. flip. See under ' flick.' 
16G foki, folk, people. [i\ foki. SC. /u//a (pron. /o'/a).] 

167. ior, before. 

168. {orbimdo, forgotten. [P. bisner. SC. hisser, 'to forget.'] 

169. (jad, shirt. [P. gad, ' shirt, chemise.' SC. gad.'] 

170. gdjo. See under (/ch-jo. 

171. gar jo. See under r/Jrjo. 

172. gar, town, city, village. [P. gdv. SC. gar. S2. gov.] 

173. gerl. See under giro. 

174. gSro. See under gtru. 

175. gil, glli, newspaper. [SC. ghilyaics,, ghUyengri.] 

176. gil, gill, a song, to sing. [P. gillee, ' sing ; a song.' SC. ghU.] 
.177. giliengro, gilier, singer. 

178. <jfi7ier. See under giliSrtgro. 

179. giro, girl, giro, boy, young man. [P. geero, ' person, fellovv-.' 
SC. gdiro, ' man. Only applied to ^aitjios.' S2. gora, goro, 
' man.'] 

180. giv, oats, wheat, grain, any horse-feed. [P. gtv. SC. yhiv.] 

181. glim, sun. [A slang word.] 
82. godld. See under gddlo. 

VOL. IX. — Nos. in.-iv. N 



194 AN AMERICAX-ROMAXT VOCABULARY 

183. godli, trouble, noise. [P. godlee, ' thunder, noise ' ; f/udl<>, 

'story, noise.' SC. godli.] 

184. godlo. See under giidlo. 

185. gdl, pie, sausage, pudding. [SC. g&i.] 

186. gorjiken, non-Gyp.sy. [P. gdrjiko, ' Gentile.' SC. gorjikayia.] 

187. gorjo, gdjo, gdrjo, a non-Gypsy. [P. govjo. SC. gaujo, 

gaujer.] 

188. grdfnl, krdfni, a nail, button. [P. Ivdfnee. SC. kradfni^ 

krdfni. See also krd/nes and knifni.] 

189. ^rai, horse, [F. gry. SC. grei. S2. grast.] 

190. grais M,i, horseshoe. [The only name Cornelius Cooper, one 

of Sinclair's Gypsy informants, ever heard for ' horseshoe.' 
He never heard oi petalo, the pure Gypsj^ name. Sinclair 
adds: ' I have asked several recently [1900] who say the 
same.' SC greiesto-chok.] 

191. grdnza, grdnzo, a stable. [P. grdnya, ' barn.' SC. grdinsi, 

grditza.] > 

192. grdsni, mare. [P. grasnee. SC. grdsni. C. gresia.'] 

193. gruveni, griivni, gfirrtvnl, giiruv, grrtvili, ox, cow. [P. 

grCtvnee, ' cow.* SC. groovni, grooven.] 

194. grilvili. See under gruveni. 
194a. grdvni. See under gruveni. 

195. gffdlo, gvdln, gudiv, sugar. [P. gudlo, 'sweet, honey.' SC. 

goddli,goddl().] 

196. gdno, guna, a bag, sack. [P. gunno. SC. gdno, gnnno.] 

197. gflrnv, giirrtvni. See under fl'rufe7ii. 

198. hd, to eat. See under cd. 

199. hdhen, victuals, food. [P. laibben. SC. hdben, koben.] 

200. /((ten, eating. 

201. Jian, bring. See under and. 

202. hdnj, Jidrijen. See dnj, dnjen. 
202a. hdnke teri, life (?), sents. 66, 121. 
208. Jierd. See under huTiLv. 

204. Iieruv. See under hiiruv. 

205. hev, window, hole. [P. hPb. SC. Itev, Icev. S2. kev, -^^ev, 

'hole.'] 

206. kevias, hdvyas, nits. 
206a. hi, is, sents. 58, .208. [Possibly borrowed from German 

Gypsies in America.] See also sL 

207. hidzds. See under idzas. 



AN AMEIUCAX-ROMANI VOCABULARY 195 

208. horar, hocer, to burn. [P. hvcher. SC. hotelier, hotch. S2. 

■X^otchfr.] 

209. hocaren, burning. 

210. ho6iwici, hedgehoor. [P. hdchewichee. SC. hofchi-witchi.] 

211. hiika, to cheat. [P. /iitW, 'lie, boast, deceive.'] 

212. Inikdben, a. Vie. [P. hdkerhen. SC. hookapen, lioxaben.] 

218. hnlevo, stocking; pi. Mlevas. [P. hdvalo. SC. hoolavers, 
'stockings.' C. holara. S2. xolavd, 'stockings.'] 

2r3a. hdrrov. See under Atu^tr. 

214. /nrr?t.v. See under /itirur. 

2 1 '). h liruv, hih-rov, h4i\l, fieriiv, humis, leg. [F. hh-ree, ' leg, wheel 
of a wagon.' S( '. hero, herer, ' leg, wheel.'] 

2IG. /(/ras, /tic^zas, clothes. [P. heezis. SC. eezaw. S2. id za.] 

217. iijur. See under ingyer, vb. 

218. I ngijer, fceces, dung, manure. 

219. ingiff)', igur, cacare. [SC. hinder. S2. Jt wing,' cacare.'] 

220. ir, snow. [P. ylr. S(,'. hiv, iv.] 

221. jd,jd,Jdl,jol, to go. [P.jaiv, • go, walk.' SC. jal,Jaiv, etc.] 

222. jdl. See under ^d. 

223. j in, to know. [P. yi>i, • know, understand.' SCJin. S2.jati.] 

224. ji»', to live. [V.jlr. SC.jii-.] 

225. jol. See under jdl. 
22(i. Jab. See under J /Ir. 

227. jiikal, jdko, jiikol, dog. [P. jukkal. SC. jookel, jook.] 

228. jnko, jiikol. See wwdeT j nkal. 

229. jHV./it6, louse. [P. ./<^. SC. joo'va. S2. /ua.] See also j)i^uw. 
220. j Orel, jii vol, woi\\w[\. [P. jiva. SC. joovel.^ 

231. A-aj, where. [P. /.;'/. SC. A-^i. S2. kea.] 

232. kaimengeros,, beau-catchers. [Flirts, coquettes.] 

233. kdkd, uncle. Cornelius Cooper in 1909 gave kdko, ' grand- 

father.' [P. kdko. SC. koko.'] 

234. kal, kel, cheese. [P. kil, ' butter, cheese.' SC. kal.'] 

235. kdla, kdlo, black. [P. kaulo, 'black, lazy.' SC. kaillo, masc. ; 

kailli, fern.] 

236. kdliko, yesterday. [P. kdliko. SC. Jcdliko.] 

2:^7 kam, kan, moon. [P. chon. SC. choom, shoon, etc.] See also 

under con. 
238. kdm, kom, to love, like, desire, to want. [P. kaum. SC. kom.] 



196 A\ AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 

239. kdmahen, love, a lover. [1*. kdmmoben, 'love' (abstract). 

SC. komoben, ' love, friendship."] 

240. kxin, moon. See under Inm. 

241. lean, stink, to stink. [P. kaun. SC. kan, kdnder.'] 

242. kan, ear ; pi. kanid. [P. Jean. SC. kan.] 
248. Jcana. See under kend. 

244. kdna sig, right away ! now quick ! [P. kSnnd - sig. SC. 

kdnna sig, ' immediately.'] 

245. kandngero, kandngerd, kanengcro, rabbit, hare. [P. kanen- 

gro, 'rabbit.' SC. kanengro, kanengri, ' hare.'] 

246. kdni, Jcdno, Jcanhi, chicken, hen. [P. kdni. SC. kdnni, 

Jcdxni.] 

247. kdr. See under ker. 

248. kardkalo, a servant. [C. kairikeni. ' housekeeper.' S2. 

ket^iJcani.] 

249. kdri. See under kori. 

250. /ra.s, hay. [P. kns. SC. /ats.] 

251. kastogis, hay-rick. [P. kas-stoggiui. SC. kasdngro, and 

stug^i, ' stacks.'] 

252. ka.^t, kos, ko.U, stick, wood. [P. h'^sht. SC. koshf.] 

253. katsis, scissors. [P. kdtsi. SC, katsers, kattiies.] 

254. /i^ec^ed, did, made. [SC. ^rrfo, etc.] 

255. kek, kekd, no, not. [P. kek, ' no more ; ' kekker, ' no, never.' SC. 

kek."] 

256. kel. See under /.«/. 

257. kel, to dance. [P. /u?^, ' play any instrument, spori." SC. kel] 

258. kelen, dancing. [SC. hil'ing.] 

259. kend, kdna, now. [W kennd. SC keiidiv, knaw.] 

260. ker, kdr, house. [P. kaii: SC. kair,] 

261. A-er, /L-wr, to do, make, put, shut. [\\ kalr. ^C. kair.] 

262. /re/" a;?r^, to write. 

263. kerdo, done. [P. ko^o, ' made.' SC. M?o, kairdo.] See also 

A:airfZo. 

264. keren, putting. 

265. keri, kere, kriri, to or at home. [P. ktrri. SO. kSH, kere.] 

266. kester, kistCi, to ride. [P. klstur. SC. kester, klster. S2. 

His^er.] 

267. HJeiJia, saloon, tavern, inn. Cornelius Cooper in 1909 gave 

kicemo. [P. ktchema. SC. kitcJiema.] 

268. /a^, butter. [P. /ci^, ' butter, cheese.' SC. kil.] 

269. kin, to buy. [P. kin. SC. /«'«.] 



AX AMERICAN-ROMAN! VOCABULARY 197 

270. hino, tired. [P. klnlo. SO. kino, kinno, etc.] 

271. kisi, kisi, pocket-hook. [P. klssi. SO. kisi, ' puvse.'] 

272. kisfa. See under kesfer. 

27-3. klisen, klissen, klissene, key, lock and key, handcuff. [P. klisin. 
SO. klisin, 'lock' ; klerin, 'key.' S2. klizn, 'clasp, buckle.'] 

274. ko, wlio. [P. kun. SC. ko.] 

275. koklo, kiikolo, kfikolo, a doll, [P. kfikalo, ' goblin.' SO. kookdo.] 
27j6. /i:o?>i,. See under kdm.. 

277. komla, komlo, s^ood-natured, [SC. komdo, 'loving, kind, 

dear.'] 

278. knna, when. [SC. kdnna, konna."] 

279. kdiif/rr, kongd, to comb. [SC. konga, kongl.'] 

280. ki'mgeri, kongl i, konggo, a comb. [P. kongli. SC. kongali.'] 
2H1. kongeri, konggrl, kongri, church. [P. kongree. SC. kongeri, 

kongri] 
2S2. konggo. See under kongeri. 

283, kongli. See under kongeri. 

284. kopar, kdppo, blanket; pi. kopai'S. [SC. I'o/i/w.] 
28.5, Awi, /i«?"?, penis ; domestic cock. [SC. /ravn'/.] 

286. Aro"^, /lo.s7. See under /ta.^^ 

287. A-o'ra, that. [P. Av//'0, ' this.' SC. '/wr^vv.] 

288. k'h'ti, kiiva, hivo (sent. 22), thing, something. [P. kovva. 

SC. bivva.] 
280. knifews. See under krdfnes. 

290. krdfnes, krdfenes, buttons. See also krdfni and grdfni. 

291. krdfni, button. See also under grdfni. [P. krdfnee. SC. 

kradfni, krdfni, etc.] 
291a. A->'/77cw.9, Sunday. [P. /Lm'?'//,-^,'?, ' week, Sunday.' SC. /crooVco, 
* week ' ; kooroko, kooroki, ' Sunday.'] 

292. kCikdvl, kettle, tea-kettle. [P. kekdvi. SC. kekdvi.] 
29*1 kfikavl-kc^t, kettle-stick, crane. 

294. knkero, self, [P. kokkero. SC. kokero, kokero.] 

295. kilk6li<t, bone, [P. kdkalos. SC, kokdlos, etc.] 

296. kukolo. See under /i:o7t*^o. 

297. Avl^ct, a shilling. [SC. /to7^/, M^i, ' things, shillings.'] 

298. kumiev, kumini, more. [P, ktimee. SC. A;o?7ii, komodair, 

'more,' kdmeni, 'some.'] 

299. kur, to do. See under ker. 

300. A-/7r, to tight, beat. [P. kilr. SC, koor.] 

301. A-rt7V(, A-ilro, kiiro, cup, mug. [P. /cwrro, cup, glass. SC, 

koori, koro, kiira.^ 



198 AN AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 

302. kfirdmengero, soldier. [P. kvromengro. SC. kooromengro.] 

303. hiirdo, done. [SC. hairdo^ See also k^rdo. 

304. kuredo, blind. See also under kilrono. [P. kordo. SC. kdi'o, 

kuredo, korodo, kdrdi.] 

305. kiiri,. See under ksri. 

306. kiirlo, throat. [P. gidlo. SC. kdrlo, kur.] 

307. kiiro, kiiro. See under kfira. 

307a. /.;w?'o, spoiled. Sent. 84b. [? a mistake for ^)?iro, ' old ' or 
kerdo, ' done for.'] 

308. kurono, kiirono, blind. See also under kiiredu. 

309. kilrov, to cook, boil. [S( '. ke'rai:] 

310. kfirren, war, to fight, lighting. 
310a. M-^^«7, well. 

311. kiisto, good. [P. kushto, good, happy. S( '. kooshto, koosjiko. \ 

312. /.•rf?;a. See under kova. 

313. /.vfv?,, onion. [? = ' things.'] 

314. Icic, Idea, to find. [P. ^ac//, ' Hnd. meet.' S( -. ^a<c/t.] 

315. Idrerdo, lo(\n'd, found. [SC, Idtchno.] 

316. lade. See under /^'A-e. 

317. /«j, shame. [I\ /a/', 'shame, shamed.' SC ladj.] 

318. /ay'd, lar, ashamed. [( '. ladjado.] 

319. bike, lade, she, her. [1*. Idki, Idtti. SC. WH, Idkro.] 

320. /(/r, word. [P. ^7r. SC. ^«f.] 

321. ^eZ, ^?t^, take, to take. [P. /?/, 'get, receive, acquire." S(\ lei.] 

322. /e'lifZe, he, him, she, they, them. [P. Ihide, they, them. SC. 

len, ' them ' ; Undi, ' to them, them,' etc.] 

323. lendis, they. 

324. les, Engl. ' let us.' 

325. leste, Usti, he, him, she, her, you, your. [P. Hater, ' he, hini.' 

SC. lesfi, ' his, her, it.'] 

326. likia, likyas, lice. [SC. lik, ' nit.'] 

327. lil, paper, letter, card, book, dollar ; pi. lilia or lilya. [P. Ill, 

' letter, book.' SC. lil, ' book, paper.'] 

328. livena, liveno, livna, ale, beer. [P. IH'inor. SC. livena, etc.] 

329. locardi. See under Idrerdo. 

330. Iner. See under Inr. 

331. lul. See under lei. 

332. Zfl/o, red. [P. lollo. SC. /o7r>, etc.] 

333. liin, salt. [P. /u7?. St.'. loii.] 

334. /ar, Zifer, robber. [SC. loor, ' to rob, plunder.'] 



AN AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 199 

335. hlva, luvo, money. [P. lUvvo. SC. lava, loovo, lovo.] 

336. Ifiveni, Itivnl, prostitute. [P. Inheni. SC. loobni, luvni.] 

337. md, md, vidr, mor, do not. [P. man, nior. SC. maa, 

maw.'l 

338. mdci, fish. [P. macho. SC. mdtcho, mdtchi.] 

339. rruicJcd, vuUka, cat. [P. machka. SC. matchka. S2. 

tnaksti.'] 

340. md ilvl, mdiliju, doTikey. [P. myla. ^C. meila, Tnoila.] 

341. mdkli. See under mdriJdi. 

342. imiklls. See under mdriklis. 

343. 9Ha7J, mdnde, mange, I, me. [P. mdndi. SC. wan, Tndndi, 

mdnghi.] 
344 mdnde. See under m<7n. 

345. mdng, mong, to beg, to want. [P. mCmg. SC'. 7no7i,r/.] 

346. mdnge. See under 9/m7i. 

347. mdr, ?n<ir, to kill. [P. ?n'77', ' die, kill.' SC. waur, 7?io?'.] 
34S. inari'i. See under mdro. 

349. mdrikli, m4kli, murikli, a cake. [P. mdlliko, mdriklo. SC. 

350. mdriklis, mdklis, mdriklis, beads. [SC. merikios, Tneriklies, 

' beads, bracelets.'] 

351. /Hfiro, mdrd, bread. [P. mdro, mdnro. SC. mauro. S2. 

7)UnJ7'0.] 

352. mdrtikO, hammer. [Fr. marteau.] 

353. 77105, meat, flesh. [P. mas. SC. 77ia.s.] 

354. mdsov, a fat animal [? Engl. ' mass of fat']. 

355. mdto, mdta, drunk. [P. mdtto. SC. motto, masc. ; motti, fem.] 

356. men, neck. [SC. men.'\ 

357. menge, mengi, we, us. [P. niende. SC. mdiule, ' to us, we, 

us ' ; menghi, ' me, we.'] 

358. mer, mur, to die. [P. nier, mor, muller. SC. mer, mel.] 

359. mSriben, muriben life, to kill. [SC. meriben, meripen, ' death, 

life.'] 

360. 7nf, me, my. [SC. me, ' I ' : mi-, ' my.'] 

361. 7Jifa, mir, mile. [P. »iee. SC. meea.] 

362. 7ni7its 7)1 mj, female, woman. [Rede, jmdendum muliebre. P. 

minch, ' pudendum feminse.' SC. mindj, minsh.] 

363. 7n?r. See under 7)ifa. 

363a. 77itVo, my. [P. meero, ' my, mine.' SC. meiro meiri, etc.] 

364. misto, more. 



200 AN AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 

365. misto, imUto, better. [P. mtshio, 'glad, good.' iiC. mishto, 

misto, ' well, good, glad.'] 

366. maker, to dirty or spoil (a dish or cup). [SC. moker, ' to foul, 

dirty.'] 

367. moh'rd, spoiled, 

368. inoklo, dirty. [SC. ino^odo, mookedo.] 

369. mpiig. !See under mdng. 
369a. mor. See under ind. 

370. mul, face, mouth. [P. tnnee. SC. mooi.'] 

371. 7>i<7/c, let, allow. [P. 7«w/i, ' let, leave.' SC. moo/.-.] 

372. imiktd, vinkto, box. [P. mvkto. SC. iiiokto, 7Ho;^^>.] 

373. mukyad, mukyerd, a trunk, [a variant oi imiktal] 

374. ?H??7o, dead. [P. 7)ih//o, ' corpse, dead man, ghost.' SC. 7)ioo7o.] 

375. mdhcrit, tin. [P. moUauvis, 'pewter.' SC. viulos, violov, 

' lead.' S2. millavos, ' lead, solder.'] 

376. mdinli, vifimli, mdmeli, & candle. [V. vuhnrli fZ»(Z, ' candle,' 

lit. ' wax-light.' SC. vidmbli, mihnli. C. moovii.] 

377. nuhnli kos, a candlestick. 

378. »iM?'. See under ?)«<??'. 

379. mdi'av, to shave. [SC. morov.] 

380. ?)i?tmi;en, shaving. 

381. m/<?'en, to die, dying. 

382. mdriben, to kill. See also meriben. 

383. mdriben, life. See under meriben. 

384. mdrikli. See under mdrikli. 

385. nidriklis. See under »utri/i7<'s. 

386. mzlsA"c?'o, iHtts/cro, policeman. [P. f/af'-»iii.s/<. SC. mooshkcro, 

mooshero.] 

387. mdskero-kost, policeman's club. [SC. mous/i kero-kosht.] 

388. 7Hils, man ; pi. mfiSas. [P. mush. SC. 7)ioos/i.] 

389. mdsto. See under wU<o. 

390. muter, mfiter, urine: vb., to urinate. [P.miLfter. SCmdter.] 

391. m li teram^nge ro, tesipot. [SC. ?/i<t<^'ri7nJ7i^e/'i, ' tea ' ; mi<<crr- 

viongeri-koova, ' teapot.'] 

392. mtiteremenffOymatiUa. [P. mu/^e^'mengr/w", ' urinal,' also ' tea.' 

SC. 7>i?<^ering-/.-o7«.] 

393. ndfoll, ndfolJ, sick, ill. [P. 7jff/o. SC. ndfalo, ndfali.] 

394. 7i«7<. See under nok. 

395. 7ia/i-. See under nok. 

396. ndkingero. See under nokengero. 



A\ A.MEIUCAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 201 

o97. ndngo, naked, bare. [P. ndngo. SC. nongo.] 
.Sns. mUav, ndsou, to lose, hang. [P. nasher, ' lose, forget, hang.' 
SC. nd.^Jwr. S2. nashav.l 

399. ndsovd, hanged. [SC. ndshedo, etc.] ' 

400. ndv, nav, name. [P. nav. SC. nar.'\ 

401. nevi, nivi, new. [P. nH^'o, SC. ndvo, nevo, nevi] 

402. ndgi, nugi, ntigi, niki, own, my own. [P. Tidho. SC. ndgo, 

nogo.^ 

403. nok, ndh, ndk, nose. [P. ndk. SC. no/.-.] 

404. nokengero, ndkengero, a glandered horse. [SC. nokengro, 

'snurt', glandered horse.'] 
I 405. nugi, nfigi. See under ndgl. 
400. nff/ci. See under nogi. 



I 



407. o, the. [SC. o.] 

40.S. odoi, there. [P. advi. SC. odoi, oddi.] 

409. op*5. See under apre. 

410. Jm, time, watch. [SC. ora.] 

411. om. See under arrf. 

■i\2. pdbe, p<Hm>1, i\\)Tp\e. [P. pabo. SC pdbo, pdbi.] 

413. /jd<T(/. See under y^rtsa. 

414. j)ddl,pdti, lace. 

415. /»«rfo, jJtn'tZo, ji)»7'f/o, lull. \V. pordo. SC. pordo. C.jydrder, 

• to till.'] 

416. pddol. See under prt>c?ai. 

■^Xl . pdias, pdida, pCirids, iwn. [?. pgas. SC. peias.] 

418. 2>«Z, brother. [P. paL SC. ^>rtl Si. pral] 

419. paM, behind. [P. ^a//er, ' follow,' SC paldl,pdlla^ 
\2.0. pale, pdli, hack. [?. paidi. SC pcmli, paule.] 

421. 2)dni, pdnl, y^&ter, sea. [?. pdnee. SC p>ttdni, pdni.] 
■i'2'2. panj, spdnj,fixe. [?. panch. SC pandj , pansh.'] 

423. pdno. See under p(7>7io. 

424. pdnum, j^dnnam, to tie. [P. jJdndei^ 'shut.' SC. pdnder, 

p>and,pan, ' to shut, tie, bind, etc.'] See sent. 156. 

425. pdpeu, pdpin, duck. [P. pappin, ' duck, goose.' SC. pidpin, 

' goose.' S2. popni, ' goose.'] 
425a. 2)«r, wing. [P. jjor/, ' feather.' SC.|909', 'feather.'] Seepori. 

426. pdrdal, pdrddl, pddol, over, across. [P. pdrdel, p)arl. SC. 

pdrdal, pdrdel.'\ 
4:21. pdrdo. See under pacZo. 



202 AN AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 

428. pdrids. See under pdias. 

429. pdrno, pdrno, pdno, white. [P. pauno. SC. pm'uo.^ 

430. pdro. See under hdro. 

431. pasa, pdsa, paser, pdda, to believe. [SC. pdtf*er. C. pdsaer, 

' to trust, borrow.'] 

432. p)dsddo, believed. 

433. paser. See under ^9a.«»nf. 

434. paten, pater n, bunch of leaves to show which way to go at 

cross-roads. [P. pf/^era??. SC. pi^7*t7j, pd/iw.] 

435. pdti. See under pWi. 

43(). pek, to roast. [P. pekker, ' bake, cook.' SC. p?/i. C. peker, ' to 
cook.'] 

437. ^^en, sister. [P. ph\. SC. pen.] 

438. pen, to say, tell, believe. \\\ phi. SC. p«?k] 

439. peiu'kel, &n iron nail. [? ;)f?ic/ira, 'nut,' misused of an 'iron 

nut ' or ' head of a nail.'] 

440. /)pr, stomach, belly, inside. See also rendri. [SC. per. 

(.'. }>eer, por, 'stomach.' S2. par.] 

441. per, pur, to fall. [SC. per, pel.] 

442. perdni. See under pirdiu. 

-i-iS. ])€8d, p^ser, to pa.y. [V. ])^8sur. iiC. pesser. ii2. plesser.] 
444. />^/g7i(i?i7e?'(>, blacksmith. [P. p?/u^'7i(/?'o. SC. petalengro.] 
44.5. 2^i, drink, to drink. [P. pec SC. pee.] 

446. indmengero, pidmdngera, tea, teapot. \SC peemengro.] 

447. pt?', to walk. [P. jjh^i. SC. ;>f<??', p/rar.] 

448. pirdnl, piram, fem., lover. [P. pireni, 'sweetheart.' SC. 

2)irini.] 

449. ptrdno, masc, lover. [SC. pirino.] 

450. pfmren, to court, make love to. [SC. pirtv.] 

451. pirdo, one having a little Gypsy blood. [SC. peerdo, ' tramp, 

vagrant.'] 

452. piren, walking. 

453. pjvi, piro, pro, foot; pi. pirls. [P. ptrri. SC. peero, peeri.] 

454. plVi, pot. [P. kilri. SC. pe^?'t, ' cauldron," etc.] 

455. pisiim, a fit. 

456. pi^um, pfi-suni, louse, Ilea; pi. 2^i.vit)«s. [P. ptshom, 'bee.' 

SC. pisham, pooshunia, ' Hea, fly, honey. ] 

457. piuk, pyuk, rat. [A cant word.] 

458. pivli jilvol,hivli jnvoliVfidovf. [P. pivii,' widow. iiC.peevli- 

gairi.] 
4i5d. pivli mus, widower. [P. plvlo. SC. peevlo-gai7'o.] 



AN AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 20S 

460. pldsta, pldda, chain, shawl. [P. plashta, ' cloak, towel, dish- 
cloth.' SC. pldshta, etc.] 

4(jl. po(/a, i>6ger, to break, broken. [P. pSgger, 'break, smash.' 
SC. 2?o<7er, po^r.] 

462. ponjnekis. See under posnehis. 

463. popli, pdpoli, apopli, again. [SC. popli, apojdi.] 

464. /)^iri, tail, feather. [P. pori, ' feather ' ; poris, ' tail.' SC. por, 

' feather ' ; pirri, ' tail, end.'] See jiar. 

465. pdrus, hill. [Evidently the same word as the following.] 

466. pOruscz, stairs, [ez = Engl. pi. P. partus, ' st.».ir ' ; pi. p)ortuses. 

S( '. poordas. ( ". pvdas.^ 
MJ7. pos, half. [P. pfish. SC. posh.] 
46S. poUira, poslcera, a cent. [SC. posh-horri, • half-penny.' See 

also under «ra.] 
Mji). poskflna, half-crown. [SC. pos/i-/i;o(/ro7ia.] 

470. pohtekis, ponjnekis, handkerchief". [P. pottg-dishler. SC. 

p. Mb, poslnvckus. S2. ^o.smajfcas.] 

47 1. prfls'/a, prdstCi, jtrdster, quick, go quick, hurry, run. [P. 

prdsfcr, ' run.' SC. prdster, pixidster. S2. prost, ' to run.'] 

472. prasteramengero, high-sheriff, deserter, run-away-horse. [P. 

prdstermingro, ' policeman, runner.' ii>C. prdstermengro, 
' runner, policeman, deserter'; prdsterom^ngro, 'deserter.'] 

473. jyre. See under api'i. 

474. 2^To. See under ajrrS. 

475. ^jwr, p<<<r, to ask. [V. packer. '^^C pootch. C. pootcher.] 

476. pAkenes, pdkenis, prix^nes, a lawyer, justice of the peace. [P. 

poknees, ' magistrate.' S(J. pokenyus, pookinyus, 'justice 
of the peace.'] 

477. piker, to tell. [P. pdker. SC. 2>ooA:er.] 

478. pnkerew, lying, a liar. 

479. piixenes. See under pvkenes. 

480. pur. See under ^^^r. 

481. jjjij'av. See under pH rot'. 

482. pdrdo. See under pddo. 

483. pfiro, para, old. [P. pHro. SC. pooro (masc. ), poori (fem.).] 

484. /)fl7*o kdkd, grandfather. [Lit. ' old uncle.' SC. pooro-ddd. 
See also under kdkd^ 

485. piirov, purav, puruv, to trade, exchange. [P. pur, ' change.' 
SC. pura, pdra.~\ 

486. pfirum, onion. [P. purum, ' onion, leek.' SC. poorumi, 
poruma..] 



204 AN AMERICAN-ROM ANI VOCABULARY 

487. piivwv. See under pitrov. 

488. pus, straw. [P. pus. SC. poos^ 

489. piisengero, adj., straw. [SC. j)oosenrfro. 'straw-rick.'] 

490. pusuTn. See under^^i^'wm. 

491. piitsi, pocket. [P. piitsi. SC. pootsi.] 

492. piitsi ketio, pickpocket. 

493. putso, duck. [S( '. retsi, retza, rdtsa.] See also rutso. 

494. puv, earth, ground. [P. ^)i7v, SC. poor. S2. pov, ' field. ] 

495. puvdkero, white turnip. 

496. piivingero, potato. [P. puvengri, ' potatoes.' S( ". poovengvi, 

poovylngri, ' potato.'] 

497. pyuk. See under ' piiik.' 

498. rdfamyas. See under I'okdimas. 

499. 7v/i, gentleman. [P- J\'/. SC. rei.] 

500. rdker, rdkcr, n'lkrr, rdker, to talk. [P. rCihr. SC. rokrr.^ 

501. Wtkli, rdkli, girl. [P. rdkli. SC. rdkli. S2. roUl] 

502. rdkld, boy. [P. rCiklo. SC. rdklo.] 

503. ran, osier; pi. r<hi?/as or n'miaa. [P. >vnj, ' cane. rod. reed." 

SC. ra?i.] 

504. rant, girl, young woman, lady. [P. nlnre, ' lady.' SC. 

rauni.] 

505. rds^ii, clergyman, priest. [P. raslnj. SC. rdshel. S2. 

?Yas/ia/.] 
50G. ?*rt/, m/, blood. [P. 7*(J^ SC. ratt.^ 
507. rdti, rdti, rdtti, night. [P. rati. SC. vadtL] 
50S. riga, riger, to bring, carry. | I'. vXkh'r. SC. righrr, etc.] 

509. rinkna, rinkno, rinlcrno, pretty. [P. rinkeno (masc), rtn- 

keni (fem.). SC. r'lnhno, etc.] 

510. r'iv, to wear. [P. rir. SC. ?'U'.] 

511. ro/, a spoon. [P. ro/. SC. ?'o/, ro?. S2. ro/;^.] 

512. rokdimas, rokeugeros, rdfamyas, trousers. [P. rokdmyas. 

SC. rokonyus, etc.] Cf. also trdiiyar. 

513. rokeugeros,. See under rokaimas. 

514. rdkrr. See under rdker. 

515. 7*om, ?'um, husband, a Gypsy. [P. rc^?n. SC. ?'o?>i.] 

51(3. rdmdni, romdnis, Gypsy. [SC. rdmano, rdmani, rdmanes.] 

517. romdniial, a male Gypsy. [P. ruinnichol. SC. romani- 

chaL] 

518. romni, rihnni, wife, a Gypsy woman. [P. rdmni. SC. 

rdmcni, etc.] 



AX AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 205 

ol9. rov. See under ruv. 

.')20. rovan. See under ruv&n. 

520a. riidahen, clothing, dress. [P. rirrahpns, ' clothes.' SC. 

roiklopen, ' dress, clothing.'] 
.521. ?'/7VZi6e>i, dressed. 

522. rtijl, rriji, clean, to clean.. [P. yozho, " clean, pure'; ruzhno, 

' bright, shining.' SC. yooso, yoozo, ' clean, pure.' S2. 
jiizhu, ' clean.'] 

523. ruk, tree; pi. j^ff'A-i/as [a double pi.]. [P. ruk. ^C. rook] 

524. rttkia, tree [? pi.]. 

525. rum. See under rom. 

52<j. rumd, rumar, rdnier, to marry. [P. rummer. SC. romer.] 
527. rHmatZ7(l, married. [S(A romado, romerQ^.] 
52S. rdmaiii. See under ?vj?7Kt?ii. 

529. I'd ma r. See under r<tmrt. 

530. rfimer. See under ru?>ia. 

531. rdmni. See under ro'm^ii. 

532. riLp, nip, silver. [P. nip. S(J. roojj.] 

533. rfl7)e7io, adj. silver. [P. ?'ilj?/)e?io, ' silvern.' SC. roopono, etc.] 

534. /'ufsc*, duck. [SC nitiM.] See also/) af so. 

535. ruv, rov, to cry. [P. rov, row, ' weep.' SC. rov.] 

536. ruven, 7*oten, crying. 

537. nlzi, flowers. [P. ruzlia, 'flower.' SC. rdzali, rdsheo.] 

538. sd, 8iir, all, every. [P. sar, ' all, how.' SC. sor.] 

539. sdln, come up [? A mistake, cf. sent. 6]. 

540. sdlil, morning. [P. saula. SC. 'sadla, 'saida.] 

541. sa/«7ii, laughing, mocking. [?] See sent. 13a. 

542. sdlordjes, solCwdges, bridle. [P. solivdris. SC. sdlivdrus, 

sdlivdrdo.] 

543. sap, snake. [P. sap. SC. sap.] 

544. sdpen, soap. [SC. sdpin.] 

545. sdr. See under sd. 

54G. sdr, sdr, so, what, how, why. [SC. sar, so.] 

547. sdrMn. See under s«srt>i. 

548. sdsta, sdsta, sdster, sdsto, chain, iron. [P. saster. SC. sdrsta, 

sdster.] 

549. sdster. See under sdsta. 

550. sdsto. See under sdsta. 

551. srtsrt'w, sdrkin, Msdn, how are you ? [P. sdrishdn. SC. .s«r 

's/<a».] 



20G AN AMEHICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 

552. sd§ta, sdsto, sdSter, kettle-stick, iron. [P. sdshta.] 

553. Santas, sdsters, handcuffs, irons. [C. sastere.] 

554. sdsto. See under sdsta. 

555. sasters. See under sastas. 

556. sav, to laugh. [P. savvi. SC. sav.] 

557. 81, is, are. [P. se, ' it is.' SC. 'see, 'si] See also hi. 

558. sig, quick. [P. stg. SC. «/«y. C. sid.] 

559. st/c^r, show, to show. [P. slicker. SC. i^iJcer. S2. sZ/oau.] 

560. sis, to have. 

561. .slv, a needle. [P. si. SC. soov.] 

562. siv, to sew. [P. slv. SC. .sv'v.] 

563. siwen, sewing. 

564. slcdme. See under skamin. 

565. skdnien, skdmin, brush, to brush. 

566. skdmin, skdme, skdmo, chair. [ P. skammin. SC. skdmin.] 

567. skdmo. See under .skdmin. 

568. skaut, a watch. [A Tinker word.] 

569. skrika. See under .vrf/tvt. 

570. skflnias, skdnyas, boots, [a double pi.]. [P. skunya, ' hoot.' 

S(J. skrunya, skdnyaivs, ' boots.'] 

571. smeltum, cream. [P. fino-tad. SC. smetiting, smentini 

C. smelt ini.] 

572. so. See under sdr. 

573. solovdges. See under stdovdjfs. 

574. sovohdl, sdvdhdl, to swear. [P. sdcahaul, .suUahaivl,' curse, 

swear.' SC. sdverhol, sdvlohol.] 

575. spdnj. See under pa/ j_y. 

576. s^dc/i, s^nZi, hat. [Wstaddi. SC. staddi, stddi, stdti] 

577. sMfZo, arrested, imprisoned. [P. stardo, 'imprisoned.'] 

578. s^tima, s/dnya, barn, stable. [P. sfdnya. ^iiJ.atdnya.] 

579. star, stdr. See under .^tdr. 

580. stdramengero, prisoner. [SC. ' steromengro. C. staromeskries, 

* prisoners.'] 

581. stdrihen, prison. [P. starihen. SC. 'steripen.] 

582. s^g^o, s/g7/, proud. [? English ' state,' ' stately.] [P. biioino. 

SC. booino.] 

583. s^igfa, gate. [SC. stigher.] 

584. silm, to smell. [P. sum. SC. soom.] 

585. sdmin, sflmun, zdmun, soup, broth. [P. .slmmun. SC. 

si^n€?i. S2. 3;n?nen.] 

586. sdniJcai, sdniki, siinekc, gold. [P. sonnaky. SC. soJnaA-et.] 



AN AMERICAN-ROMAN! VOCABULARY 207 

587. stniko, adj. of gold, golden. [SC. soonahei.'] 

588. siiti, sati,s\QQ]i. [P. sTt^io, ' a dream, to dreaui.' SC. sod^i, 'to 

sleep.' S2. sut, ' to sleep.'] 

589. siivdhdl. See under sovohdl. 

590. sdven, coition; vb. to copulate. [SC. sov. S2. suv.] 

591. suvohdlen, swearing. See also under sovohdl. 

592. swdgla, sirdgld, swdgli, a pipe. [P. sivegler, ' tobacco-pipe.' 

SC. mvdgler, sivegler.] 

593. kido, a cup. [? Metathesis or back slang, cf. SC. dash : or as 

Dr. Sampson suggests, English ' shard,' cf. ' shard of tea,' 
= 'cup of tea." (Wright, EnglisJi Dialect Dictionary.)] 

594. sdds, dishes. [Cf. Sddo.] 

595. .Vile, cabbage. [P. shok. SC. shok. S2. shox-] 

596. san, are. [SC. 'sJuin, ' art, are,' etc.] 

597. Sdsdn. See under sdSdn. 

598. Sel, one hundred. [SC. p. 162, shel] 

599. Md, Selo, halter, rope. [SC. shelo, sholo.] 
GOO. &'?-o, head. [P. sherro. SC. sUro.] 

601. sil, slow. 

602. .HI, a cold. [P. shill, ' ice.' SC. shil, ' cold, catarrh.'] 

603. siUno, adj. cold. [SC. shxlino.^ 

604. <Jo'&r,i. See under Miai. 

605. i7ar, stdr, star, four. [P. 8Af(>7-. SC. star.] 

606. .srf^a, ^rf6«, Stivd, dress. C. Cooper in April 1883 gave shuho. 

[P. shuho, 'dress, gown.' SC. shooba, shoova, gown, 
frock.'] 

607. silf, .suk, six. [P. shov. SC. shov.] 

608. h'lk. See under silf. 

609. .s-rt'Ara, ^rt'A^i, ^rt'A-ar, §f^ko, Skiika, soft, low, nice, easy, slow. [SC. 

shookdr, ' nicely, quietly, slowly.'] 

610. Mkadilo, a plate. [SC. skooddlin.] 

611. siikar. See under ^?fA;a. 

612. sukdri, sixpence. [SC. shookhauri, shaiihauri, etc.] 

613. .sfiko. See under siika. 

614. sun, to hear. [P. s^ift?!. SC. shoon.] 

615. 6^ri?i<a, listen, silence : [SC. shoonta.'] 

616. siikii, sdsai, rabbit, hare. [P. shoshoi. SC. s/iosAd, s/ios/ii. 

S2. shushai.] 

617. ^H^, vinegar. [P. shut. SC. s/ioot] 

618. fc'ff'i-a. See under s?76rt. 

619. Siivli, enceinte. [P. shnvali. SC. shoovli, shoohli.] 



208 AX AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 

620. tdci, tdco^ right, true. [P. tacho, ' true, faithful' SC. tdtcho.] 

621. tacipen, truth. [P. tdchoben. SC. tdtchipen. C. tdtchomus.'] 

622. tdco. See under ^rfc^i. 

623. tad, tad, to pull, draw. [P. iader. SC. ^d?-rfpr.] ^ 

624. tai, also, too. [SC. tei.'] 

625. ^a^g, ^<?^g, down. [P. talh'y, ' below, under.' SC. tele, taU.] 

626. tan, camp, tent, place. [P. tav. S( '. tau. tdno.] 

627. tdno. See under tdrno. 

628. tdrno, tdno, young. [P. /dno. SC. tdrno, tauno.] 

629. ^dfo, hot. [P. tdtto. S( '. tdtto.] 

630. ^(ifo cfriis, summer. [Lit. ' hot time.' SC. tdttoben.] 

631. tdto 2^'^ni, whisky. [Lit. ' hot water.' P. tdtto /»in{. H(\ 

tdtto-]jdni.] 

632. tar, tur, a smoke, to smoke. [P. Mv (vb. and noun). S( '. 

toov, toof.'\ 

633. tav, thread. [P. fnr, SC tav, taf. S2. tav, '(lace) thread '; 

turr.'^ 

634. te, to. [SC. /t'.] 

635. tele. See under /a/t-. 

636. tern, country. [P. tern. S( '. ton. S2. tlirju.] 

637. iemeiifjero, an Irishman, Irish. [S(,'. liindi-temdngro, ' irish- 

man.'] 

638. teri, terl, life, live. [?] ( "f. sents. 06, 121. 

639. til, cil, hold, to hold, to have. [I*, till, ' hold, manage.' SC. til. 

C. tiW'r. S2. /i7.] 

640. tiro, tro, thy. [l\ teero. SC. <<'eVo.] 

641. to-fZivfs, to-day. [V. to-dlrvus. SC. A'e-f/iiTus,] 

642. trdnyar, trdnyur, trousers. See also rokaimas. 

643. traS, SitraS, fear, afraid. [P. ti\ish. SC. /rasA, <r(i.s/te»\] 

644. trin, drin, three. [P. A?'m. SC. trin, tring.] 

645. tringiUi, trinisi, a shilling. [S( '. trin-gorislii.^ 

646. iro. See under tiro. 

647. tripias, trApyas, corsets. C. Cooper in April 1883 gave 

trapios. [P. truuppo, ' body.' SC. troopus, troopia, troope, 
'stays.'] 

648. tiicni, tdiini, basket. [P. trdshnee. SC. tooshni, tdshni, 

' fagot, basket.'] 

649. tad, milk. [P. tad. SC. ^ooJ.] 

650. tag, tdgd, tdgo, trouble. [P. tugnun, ' grief, sorrow ' ; tuJdi, 

' trouble, grief SC. toog, ' sorrow.'] 

651. tiildben, grease, fat. [P. tdllohen. SC. tdllopen.'] 



AN AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 200 

li52. hilo, adj., fat. [P. tullu. SC. tullo, tidli'] 

653. Msd, all about you, with you. [SC. tussa, ' with thee, thee.'] 

654. tnSini. See under tndini. 

<)55. tut, tnte, thou, thy, you, your, us. [P. tiiU. SC. to6ti.'\ 

1)56. ^u»', smoke. See under /«r. 

657. ^r(/-, to wash. [?.tOc. SC. ^or.] 

(558. t liven, washinsf. 

t)5y. tdcla,tdLio, tohnQco. [l\ tiivalo. ^C.todvlo,tiivlo.] 

ii60. dlda, likto. twenty. [So explained in two of Sinclair's manu- 
scripts. Lydia ( "ooper knew the word in 1902, but Avas 
not sure of the meanin,l,^ The word really means ' eight.' 
P. okdo. SC. p. 161, ochto, oitoo.] 

(j61. a pre, dpri, npro, nprd. See under aprL 

662. raidiKjcri. See under 6'«m7igr<??'o. 

1)68. vdlno. See jmder vdino. 

'^^iS^. t'(i/en, V(t//;i, bottle. [P. uu^^m, 'glass.' 'i^C vdlin, ivdlin.] 

<i65. vdlevan. See under bdlavas. 

()66. ?'<fn7i^,u't//t(7/.s,aring,abit,apiece. [SC. cdngusti, 'nng,iinger.'] 

667. vara, vara, flour, meal. [P. voro. SC. vdro, voro.] 

ti68. vdsida, bad. [P. ivdfedo. SC. vdsavo, ivdfnlo, ivdsedo. Si. 

iKtfedo. S2. Ixisavo.] 
660. vaaival, rasirol, sick, ill. 

670. va«tr<j/nes, vasirolnes, sickness. 

671. vaxt, hand; pi. castas, vastes. [P. wast. S(J. vast, etc.] 

<)72. velydriLs, weUjnro, a fair. [P. icSUgtira, 'fair, exposition.' SC. 

itYi/fyrnnv^.s-.] 
673. i'en, wen, winter. [P. win. SC. ren, icen.] 
<)74. vendri, vendvo, belly, intestines. [P. vhidri. SC. f^nri?'^.] 

675. fe*', a wood. [P. we><h, ' wood, forest, wild land.' SC. vesh, wesh.'] 

676. r^^e«^<?ro, keeper. [SC. veshengro, 'gamekeeper.'] 

677. rdngija. See under honggo. 

678. vi'idar. See under it'/r/a. 

679. vu^^ lip. [SC. ivisht.] 

680. iiddres, ivadrua, bed. [P. ivadras. SC. voodrus, etc. S2. 

it'ec?Aer?(s.] 

681. tcdt'no, vdino, angry. [P. hdnnalo, shdnalo. SC. lioino.^ 

682. waip, handkerchief. [Slang, a ' wipe.'] 

683. ivdnga, ivdngar, wdnger, ludngo, coal, money. [P. wonyur. 

SC. dngar, vdngar, etc.] 
VOL. IX. — xos. III.-IV. o 



210 AN AMEKICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 

684. ivdnger. See under wdnga. 

685. wdngis. See under vdngiS. 

686. wdngo. See under ivdnga. 

687. wdva, wdver, other, another. [P. ivavver. SC. ivdver, ' other. 

others.'] 

688. ivdver divis, to-morrow. [SC. ovdvo-divvtis.] 

689. ivelguro. See under celgorus. 

690. wen. See under ren. 

(591. irerdar, icdrder, iviirdo, ivurddr, wiirdur, wagon. [P. ivardo. 

SC. vdrdo, wdrdo. S2. rtn'^on.] 
692. wid, a horse with the heaves. [English colloquial ' weed.'] 
(i!)'5 widay ividu, viular, ivudar, door. [P. iinider. SC. wodder. 

S2. wedher.] 

694. nw'^a, wiser, to throw, toss. [P. wu,ss^?', ' throw, pitch.' S(.\ 

wodaer, wo6»}^er.^^ 

695. luddar. See under it'/(fa. 

696. wdrdfir. See under werdar. 

697. «'iu'c?<js, cards. [SC icdrdi, ' from the assonance of car/s and 

care/.'*.'] 

698. iviirdo. See imdcr werdar. 

699. wiirdur. See under werdar. 

700. .V('5', 2/'?i7. fire, light. [I', i/.f^/. S( '. yof/, 'fire.'] 

701. ydgd, j/dger, to hunt, shoot. [C. yoger, ' to fire (a gun).'] 

702. yagdm^ngei'o, keeper. [S( ". ydgom^ngro, etc.] 

703. ydgdmengero, ydgdmeyign'o, yngamSskero, a gun. \]\ ydgen- 

geri. S( '. yogengro, etc.] 

704. ydjdfo, apron. [1^ jelliko. SC. ydrdooka, etc. S2. jaroka, 

J|'a?'jy^•a.] 

705. 1/dA:, 2/«^> eye- [P- 2/'^^«"- '^C\ yo^*.] 

706. ynkmn.^, policeman. [P. gdv-mush: prdstermengro, ' \)o]'\ce- 

man, runner,' from the old English expression ' I50w- 
Street runner.' S(.'. gavengro, mooshkero.] 

707. j/dro, ydro, e^g. [P. yora. SC. j/dro, ydri.] 
70S. »/ftA:, one. [P. yek. SC. i/^^-. S2. i/iU-.] 

709. ydji, clean, to clean. [P. ymho, 'clean, pure.' SC. yooso, 

yooser. i>2. juzhii, yuzhd.] Cf. also ?v?jif. 

710. zi, soul, mind, heart. . [P. zee, SC. ce?.] 

711. ziimun. See under .9rf»?m. 



AN AMERICAN-ROM ANI VOCABULARY 211 



SENTENCES. . 

1. ac uprS, a^ apri, get uip. 

2. a6 waino, to get angry. 

8. ac'your tan, pitch your camp. 
4'. apopli loeard, found again. 

5. aprS the drum, on the road. 

6. dvd aprS said, come up to-morrow morning. 

7. dvd dordi, come here {or hither) ! 

8. dvd kai, come here ! 

!>. dvd pre, to-morrow. [ = 'come up': a misunderstanding of 
sent. 0]. 

10. hdri (jitv, city. 

I I . bdro (umbo, big hill. 

12. hnro pdnT, ocean. 

13. bdvloTna,^, rich man. 

l.'Ja. beng salini, bad devil. Lydia Cooper's mother often used 
the words in this sense. [? beng si lendi, ' the devil is in 
them.'] 

14. bes tali, or bcs tele, sit down. 

15. be^ tale npro piiv, sit down on the ground. 
IG. bUenO dives, a rainy day. 

17. bUuvis sd dives, it rains all day. 

IS. can tiite did apre, can you read ? 

19. ( 'elia boti6. dosta, Celia worked too much 

20. Celia 's adre the wurddr k^ren idzas iqwe, Celia is in the 

wagon putting clothes away. 

21. caves bdsoven upre the drum, the children are playing up the 

road. 

22. cero krico mar dnker lende, poor thing, don't hurt him. 

23. cin tfltes kiirlo, cut your throat. 

24. civ duva adre tntes ptttsi, put that in your pocket. 

25. civ in the pTiv, put in the earth. [Periphrasis for ' bury.'] 

26. civ liiva tale, to gamble. [Lit. ' put money down.'] 

27. ciimeni ddnderd mdnde, something bit me. 

28. del apri, to read. 

29. del mdnde a ciima, give me a kiss. 



212 AN AMERICAN-ROM ANI VOCABULARY 

30. del mdi\de bita ttivlo, give me a piece of tobacco. 

31. del tndnde mdro and kuro liveno, give me bread and a mug ot 

beer. 

32. del mdnde ])dni, give me water. 

33. del mdnde tiites ru.rr, mdnde koms fe rin fntn iiivlo, give me your 

knife, I want to cut a little tobacco. 

34. del mdnde ydg, give nie (a) light. 

35. del me rfirl, give me (a) knife. 

36. del me hnhen, give me food. 

37. del me sd, give me all. 

38. del the rai rdmeni te he,^ npre, give the gentleman something 

to sit on. 

39. did ifite and lakes Idlo poSnekis, did you luring her red hand- 

kerchief ? 

40. dUi (iddrdi, look here ! 

41. dik dvri, look out! 

42. diklo (tdrS the wArd/ir, be(l-l)Ugs in the wagon. 

43. does ddva r<i'i jiv ndri the same gav, does that gentleman 

live in the same city ? 

44. d/istft foki, enough people. 

45. diisti'i to go, lots of troubles. 

46. diil mii.^ds kffren, two men (are) Hghting. 

47. ddro drum, a long road. 

48. ddva nive is rdven, that child is crying. 

49. ddva is kdlo, that is black. 

50. ddva mas si horaren, that meat is burning. 

51. ddva mUs is mdto, that man is drunk. 

52. dv.va mu^ pukerd vumde ddva lende kom tiite, that man told 

me that he loves you. 

53. ddva mas si jolen to get na.^ov, that man is going to get 

hung. 

54. ddva si ddstd, that is enough. 

55. ddva si tdci, that is true. 

56. ddva mas is too vulto to ac upri, that man is too drunk to 

stand up (get up). 

57. ddva si kftkavl kost, that is a kettle-stick. 

58. ddva so hi, what is that ? 

59. ddva's a dulen grai ; kek tad adri the wiirdar, that is a kick- 

ing horse; he doesn't pull in the wagon. 

60. ddva's a kti§to grai tejol aprS the aimhds, that is a good horse 

to go over the hills. 



AX AMERICAN-R()M.\XT VOCABULARY 213 

61. diiva SI fetercUrus tdvlo, that is (the) best tobacco. 

62. diiva si a kiisto tan to ac, that is a good place to camp. 

63. fdseno dans, false teeth. 

64. (jorjiken lavs, non- Gypsy words. 

65. gPno of giv, bag of grain. 

66. hdnke tevl {anker teri, dnko terf), whole life. 

66a. he is a diden apre a cinamdngero, he is reading a letter. 

67. how are the nives kiri, how are the children at home ? 

68. how jiiiro is tMe, how old are you ? 

6J>. I'm jolen to the hr,ro gav, I am going to the big city. 

70. jil pdle grai, go back, horse. 

70a. jd a dttro drum, to go a long road. 

71. jttl avrf, viong mdnde bitd tilvlo, go out, beg me a bit of 

tobacco. 

72. /ail's Culia, wliere is Celia i 

73. kai si, where is it ? 

74. kai's nidndes swdgli, where is uiy pipe ? 

75. kdnd sig, now quick ! 

76. h'k kiimier, no more. 

76a. kek rdmddid, not married. 

77. ker upr^ bat, do up the hair. 

78. kekpasalAste, IMe's pnkeren h a kdbens, don't believe him, he is 

telling lies. 
7 J), ker ddsta Idvo, make plenty of money. 

80. ker a dud, make a light. 

81. ker sig, do it quick, hurry up. 

82. ker the wddar, ker the wi'do, shut the door. 

83. ker iciirdas, play cards. 

83a. kera (or kei^e) ydg [? ker a ydg], make a fire. 

84. klissen the wudar, lock the door. 

.S4a. klissens on tiites vdstds, handcutfs on your hands. 
84b. kitro kdva, a spoiled thing. 

85. kiU^oven kiisto, cooking good. 

86. kongd bal avrf, to comb the hair out. 

87. kiisto bak (or baxt), good luck, good-bye. 



214 AN AMERICAX-ROMANI VOCABULARY 

88. ktisto (liken ma§, good-looking man. 

89. Msto jolen grai, a good-going horse. 

90. hi§to said, how does leste ker to-divis, good morning, how are 

you to-day ? 

91. kiivd te lei for vdsivdlnes, something to take for sickness. 

92. lac arrf, to learn. [Lit. ' find out.'] 

93. bJke'W be lajd to i^dker tiite, she will be ashamed to tell you. 

94. lende is & jJdro jinen yck, she is an old knowing one. 

95. lendes cived in the f/Ui, he is put in the newspaper. 

96. lende si hind adrS kdva tern, he is born in this country. 
07. lende sis komlo diken mtii, he has a pleasant-looking face. 

98. \esjd lei a jn, let us go and take a drink. 

99. \esjol arri, let us go out. 

100. \es jd to wddres, will you [let us] go to bed ? 

101. les tite lei a tav, let us take a smoke. 

102. leste is a ilnQH, you are cutting. 

103. Uste is niiro rom, he is my husband. 

104. leste Idcerdo a cdri, he found a knife. 

105. IMe SI steti adri Ustes rfiji idzas, he is proud in his new 

clothes. 

106. Mstes grai's jyrdsterd avri, his horse has run away. 

107. leste' s a Iceren a Sinemdngero, you are writing a letter. 

108. lul a siv and tav and siv aprS the hev adri the ifdfo, take a 

needle and thread and sew up the hole in the coat. 

109. lido mfii, red cheeks. 

110. md dul it, don't give it. 

111. md riv ydji'tfo adri kongerl, Hv it jtdle, don't wear the apron 

to church, put it buck. 

112. mdnde ajolen te ac <^runo, I am going to remain poor. 
112a. mdnde hiiklo, I am hungry. 

113. mdnde can kekd pen diiva, I cannot believe that. 

114. mAnde forbisado tat, I forgot you. 
114a. mdnde glli ki^Std, I sing well. 

115. mdnde j ins kumier than diiva muS, I know more than that 

man. 

116. mdnde jivs akdi, I live here. 

117. mdnde kams j^dids, I like fun. i 

118. mdnde kekajins dova; I do not know that. J 

119. mdnde keka pdsddo tfit, I do not believe you. 



AX AMERICAN-ROM AXI VOCABULARY 215 

120. mdnde hek sDndi dova, I did not hear that. 

121. mdnde keJca sfind diiva in sd me hdnke tirrl, I never heard 

that in all my whole life. 

122. mdnde ktmis citmini to hd, I want somethinsr to eat. 

123. mdnde mdrd the snake, I killed the snake. 

124. mdndi' mdnr/ed duvd, I begged that. 

125. mdnde puri'ovs grdis, I trade horses. 

12(J. mdnde al diken for luvo, I am looking for money. 

127. mdnde sis diil lit, I have two dollars. 

128. mdnde was a htta cdvo when mdnde amd pdrdal the hard 

jMnl dkal, I was a little boy when I came over the 
ocean here. 

129. mdnde will kek Ulie (or IdHe) no kumini, I will never have 

you any more. 
180. mdudeW del tnte hat tfivlo if tifte'W pen mdnde nev'i romdni 
lars, I'll give you plenty of tobacco if you'll tell me 
(some) new Gypsy words. 

131. mdndes cdvi had a po.^kSrn delded, my child had a cent 

given it. 

132. mdnde's dostd tuga, I have lots of trouble. 

1 33. mdnde's Jolen to the hdro gav ; kai is the drum, I am going 

to the city ; where is the road ? 

134. mdnde s jolen a klst>l, I am going to ride. 

135. mdnde's jolen te tn>:en the miWs gad, I am going to wash the 

man's shirt. 
13G. mdnde's kerdo, I am done. 

137. mdnde's a kiisto salavtirges and hoMo te riv apre grai te kider 

apre [Uivri^ sig, I have a good bridle and saddle to put 
on a horse and ride away quick. 

138. mdnde's lac of tiite, dvd di'rrde and j^^n the rai so jyilros tfitr, 

I am ashamed of you, come here and tell the gentleman 
how old you are. 

139. mdnde's kdlo hal and kdlo yaks, I have black hair and black 

eyes. 

140. nuindes sera ddkas man, my head aches. 

141. mdnde's vdsido, I am sick. 

142. mur cat cUi, don't take anything (nothing). 

143. mar Hv trite's liivo tale, don't gamble (lit. do not put your 

money down). 

144. mar did teste, he'll ac icdino, don't do it [don't hit him], he 

will get angry. 



216 AN AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 

145. mar dul lende aprg the mill, don't hit him on the mouth. 

146. mar lei diiva, or, mor lei dord, don't take that. 

147. menrje are diken for luvo, we are looking for money. 
147a. ml dad gcijo, my father was not a Gypsy. 

147b. ml nfigi dans, my own teeth. 

148. maker hnro, to spoil a cup. 
14<Sa. mffT del it, don't give it. 

149. inak lende ac kiire, let him stay at home. 

150. mak tifte laS avrt tiisd lende and jiukcr mende, let you learn 

all about them and tell us. 
150a. mOk us jd keri, let us go home. 

151. muk us ker va^fas, let us shake hands. 

152. milk's Jd avrt, let's go out. 

153. mdk'sjd lid a j)l, let 's go take a drink. 

154. miirav kfikero, shave yourself 

155. muS paldl ifite, dik avri, a man behind you, look out 1 
155a. mus kek kdsfo, (the) man is not good. 

155b. mus pireu up the dimm, a man (is) walking up the road. 
155c. mas is a suvdhdlen, (the) man is swearing. 

156. pdnnavi upri, to tie up [lj)an 'em, ' tie them ']. 

157. pen man tacipen, tell me (the) truth. 

158. per dnkers man (or mande), my stomach aches. 

159. poger bdvol'd, broken winded. (Said of a horse.) 

160. prdsta, del man sdr, quick [lit. ' run '], give me all. 

161. pnkeren liukdbens, telling lies. 

162. 2^ur taU, fall down. 

162a. piiro teni, (the) old countr}'. 
162b. pnsengero atddi, straw hat. 

163. rdker miUto, talk better. 

164. rdker sil and sdkd, talk slow and soft. 

165. rdker (or ruker) romdneii, talk Gypsy. 

166. rdker romani, (can you) talk Gypsy ? 

167. sdr divus, all da}'. 

168. sdr does liste ker to-dives, how are you to-day ? 

169. sdr dur si hdro gav, how far is the city ? 

170. sdr 6rd si, Avhat time is it ? 

171. stir SI leste's ndv, what is your name ? 

172. sdrsdn, nugi ioki, how are you, my folks ? 



¥■ 

I 



.' 



AN AMEUICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 217 

173. she priJcerd mande dilvd, she told me that. 
174-, St kova iriiis piren upri the drum yek gorjo, is that man 
walking up the road a non-Gypsy ? 

175. si tnte ndfoll, are you sick ? 

175a. sis leste wdnga, have you (any) money ? 

176. siker the rai the riipeno indmingero, show the gentleman 

the silver teapot. 

177. siker the rai tnte iievi swarjli, show the gentleman your new 

pipe. 

178. 80 bdro si tflte, how heavy are you ? 

179. 80 hut will leste lei for the grai, how much will you take for 

the horse ? 

180. so but would leste iivmg, how much would you want ? 
180a. 8o dCtr si bdro gar, how far is the city ? 

181. so ptiro si tnte, how old are you ? 

182. so si, what is it ? (i.e. what do you want ?) 

183. 80 si Dick sorohdlen about, what is Dick swearing about ? 

184. so 8i duva, what is that '. 

185. 80 si leste a-AeVen, what are you doing ? 

186. so si tnte sdvQw about, what are you laughing about ? 

187. kUdn, how are you ? 

187a. Mar Mr sfinekr, four pounds (twenty gold dollars). 

188. .stT7i man, tiite ker dostu gddli, hear me 1 you make too nuich 

noise. 

189. tan te ker the ydg adre, place to make the fire in (periphrasis 

for ' stove ' ). 

190. tdnojnvol, young woman. 
11)1. til kova grai, hold that horse. 

192. til t file's rib, hold your tongue. 

193. tat diks sdr yek rdmdnical, tnte's kdlo hCd, halo yaks, and 

tfite rakers roman i,pen mdnde, you look like a Gypsy, you 
have black hair, black eyes, and you speak Gypsy, tell me. 

194. tut kistered a grai, bajengeros apre tiite cds, you rode a horse, 

spurs on your boots. 

195. tiite kiisto diken mas, you (are) a good-looking man. 

195a. tiite pucldde how jyiiro lade is, you ask her how old she is. 

196. tiite rinkna rant you (are) a pretty young woman. 

197. tiite si kMo dans, you have good teeth. 

198. tiite si misto adre the tern, you are better in the country. 



218 



AN AMERICAN-ROMAXT VOCARULARY 



199. tiite tax, you also. 

200. tntes dr>sta liivo ; dd mdndes Savi yek poSird, you have 

plenty of money ; give my boy a cent. 

201. tiites kongerl plird talS, your comb fell down. 

202. ttit's jolen adrs jwro tern lipi'o biro pdrddl bdro pdni, you are 

going to the old country in a ship over the ocean. 

203. tiite wants a wdva jffvol, you want another woman. 

204. nJdd yek bes, twenty -one years. 

205. vdsido dinim, a bad road. 

206. vdsido mus, a bad man. 

207. wdrer jifvol, another woman. 

208. where lestr hi jolen, where are you going ? 

209. will tiite Icl livrui, will you take beer ? 
"210. wlsa a bar, throw a stone. 

211. wlsa mdndr mi stadi, throw me my hat. 

212. yiikmrts arellen, a policeman (is) coming. 



Ali'hahetical Index of Encli.sh Meanings 



ache (to), 148, 149. 
across, 4'Jt'». 
afraid, 64.3. 
again, 463. 
ale, •^•2S. 
all, 538. 

all about you, 653. 
allow, 371. 
also, 626. 
angry, 6S1. 
animal (a fat), 354. 
another, 687. 
auKS, 60. 
apple, 412. 
apron, 704. 
are, 557, 596. 
arrested, 577. 
ashamed, 318. 
ashes, 85. 
ask (to), 475. 
aunt. 41. 
away, 19. 
axe, 90. 
back, 420. 
back, n., 153. 
bacon, 24. 



bad, 6GS. 

bad-ti'mpc'rc<l, 37. 

bag, 196. 

bare, 397. 

barn, .578. 

basket, 648. 

bastard, 1 16. 

bead.*!, 3.'>il. 

beat (to), 300. 

beau catchers, 232. 

Iie.l. (iSO. 

betl-bugs, 129. 

beer, 328. 

before, 167. 

beg (to), 345. 

behind, 419. 

believe (to), 431, 43S. 

believed, 432. 

belly, 440, 674. 

best, 162. 

better, 68, 161, 365. 

big, 29. 

bird, 81. 

bit, 666. 

bite (to), 120. 

black, 2:^5. 



blacksmith, 444. 

blanket, 2.S4. 

blind, 304, 30S. 

blood, 506. 

boat, 38. 

iKjil (to), 309. 

bone, 295. 

book, 327. 

boot, 72. 

boots, 570. 

born, 44. 

bottle, 664. 

box, 372. 

boy, 79, 179, r>02. 

I>read, 351. 

break (to), 461. 

bridle, 542. 

bring (to), 6, 201, 508. 

broken, 461. 

broth, .1S5. 

brother, 418. 

brush, 565. 

bulldog, 61. 

buried, 95a. 

burn (to), 208. 

burning, 209. 



AN AMEKICAN-IJOMANI VOCABULARY 



•219 



bury (to), 95, 112 

Kutter, 268. 

buttocks, 60. 

button, 188, 291. 

buttons, 290. 

buy (to), 269. 

cabbage, 595. 

cacare, 219. 

cake, :U9. 

camp, 626. 

candle, 376. 

candlestick, 377. 

card, 327. 

card.'< (playing), 697. 

carry (to), 5(»8. 

cat, 339. 

cauliflower, 55. 

cent, 13, 46S. 

cluiin, 460, .')48. 

chair, 566. 

cheap (very), 84. 

cheat (to). 211. 

cheese, 234. 

chew (to), 73. 

chicken, 246. 

child, 77a. 

church, 2S1. 

circus, 160. 

city, 172. 

clean, to cK-an, 522, 709. 

clergyman, 505. 

clothes, 216. 

clothing, 520a. 

club (policeman's). 387. 

coal, 6S3. 

coat, 74, 103. 

cock (domestic), 2.S5. 

coition, 5;K). 

cold, 602. 

cold, .idj., 603. 

comb, 2S0. 

comb (to), 279. 

come, 15. 

come up, 539. 

coming, 18. 

cook (to), 309. 

copulate (to), 590. 

corsets, 647. 

counterfeit, 159. 

country, 636. 

court (to), 45U. 

ccw, 194. 

crane, 293. 

crazy man, 133. 

cream, 571. 

cry (to), 535. 

crying, 536. 

cup, 301, 593. 

cut (to), 88. 



cutting instrument, 90. 

dance, 257. 

dancing, 258. 

day, 132. 

dead, 374. 

deserter, 472. 

desire, 238. 

devil, 36. 

did, 254. 

die (to), 358, 381. 

dirt, 85. 

dirty, 86, 368. 

dirty (to), 366. 

dishes, 594. 

do (to), 261, 299. 

do not, 337. 

doctor, 142. 

dog, 227. 

doll, 275. 

dollar, 327. 

domestic cock, 285. 

done, 263, 303. 

donkey, 340. 

door, 693. 

down, 625. 

draw, 623. 

dress, 520a, 606. 

dressed, 521. 

drink, 445. 

drunk, 355. 

duck, 425, 493, 534. 

dung. 21 S. 

dying, 381. 

ear. 242. 

earth, 494. 

easy, 609. 

eat (to), 73, 198. 

eating. 20<». 

egg, 70S. 

enceinte, 2S, 619. 

enough, 139. 

every, 5.38. 

exchange, 485. 

eye, 705. 

face, 370. 

fceces, 218. 

fair (a), 160, 672. 

fall (to), 441. 

false, 159. 

far, 154. 

fat, 651 . 

fat, adj., 652. 

fat animal, 354. 

fat (hog's), 163. 

father, 114, 117. 

fear, 643. 

feather, 464. 

feet, 453. 

female, 362. 



fence, 27. 

fetch (to), 6. 

fiddle, 31, 51, 53. 

fight (to), 300, 310 

fighting, 310. 

find (to), 314. 

fire, 700. 

fish, 338. 

fit (a), 455. 

five, 422. 

tien, 456. 

flesh, 353. 

flour, 667. 

flowers, 537. 

folk, lo6. 

food, 199. 

fool, 131. 

foolish, 131. 

foot, 453. 

forgotten, 168. 

fortune, 22. 

fortunes (to tell), 150. 

found, 315. 

four, 605. 

full, 415. 

fun, 417. 

gate, 583. 

gentleman, 499. 

girl, 78, 501, 504. 

give (to), 122. 

given, 124. 

glandered horse, 404. 

go (to), 221. 

go (juick, 471. 

God, 157. 

gold, 586. 

gold (of), 587. 

golden, 587. 

good, 311. 

good-natured, 277. 

grain, ISO. 

grandfather, 233, 484. 

grass, 71. 

grease, 651. 

ground, 494. 

gun, 703. 

<^ypsy (a), 515. 

Gypsy, adj., 516. 

Gypsy (half), 451. 

Gypsy (male), 517. 

Gypsy woman, 518. 

hair, 23. 

half, 467. 

half-crown, 469. 

half-Gypsy, 451. 

halter, 599. 

ham, 24. 

hammer, 352. 

hand, 671. 



220 



AN AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 



handcufifs, 273, 553. 

handkerchief, 130, 470,C82. 

hang, 398. 

hanged, 399. 

hare. 245, 616. 

hat, 576. 

have (to), 560, 639. 

hay, 2.50. 

hay-rick, 251. 

he, 322, 325. 

head. 60U. 

hear (to), 614. 

heart, 71U. 

heaves (horse with the), 692. 

lieavy, 29. 

hedge, 27. 

hedgehog, 210. 

hen. 246. 

her, 319, 325. 

here, 5, 121. 

high sheriff, 472. 

hill, \m, 46a. 

him, .32.5. 

hit (to), 152b. 

hither, 121. 

hog's fat, 16.3. 

hold (to), 639. 

hole, 205. 

home (to or at), 265. 

horse, 189. 

horse (glandcred), 404. 

hi>r8e (run away), 472. 

horse with the heaves, 692. 

horse-feed, 180. 

horseslioe, 190. 

hut, (;29. 

house, 26<j. 

how, 546. 

how are you ' 551. 

hundred, 51)8. 

hungry, 59. 

hunt (to), 7Ul. 

hurry, 471. 

hurt (to), 148. 

husband, 515. 

I, .343. 

ill, 393, 669. 

imprisoned, 577. 

in, 4. 

inn, 267. 

inside. 440. 

intestines, 674. 

into, 4. 

Irish, 6.37- 

Irishman, 6.37. 

iron, 548, 552. 

iron nail, 430. 

irons, 553. 

is, 206a, 557. 



it rains, 46. 

itch (the), 8. 

itch (to), 9, 10. 

itching, 9. 

jacket (woman's), 10.3. 

ju.stice of the peate. 476. 

keeper, 676, 702. 

kettle, 292. 

kettle-stick, 293, 552. 

key, 273. 

kicking, 1.52a. 

kill (to), 347, 359, 382. 

kiss, 105. 

knife, IK*. 

know (to), 22.3. 

lace, 414. 

lady, 504. 

lamb, 21. 

lame, 5<). 

language, 83. 

laugh (to), 556. 

laughing, 541. 

lawyer, 476. 

lean, 82. 

leaves, 434. 

leg, 215. 

let, .371. 

letter, 89, .327. 

liar, 478. 

lice, 3-26. 

lie (»), 212. 

life, 10a, 202a. 3.59. .3^3, 63'<. 

light (a), 14(i, 700. 

like (to), 238. 

lip. 679. 

listen, 615. 

little, 47. 

live (to), 40, -224, 638. 

lock and key. 273. 

look, 126. 

look here, 121. 

looking. 128. 

lose (to), .398. 

louse, 229. 456. 

love, 239. 

love (to), 238. 

love (to make), 450. 

lover, 2.39. 

lover (fem.), 448. 

lover (masc. ), 449. 

low, 609. 

luck, 22. 

lying, 478. 

made, 254. 

make (to), 261. 

make love to, 450. 

man, 388. 

man (crazy), 1.33. 

man (young), 179. 



manure, 218. 

mare, 192. 

married, 527. 

many (to), 526. 

mat Ilia, 392. 

me, 343, 360. 

meal, 667. 

meat, 353. 

medicine, 141. 

mile, 361. 

milk, 649. 

niin<l. 710. 

mocking, 541. 

mone}', 335, 683. 

moon, 98, 237, 240. 

more, (\H, 298, 364. 

morning, 540. 

mother. 1 18. 

mouth, 370. 

much, 67, 139. 

mud, 85. 

muddy, 86. 

mug, .301. 

music, 51. 

mu.sicul instrument, 53. 

my, 360, 363a. 

my own, 402. 

nail, 188. 

nail (iron), 439. 

naked, 397. 

name, 400. 

napkin. 1.30. 

neck, 356. 

needle, 5(S1. 

new, 401. 

newspaper, 175. 

nice, 609. 

night, 507. 

nits, 20«j. 

no, 255. 

noise, 183. 

non-Gypsy (a), 187. 

non-liypsy, adj., 186. 

nose, 403. 

not, 255. 

nothing, 84. 

now, 2.59. 

now quick I 244. 

oats, 180. 

off. 19. 

old, 483. 

on, 12. 

one, 707. 

union, 313. 4S(J. 

osier, 503. 

other, 687. 

out. 19. 

over, 426. 

own, 402. 



AX AMERICAN-ROMANI VOCABULARY 



221 



ox, l'J3. 

pain (to), J48, 

paper, 327. 

puhlii, 434. 

pay (to), 443. 

pedere, 143. 

peevish, 37. 

peni'i, 285. 

people, 1H6. 

pickpocket, 45>2. 

pie, 18.">. 

piece (a), 6Wj 

pig, 2.1. 

pipe, 592. 

pitch (camp), 1. 

place, t)2*). 

place (to), 'Jo. 

placed, 9.")a. 

plate, ♦ilO. 

pliiy (to), 32, 33, 52. 

playing, .33, 52. 

plenty, 139. 

[locket, 491. 

pocketbnuk, 271. 

poison, 141. 

policeman, 3S6, 706. 

policeman's club, 3S7. 

poor, 82. 

pork, 24. 

pot, 454. 

jiotato, 49tj. 

pound (sterling), 2ti. 

present (a), 123. 

pretty, .')09. 

priest, 5C5. 

prison, 581. 

prisoner, 580. 

prostitute, 336. 

proud, .■)82. 

pudding, 1S5. 

pudendum viuUebre, 362. 

pull (to), »!23. 

put (to), 9.'i, 261. 

putting, 204. 

quarrel (toi, 91. 

(juarrelling, 92. 

quick, 164, 471, 5.j8. 

rabbit, 245, 616. 

rain, 45. 

rains (it), 46. 

rainy, 4.5a. 

rat, 457. 

razor, 90. 

reading, 122. 

red, 332. 

reins, 138. 

remain, 1. 

ribbon, 137. 

rich, 34. 



rich (not), 82. 

ride (to), 26G. 

right, 620. 

right away ! 244. 

ring, 660. 

road, 145. 

roast (to), 436. 

robber, 334. 

rope, 599. 

run, 471 . 

run-away horse, 472 

sack, 103, 196. 

saddle, 54. 

saloon, 267. 

salt, 333. 

sausage, 185. 

say (to). 438. 

scissors, 253. 

scratch (to), 7, 9. 

scratches, K. 

sea, 421. 

see (to), 126. 

self, 294. 

sell (to), 4.3. 

send (to), 42. 

servant, 248. 

sew (till, 562. 

sewing, 563. 

shame, 317. 

shave (to), 379. 

shaving. 380. 

shawl, 1.30, 40<». 

she, 319, .322, 325. 

sheep, 21. 

siiilling. 297, 045. 

ship, 3S. 

shirt, 169. 

shoe, 72. 

shoemaker, 75. 

shoot, 701. 

shop, .j6. 

show (to), 559. 

shut, 261. 

sick, 393, 669. 

sickness, 670. 

silence, 615. 

silver, 5.32. 

silver, adj., 533. 

sing (toj, 176. 

singer, 177. 

sister, 437. 

sit (to), 40. 

six, 607. 

sixpence, 612. 

skirt, 74. 

sleep, 588. 

slow, 601, 609. 

smallpox, 57. 
smell (to), 584. 



smoke, to smoke, 632, 656. 

snake, 543. 

suow, 220. 

so (that is), 17. 

soap, 544. 

soft, 609. 

soldier, 302. 

something, 107, 288. 

song, 176. 

soul, 710. 

soup, 585. 

spit (a), 63, 64. 

spit for meat, 65. 

spoil vto), 366. 

spoiled, 307a, 367. 

spoon, 511. 

spurs, 62. 

stable, 191, 578. 

stairs, 466. 

stallion, 66. 

stand (to), 1. 

stay (to), 1, 40. 

steal (to), 99. 

stick, 252. 

stink, 241. 

stink (to), 241. 

stocking, 213. 

stomach, 440. 

stone, 26. 

store, 56. 

straw, 488. 

straw, adj., 489. 

strike (to), 76, 122, 152b. 

sugar, 195. 

summer, 630. 

sun, 181. 

8unday, 291. 

swear (to), 574. 

swearing, 591. 

tablecloth, 130. 

tail, 464. 

take (to), 321. 

take hold of, 76. 

talk (to), 500. 

tavern, 267. 

tea, 446. 

tea-kettle, 292. 

teapot, 391,446. 

tear (to), 91. 

tell (to), 438, 477. 

tell fortunes (to), 150. 

temper, 36. 

tempered (bad), 37. 

ten, 125. 

tent, 626. 

testicles, 30. 

that, 155, 287. 
that is so, 17. 
the, 407. 



222 



VOTES AND QUERIES 



them, 322. 
then, 156. 
there, 3, 408. 
they, 322, 323. 
thief, 100. 
thing, 288. 
thou, 655. 
thread, 633. 
three, 644 
tiiroat, 306. 
throw (to), 694. 
tliy, 640, 655. 
tie (to), 424. 
time, 94, 410. 
till, 375. 
tired, 270. 
to, 634. 
to-day, 64 1. 
to morrow, 688. 
tol>acco, 65'.t. 
tongue, 83. 
too, 624. 
too much, 139. 
tooth, 119. 
toas, 694. 
towel, 130. 
town, 172. 
traile (toU 485. 
tree, 523, 524. 
trouMe, 1S3, 650. 
trousers, 512, 642. 
true, 620. 
trunk. .373. 
truth, 621. 



turnip (white), 495. 
twenty, 660. 
two, 147. 
uncle, 233. 
up, 12. 
upon, 12. 
urinal, 392. 
urinate (to), .390. 
urine, 390. 
us, 357, 655. 
very cheap, 84. 
vest, 20. 
victuals. 199. 
village, 172. 
vinegar, 617. 
wagon, 691. 
waistcoat, 20. 
walk, 447. 
walking, 452. 
want (to), 2,38, 345. 
war, 310. 
wash (to), 657. 
washing, 658. 
watoh, 410, 568. 
water. 421. 
we, 337. 
wear (to), 510. 
well, 310a. 
what, 546. 
wlieat, ISO. 
when, 278. 
where, 231. 
wiiip, 104. 
whisky, 631. 



white. 429. 

white turnip, 495. 

who, 274. 

why, 546. 

widow. 4SS. 

widower, 459. 

wife, 518. 

wind. .35. 

window, 205. 

wing, 425a. 

winter, 673. 

witch, 11.3. 

with you, 653. 

woman, 2.30, 362. 

woman (Oypsy), 518. 

woman (young), .504. 

woman's jacket, 103. 

wotnl, 2.)2. 

wood (a), 675. 
word, 320. 

work, 70. 

write (to), 262. 
year, .39. 
yes, lf». 
308 indeed. 17. 
yesterday, 2.36. 
you, 6.")5. 

you (all ahout), 653. 
you (with), 653. 
young, 628. 
young man, 179. 
young woman, .504. 
your. 325, 655. 



NOTES AND gUKKlES 

6.— The Valenti.ves 

In Macllitchie's SioUUh GypsicK under the SteicarU (p. 99), a large parly of 
Gypsy women, who were sentenced to death hj drowning at Edinhurfrli on 
.January 29, 1G24, liut reprieved and banished some si.\ weeks later, is mentioned : 
and one of the names on that list is 'Margaret Vallantyne, relict of Johnne 
Wilsoun.' I do not think that any other evidence of a family of Gypsies in Great 
Hrituin 'oearing the name Valentine has ever been brought forward ; Jiut that such 
a family did exist is proved by the following records : — 

(1) '1577 Jul. 1 Jane y daughter of GJeorge Volantyne and Margeret his wife, 
beinge rogues naming themselves Egiptians,' baptized at Horsiiam, Sussex. [The 
Parish I\>iji^tir of Horahaiii, . . . ed. . . . by H. G. Kice, Sussex Record Society, 
vol. 21, London, 1915, p. 138.) 

(2) ' 1596, 4 Mail, Willielraus, filius Willielmi Volantyne Egyptii, baptiaitus 
fuit' at St. Bees. (W. Jackson, P(i}Hr.< (ind Pidigrem mainly relating to Cumberland 
and Wi:<tmorland, \o\. i. p. 71.. Publications of the Cumberland and Westmor- 
land Antiquarian and Archa-ological Society, Extra Series 5, London, 1892.) 

On this the author (piaintly remarks : — ' " Egyptus " certainly means gypsy, 
and I am not sure whether "Volantyne" is a surname, or we ought to read "Volan- 



XOTES AND QUERIES 223 

tis Egyptii "— "rieeing Egyptian," as that peculiar people were deemed, and, indeed, 
gave themselves out to he.' It hardly needs evidence for Volentine as a Gypsy 
surname to refute this absurd suggestion, since ' Volantis Egyptii '—even if it were 
found in the register— would not mean a ' Heeing Egyptian,' but a ' flying Egyp- 
tian'; and, as there is no reason for supposing that Gypsies had solved the 
problem of a-ronautics three hundred years ago, Plautus' dictum 'sine pennis 
volare hand facile est' still held good in those days. 

This record is cjuuted with a few others relating to Gypsies by B. F. Thiselton 
i)yur in his Old i^nglish Social Lifi (London, 1898), pp. 75-77. 

(3) ' Leticia fa. WiTlm. Voclentine Egiptian,' 3 Dec. 1602, among the baptisms 
in 2% RigiMfi-f <ifthePar!.4i Church of Bhickburn in the County of Lancaster 
transcribed by Henry Brierley, p. 6 (Lancashire PariOi Register Society, vol. 41 
Cambridge, 1911). 

Here one does feel inclined to suggest an emendation, as the insertion of a r in 
the name is odd ; and, if the writing is not very clear, nc and a could easily be 
confused. 

Later evidence of the family in England I have not been able to find, unless 
'John Penfold and Elizabeth Valentine,' who were married at Sunbury on Nov- 
ember 3, 1771, were (iyjisies (Middhtix Pnrith Rrgistos: Marriag<.s, ed. by 
\V. P. W. Philliiiiore, vol. 4, p. 89). No other Valentines and only one Penfold 
occur in the Sunbury register, so far as it is printed there : but it is doubtful 
whether Penfold was a Gypsy name at that date, though it is now, and still more 
doubtful whether any i)f the Valentines survived in the land so late as the end of 
the eigliteeiith century. Indeed, from two references in W. Dirks' Gcschudkun- 
digr onderzofUngen aangnande het ceiblijf dt r Heidi na of Egiptiirs in de noordelijhe 
yiderlitmUn, it would seem as though the family had migrated to Holland in the 
seventeenth century. 

The first of these, dated April 1(>, 1G24, relates to the banishment from 
Friesland of a Gyi)sy named Margrietta Valentyn (ibid., p. 102), who may possibly 
bi' identical with the Margaret Valentine who had been banished from Scotland 
a month and a half earlier, though the interval seems rather short. In the second, 
a larger band name, consisting of 'Abraham .lorisse, Emanuel Valentyn ende 
Anthony Valentyn, alle drie geboren to Middelburch, mitsgaders Jan Valentyn 
van Schiedam, Joris Valentyn vuyt Vrieslandt ende Abraham Farlant vuytWater- 
landt,' were banished from Holland on December 18, 1635 [ihid., p. 123). There is 
evidence of Gypsies travelling from the one country to the other in the case of 
Catherine Mosroesse, born in Scotland and arrested in Holland in 1564 (ibid, 
]i. 130 . On the other hand it is possible, and perhaps more probable, that the 
English family were an otlshoot from this Dutch Gypsy family. From Avhich — 
if from either— the Walentin family, which is in Finland {J.G.L.S., v. 220-1), 
me, one cannot be sure. 

It is very possible, since soothsaying is a profession to which Gypsies are 
inclined, that the following records of the Old Tolbooth at Edinburgh refer to one 
of the Gypsy Valentines : — 

'Nove"- 18 day 1668 
Sir bailie 

Thes are only to transmitt to your prisone oure being unsufhcient the persone 
of James Vallentyn, a man who takes vpon him to practice divina"une & sooth- 
saying and ftbr money doeth ordenarly make a trade of discovering things lost & 
how & ([" they may be found. And by qm they war taiken away or stollen : And 
in particular of leate hathe aspersed a gentillwoman as being guilty of the lyke 
notwithstanding she being known to the party who wants the guds to be a person 
of integretie and vntainted honesty. Wee belive him to be a lousse fflagitious 
tfellow and therfor Eecomend him to be strickly keepe in prisson till he be 
presented by on james Dun serjant to the garison of the castell of Edr who hathe 



224 NOTES AND (^>UERIES 

received no small prejudice throw his debollicall lyeing discoverie or rather d[e]lu- 
sion wh he trades in of purposse to gaine money . . . yo'' very humbill servants 
the byillies of Leith. 

Leith the 17th of nov"- 1668 

Nov 23 1668 

James Vallentyn soothsayer who is called so whom was sent from Leith to 
Edr tolbiith ffor liis deabollicall tricks is aristed at the comand of Baylly Murray 
and during my Lord Lyon his pleasor.' — (J. A. Fairley, 'The Old Tolbooth,' in 
The Book o/th- Old Edinburi/k Club, vol. v., Edinburgh, 1912, p. 143.) 

Though it has nothing whatever to do with the Valentines, I cannot forbear 
mentioning that another of Dirks' Dutch records furnishes the first example of the 
name Demeter, common among the bands of uom id Coppersmiths in rect-nt days 
(ef J. G. L. S., vi. 246, 2."jU, etc.) : — ' Pieter Dumiter zoon van Dominico Backer,' 
in a document dated August 2, 1536 (p. 120), E. 0. Winstedt. 



1 have at last had the fortune to meet an educated Gypsy, formerly a school- 
master, at present a postman in Varna. He is of the tribe of Christian Sedentary 
Sieve Makers, a native of the district of Dobri<5. Talking to him some months 
ago, I asked him what was the differeiicf in prnniuKMatiou Wtween the Romani 
for 'a beard " and 'a thief.' He immediately spelled the words, the former 'i.xopi., 
the hitter Hopi, i.e. ^hor and ror. B. Gilliat-Smith. 



8. — SlKlUUKKS 

i am now able to answer my own query, printed in ./. (i. L. S., v. 239-40. The 
word occurs, in the form Surujeti*, in the Introductory Epistle to Moriers 
Hiijji Baha (Dent's edition, \i. 6\ and is obviously the Turkish ,_s:'. i»-j 
xiirnju, 'a postilion or driver of post-horses.' See Redhouse, A Turkish and 
Entjlish Lexicon, Constantinople, 1890, ]>. 1090. Ai.kx. Russell 

\(Mh Oct. 1916. 



9. BuRRoofiR Lavs from the Nkvi Vksh 

In rejdy to Mr. Lockyer's most interesting, and, I may add, most encouraging 
note in Vol. vii. Part 2, page 151 of the Gypsy Lore Journal, I hope to send in 
from time to time more New Forest words of Romanes, a.s I happen to come across 
them. So, in addition to the former ones, wliich were declared to have come from 
'Old George Lee, who played the fiddle,' I subjoin others — among.st them a few 
belonging to the Tshorihiin, who travels the Forest with a tent on her back. 

bdmnm, green broom. mormiisti, midwife. 

benyalo, furious. m'hnmdos, beads. 

ilriz, lace. '"'ya, angry. 

klizend, lock-up. yoyga, forest keeper. 

mi Duvles kir, Heaven. yogyaineugri, match. 

belzooz, cocoanuts (presumably 'hairy strong ones'). 

fuzxlinunt/ri, frying-pan. (Obviously a made-up word, like toijgri-kanshtas, 
' clothes-pegs,' the first part presumably being the English word ' frizzle.') 

So tenacious are they of their Romany rokra that they will, if interrogated, 
quickly change the real word they have just uttered for a cant one with the same 
meanintr. Alice E. Gillisqton 



INDEX OF VOLUME IX 
I3y Alexander Russell 



G = Gypsy. Gs. = Gypsies. 

'I'here are important sub-alphabets under ' Etymologies,' ' Names, G. Christian 
'Names, G. Surnaiiies,' 'Names, G. Tribal or Race,' 'Names'of people who 
may lie Gs.,' ' Xewspap. is." ' Noti-s and Ijueries,' ' Occupations, G.' ' Roniani 
words worth noting.'. 



■pen, remark on, 80, 



Abstract noun in 

104. 

Accent of Bulgarian Gs. , '-2. 
Accent-shifting, l.")!(. 
AcKERLKY, licv. F. G., 114, 115; The 

Seven Jargons, (note), 111-12. 
Acting, G., at feast, .34. 
Adoption by Gs. from other tribes, 2(). 
' Agents for hoknno baro, 4.'^. 
Aidia, (J. tribal-name, 5, .13; dinleot of, 

io:i 4. 
nkhur, note on, 71 (/.«.). 
An, K.N', T. : IVie HxMory anil Antirfuilifft 

<•!' the P/trish of Lamlntth, (refs. ) 1*29 

(/n.). 132 (/.n.). 
American- Romani Vocahulary, An. By 

Dr. (!. F. Black, lS.5-'222. 
An.\8TA8, Pere, 1 17. 
nnijt'iM, reiuark on, 75. 
nravdv, remark on, 75. 
'imV, remark on, 70 (/.n. ). 
•irlia, remark on, 75. 
Armenian inlluence on Romani, 69 and 

AscoLi, G. I., lltj. 

AsHTO.v, J. : Old Times, (ref.) 140 

A.-^pi rated consonants in dialect of the 
Kalburdjis, 83. 

.\spiration lost in Ralaidji dialect, 95. 

aatur ' for the sake of," 104. 

aster 'apron,' 103. 

Atkinson, F. S., 117. 

ACHREY : Xatural History and Antiqui- 
ties of the County of Sun-' y, (ref.) 130 
(/.«.■). 

Axon, \V. E. A., i4.-i (f.n.). 

hai ' brother,' 105. 

Bailey, Grahame : Languages of the 

Xorthem Himalayas, (ref.) 121. 
Baikd, Rev. J., 56. 
Baker. Capt. L. G., 118. 
Ballad-singers, G., 94. 
Banks, Sir J., 145. 

Bare-Katuni^gere, G. tribal-name, 47. 
Bartlett, Rev. D., 117. 
Basket-makers, G., 4, 104. 

VOL. IX. — NO. V. 



Bataillard, Paul : 64, 115 ; Lesdemiers 
travaux relatifs aux Bohdmiens dans 
r Europe Orientate, (ref. ) 3. 
Beames, John : Comparative Grammar. 

(ref.) 121. 
Bear-leaders, G., 35, 47, 97. 
Beggars, G., 14. 
-'•en, pen, remarks on, 80, 104. 
-heri, remark on, 87. 
Besant, Sir Walter: London South of 

the Thames, (ref.) 143 (/.n.). 
biandva ' to lay eggs,' 102. 
BicKEK-STAi-TE, Isaac : The Maid of the 

Mill, (quot.), 150 (/.n.). 
hildrrnh ' kettle,' deriv. of, 160. 
Birmingham, Gs. in, 156, 157. 
Black, Dr. G. F. : An American- Romani 
Vocnhulary, 185-222; his G. Biblio- 
graphy, 1 1 7. 
BLA(;(i, T. M. : The Parish Register of 

Famdon, (ref.) 142 (/.«.) 
Blanch: Y- parish of Gamerwell, (ref.) 

141 (/.n.). 
bock 'a letter,' 174. 
Bonnier, Charles, 1 17. 
BoRDE, Andrew, 116. 
bori, remark on, 106-7. 
Borrow, George : 37, 56 ; The Bible in 
Sftain, (ref.) Ill ; Lavengro, (ref.) 148 
(/.n.) ; Lavo-Lil, (refs.) 152 (/.«.), 162. 
BoRROWMAN, R. : Beckenham Past and 
Present, (refs.) 130 (/.«.), 132 {fn.), 
144 {fn.). 
Bourgeois, Dr. Henri, 115. 
bov, remark on, 70 {fn.). 
Bread baked by G. comb-makers, 31. 
Brepohl, F. W., 116. 
breii, note on meaning of, 96. 
Brierley : The Registers of the Parish 

Church of Blackburn, (ref.) 223. 
Bright, Richard: 116; Travels from 
Vienna through Lower Hungary, (refs. ) 
144 and (fn.), 160, 161, 162, 163; 
(quot.), 165, 166-7. 
Bright's Anglo-Romani Vocabulary. By 

Alex. Russell, 165-85. 
Brophy. See St. Clair. 
Bryant, 116, 153. 



220 



INDEX OF VOLUME IX 



BuflFaloes owned by Gs., 2, 5, 48, 50. 

l^utfalo-rearers, G., 6. 

hukiirisdjovav, note on, 75. 

hux, note on, 71 (/.«.). 

burdeis, underground dwellings occupied 

byGs., 35. 
Burgudjis, G. tribal name, 5, 45. 
Burial, G., 144. 
Burroder Lavs from the Neri Vexh, 

(note). By Alice E. Gillington, 224. 
Buttons, dollar, 1.S8. 
Byron, Lord, visits Norwootl Gs., 140. 

Caravans, G., date of, 147. 

Carrion-eaters, G., 5, 13, 15. 

Carsalade do Pont, 116. 

Carts, (J., 148. 

Caulfikld, J. : Portraits, Memoirs, and 

Charartirs of Remarknhle Persons, 

(refs.) 132 (/n.), 143 (/.«.). 
Caves as (i. dwellings, 35, 132 (f.n.). 
Chair-bottomers, G. 156. 
Charwomen, (j., 7. 
Chicken-stealing, G., 24. 
Child-birth, (i., 20. 
Cluldren, Tinker fondness for, 60. 
Cliiraney-sweep, G., 141. 
China-menders, G., 156. 
Christian (Js. in HidK'»riii, 5. 
C and Cii, (nr)te). Hv H. (iilliat-Smith, 

224. 
rd 'to eat," 190. 

Calgidjfs, (i. tribal-name, 4, 11. 
'■am, remark on, IS), 
iiiprdzi 'silver clasp," 49. 
rhomiit, remark on, 75 (./".n.). 
t'ikdt, remark on, 70 (/.«.). 
Cluonet, Mons. L<!'on, US. 
Coffee-pot makers, <!., 5, 9. 
CoLorn, Marquis, 115; Oli Zingart, 

(refs.) 10. 49, 67. 
Comb-makers, G., 5, 22-37; dialect of, 

97-99. 
Constable, Archil>ald, 117. 
CoNSTANTiNFacu, Barbu : Prohe de limJia 

)ji literalura {iganilor din Romania, 

(ref. ) 97. 
Coppersmiths, G. noma<l, 35. 115. 
CoPSEY, Daniel : 136, 145 ; his Anglo- 

Romani vocabulary-, 157-65. 
CoRDER, James, correspondent of Hoy- 

land, 145. 153. 
CoROKR, William, correspondent of Hoy- 
land, 139. 
CoRRiE, note on name, 153 and ( f.n.). 
Costume, G., 13-14. 15, .37, 44, 45, 48, 

51 ; of Drindaris, 10-11. 
Cowi'ER, J. M. : The liooke of Hegeatfr 

of St. Peter in Canterlmry, (ref.) 149 

(f.n.). 
Crabb, J. : The G.'s Advocate, (refs.) 

138 if.n.), 150 if.n.), 156 {f.n.), 

160. 
Crane, W. : An Artist's Reminiscences, 

(quot.) 148 {f.n.). 
Crimes: of English Gs., 139; of Rum- 
anian (is., 34. 
Crisp, F. A. : The Parish Registers of 

Ongar, Essex, (ref.) 149 {f.n.). 



Crofton, H. T., 116, 117. ^"ee also 
Smart. 

Crooke, Dr. W., 117. 

Crooks made by Gs., 46. 

Crosse, A. F. .- Round about the Car- 
pathians, (ref.) 132 (f.n.). 

Cruelty to animals, (i., 112. 

Csdrdds danced liy (is.. 37. 

Cushions in Ci. houses, 7. 

Cygani, G. tribal-name, 167. 

Dancers, (i., 36. 

Dawuldjis, G. tribal-name, 5, 53. 

De Goeje, 116. 

Dekker : Lanthonu ami Candle Li'/ht, 

(ref.) 149 (/.n.). 
Demirdjis, (J. tribal-name, 4, 5, 53; 

dialect of, 104-7. 
depesemmgro ' mirror,' 176. 
derjiiv, note on, 75. 
Dialects, Bulgarian-G., 6, 65-109. 
dilem, diliin, dild, remark on, 80, HX). 
Dinikovlirs, G. tribal-name, 5, 6, 51. 
DiKKS, W. : Geschiedkundige onderzof 

kiu'itn aangaande het rerhfij^f di r 

J/eidens of Kgijitiira in dt noordelijk' 

Xederlamlen,' (ibU.) 223, '2*24. 
Dirty Gs., 11-12. 
Divorce, G., 19. 
Djaparis. See Zaparis. 
Djezvedjis, (J. trilwl-name, 5. 
I3owry, G., 151. 
Dogs kept by Gs.. 47, 146. 
Donkeys owned byGs.. 18. 46, 146. 
Drindaris, (!. tribal-name. 4, 10, 115. 
Drnnimcrs, (J., 5. 
DiDi.KY, Rev. Hate, 1.38. 
dugilla ' lightning,' 176. 
Ddncan, L. L. ; The Register of Saint 

^fary, Letcisham, (ref.) 149 (/".«.). 
Dyer, H. F. T. : Old English Social 

Life, (ref.) 223. 
diangavdr, note on, 75. 
di^ha, note on, 75. 
diel/m, remark on, 100. 
diord, note on, 70 (f.n.), 75. 

Ebblewhite, E. a. : The Parish Regis- 
ters of Great Hampden, (ref.) 149 
(.f.n.). 

Editorial, 109-10. 

Pxlucated ('.., 1.58, 2*24. 

Egiptians, d. race-name, 222. 

Egypt, tradition of G. origin frfjm, 23. 

Ehrknboro, Harald, 116. 

Eiderdowns in G. houses, 7. 

eJt chipds, remark on, 79. 

Etymologies : — 

hildrrah ' kettle,' 160 ; furuvK 
'lime-tree,' 71; hormingoree 
'fork,' 162; kandoi 'mouse,' 71; 
kanzauri 'hedgehog,' 71 ; mdsov 
'fat animal,' 199; mussa 'it is 
necessarj-,' 164; nais 'thanks,' 
108-9; rumusardv 'I destroy,' 
71; sddo 'cup,' 207; singirtla 
'kettle,' 161 ; thrima 'a little,' 
71, 79; tri'imar 'I dare," 70. See 
also Romani words worth noting. 



INDEX OF VOLUME IX 



227 



Farm-labourers, G., 35. 

Feast : of St. (^.eorge, 33 ; of the 

Assumption observed by Gs., 32-3. 
Feminine missing to forms in -oro in 

Vlach group of G. dialects, 72. 
feredza ' mantle,' worn by Gs., 5, 7, 10. 
FERursoN, Prof. John, 117. 
Feruuson, William, 113. 
Fiddlers, G., 146, 156, 224. 
Fi.NCK, Prof. F. N., 115, 116. 
FisiiER, Capt. C. D., 118. 
Folk-tales and songs, G., collections of, 

115. 
Foreign (!s. in England, 136. 
Foreign phraseology translated into 

Romani, 68. 
FoRSTKR. Robert, friend of Hovland, 

153. 
Fortune-telling, G., 139, 142-3, 152. 
FRt>9T, T. : lieminiscunrffi of u Country 

Jouni'tlist, (refs.) 137 (/.n.), 138 (/"./i.), 

144 (/.n.), 152 (/.n.). 
Frugal (is., 47. 
Funeral, G., 135. 
J'uruvU, di-riv. of, 71. 

Gal ' village,' 176. 

(fALER, A. M. : Norwood atul Dulipich, 

(refs.) 132 (/.n.). 152 (/.n.). 
G.^LMciiA.N, Walter, 117. 
Gerundive, shortened, 95. 
(ilLLiAT-SMiTii, Bernartl, 115, 116,117. 

C and dn, (note), 224. .S'ee also Petu- 

lengro. 
(JlLLiNOTON, Aliee K. : Burrod^r Lava 

from tht' Xevi I'efh, (note), 224. 
liimlet-makers. (i., 5, 45. 
Gitano, G. race-name, lt»7. 
GjORCJEVld, 117. 
godi, remark on, 70 (/.n. ). 
grain rdi 'horseshoe,' 194. 
'iJreat Deceit,' 37-44. 
Grebeniris, (J. tribiil-name. 5, 25, .30. 
(Jreek : dialects of Romani, 65 ; influence 

on Romani phraseology, 69 ; numerals 

in sieve-makers' dialect, 7. 
Grellmakn : HiMori^rher Ver^uch, 

(refs.) 132 (/.n.), 153, 165, 173; his 

influence on Bright, 173. 
Grierson, Sir George : L%ngui»tic Survey 

of India, 119, 122, 123, 128. 
Groome, F. H., 114, 149; In G. Tents, 

(refs.) 129 ( f.n.). 132 (/.n.), 134 (/.n.), 

135 (f.n.), 144 (J.n.), 148 (f.n.), 160, 

163, 165 (f.n.) ; a pupil of Sanderson, 

111. 
Grosvenor, Lady Arthur, 115. 
gvdl6. remark on, 79. 
Gs., The, (ref.) 156 (/.n.). 
Ga. and Bears, (note). By J. R. Mori- 

arty, 112. 

Hackwoop. F. W. : The Good Old 

Times, (ref.) 135 (f.n.). 
hadjavdv, note on, 91. 
Hagekbeck. Carl : Beasts and Men, 

(quot.) 112. 
Hall. Rev. G., 117; The G.'s Parson, 

118. 



Hardships of tinker life, 58-9. 

Hare, A. G. and W. B. Bannerman : 
The Parish Register of Putney, (ref.) 
U&(f.n.). 

Harriott, J. S., 116, 162. 

Harvest-workers, G., 7, 13, 50, 156. 

Hasirdjis, G. tribal-name, 4, 53. 

Hawkers, tinkers, 57. 

Hederlez, Feast of, 16. 

Hedgehog, G. taste for, 46. 

Heister : Ethnographische und geschicht- 
liche Notizen, (ref.) 1.32 (f.n.). 

Holland, Gs. banished from, 223. 

Honest Gs., 6, 7, 47. 

Honesty and chastity of Zigundjis, 22. 

Hop-gatherers, G. , 1,56. 

hormingoree 'fork,' i62. 

Horse-dealers, G., 5, 6, 8, 19, 23, 44, 51, 
137 ; tinker, 57. 

Horse-shoe makers, G., 5, 53. 

Horse-thieves, G., 3, 25-6. 

Houses, Gs. in, 7, 149, 151, 152. 

HowiTT, Mary, (quot.), 140. 

HoYLAND, John, 136, 144; Historical 
Survey, (refs.) 139 (f.n.), 145 (f.n.), 
1,">0, 151 ; his Anglo-Romani vocabu- 
lary, 153-6. 

HuTii, Capt. Fred., 118. 

Huts, G., 132 anrf (f.n.), 146-7. 

xanamtk ' relative by marriage,' 70 

(f.n.). 
xantsl, remark on, 79 
xanvj, note on, 71 (f.n.). 
Xard, remark on, 76. 
X^ratas 'speech,' 70 (f.n.). 
Xux'ir, remark on, 76. 
Xungisardv ' sprinkle with incense,' 70 

(/.".). 
Xunk, ' incense,' 70 (f.n.). 

Idi'is ' thing,' 95. 

ikisiiva, remark on, 80. 

Indian stratum of Romani : later than 

Apabhraiui^a, 119 ; from Central India, 

119. 
Inflexions in Bright's Romani, 171-2. 
ingjardv, ingjerav, remarks on, 79, 80. 
Innkeeper, G., 152. 
Intemperance, tinker, 61. 
Iron-workers, G., 4, 5, 53. 
Irreligious Gs., 19. 
isali 'brandy,' 70 (f.n.). 
iskoi'-e ' snail,' 83. 

-12, verb stems in, 102 ; loan verbs in, 72. 
-12 suffix, 84. 

Jacksox, W. : Papers awl Pedigrees 

mainly relating to Cumberland and 

Westmorland, (quot. ) 222. 
Jevffreson, J. C. : Middlesex County 

Records, (ref.) 130 (/.n.). 
Jevsex, Ch. Sandfeldt: Rumcenske 

Stwditr, (ref.) 69 (f.n.). 
.John, Augustus, 115, 117. 
Jones, J. Morris: A Welsh Grammar, 

(quot.), 112. 

kaim^ngeros 'beau-catchers,' 195. 



228 



INDEX OF VOLUME IX 



kdbi ' liere,' 9R. 

Kalaidji's, Kalaidjides, O. tribal-name, 

4, 9 ; dialect of, 94-6. 
Kalburdjia, Kalburdjis, (J. tribal-name, 

4, 6 ; dialect of, 82-94 ; specimens of 

dialect of, 84-94. 
kan-, prefix for future, 84. 
kandot, deriv. of, 71. 
kanivoro 'hare,' 178. 
kanzaiiri, deriv. of, 71. 
Kashikdjla, G. tribal name, 0. 
KtnlJKh ReifiMfr mul Monthly Misceliany, 

(ref.) 147 {/.«.). 
Kidnapping, (J., .'')7. 
kikitai, remark on, 79. 
King, <;., 99. 
KiKity, R. S. : The Wonderful and Scini- 

title Mutfum, (refs.) 140 (f.n.), 141 

(f.n.). 
kilnf, remark on, 79. 
Kluyvkk, Dr., 115. 
Knife-grinders, G., \')Ct. 
korak, remark on, 70 i/.n.). 
kokn 'tliert',' 90. 

Kopandris, (J. tribal-name, (>, 30. 
Koritiris, G. triluil-name, fi. J!l. 
hi^o, note on, 71 (/.w.). 
Kosa(5ia, G. tribal-name, 11. 
Kiitlcnaki Tsigani, (i. tribal-name, 11. 
kovd ' thini>;,' 104. 
bizo ^ixxi," 163. 
KunN, Prof. Ernst, 110, lis. 

L mutatefl to ji, 90. 

laddva 'to pack up," 102. 

Lalero Sinte, <J. tribal-nanie. 97. 

L AKW<><)i>, .1. and J. C. Hotten : History 
of Si<jnhoardJt, (refs.) 12J» (f.n.), 135 
i/.n.). 

lav tut palnl 'to drive some one away,' 
68. 

Laws against (is., 34. 

Leeiltt Pitrixh Church licgiMers, (ref. ) 130 
(/.n.). 

LEiaND, C. G., 113; The 0»., (ref.) 142 
(f.n.); The. Kn;)li*h On. and their 
Lfiufjua^je, (ref.) 162; Knrjlieh G. 
Son<j.\ (refs.) 101, 179, 185. 

Letters, Romani, 98, 99, 105, lOJ. 

LiEiucii, R., Die Zirjpuner, (ref.) 104. 

Linguistic Survey of India. See (irierson. 

liperdv, deriv. of, 71. 

List of : comparative sentences of Bul- 
garian-O. dialects, 80-2 ; words to 
illustrate difl'erence between non- 
Vlach and Vlach groups of dialects, 
73-5. 

Iddav, remark on, 79. 

Lysons : Th>' Envirom of London, (refs.) 
129 (/.n.), 131 ( f.n.), 134 ( f.n.), (quot.) 
135, (ref.) 150 (f.n.); Historical Ac- 
count of Parishes not dexcrihetl in the 
Environs of London, (ref.) 133 ( f.n.). 

Lyster, Miss M. E., 117. 

M.\cAli.stkr, Sir Donald, 117. 

Macalister. Prof. R. A. S. : Grammar 
and Vocahulary of the Nawar of Pales- 
tine, 115, 117. 



M'Cartiiy, Justin Huntly, 117. 
M'CoRMicK, Andrew, 115, (quot.) 62. 
Mackie, R. a. Scott. 25, .30, 37, 38, 40, 

44, .50, 114, 117, 174. 
M'Neill, Dr. Roger, (qjiot.) 59. 
MacRitchie, David, 111, 114, 110; 

Scottish Gs. iiiultr the Stewarts, (ref.) 

222. 
Mai^olm, R. : Curiosities of Jiioifrapht/, 

(ref.) 1.32 (/.n.). 
Malleson, Rev. H. H., 117; liis 

Napoleon Boswell. 118. 
Manning, T. and W. Bray : The History 

. . . of the County of Surrey, (nf. 1 143 

(/«.). 
manrfi, remark on, 79. 
Marriage, early, among (Js., 19. 
Marsden, Williaiu, 14.">, 153. 
uuisov 'a fat animal," 199. 
Mat -makers, (J., 7. 
Matthews, Samuel, the Dulwicli Hermit, 

140-1. 
Meht^'ris, G. trilial-name, 5, 53. 
■men, suffix, 104. 
Mevkr, Prof. Kunu. 11«», 118. 
Middlesex County Htcorda, (ref.) 142 

(f.n.). 
MiKL<isicn, F. : Muiulnrten, (refs.) 07. 

80, .S.3, S7, 116, 119, 120 (f.n.), 122, 

101. 107. 174-H.->. 
Minutes of Evidence on Mendicity, (re' I 

138 (/.n.). 
MiaKow, .lohan, 115, 117. 
Monkey-trainers, (i., 97. 
moomlinyoree 'candlestick,' 163. 
Mt>RK : A dt/aloge of syr Thomas More, 

(ref.) 129 (/.n.). 
MoRiARTY, J. R. : Os. and Bears, (noteK 

112. 
Moslem (Js., 4, o ; dialects of, 65. 
Mowers, G., 11. 
Muggers, tinker, 58. 
muilsa, not* on meaning of, 111. 
mukso 'breasts,' 181. 
mu/o mns, 5, 13, 15. l.'>8. 
Musician.s G., 4, 11, 12, .35, 54, 94. 
mwojuii ' mole,' 70 (f.n. ). 
mussa 'it is necessary,' 164. 
MYER.S, John, 117. 

iVaw, deriv. of, 108-9. 
vnkfidfin, note on, 99. 
Nalbandjis, <}. tribal-name, 5. 
Names, (i. Christian or fore — 

Abraham, .h;, 149, 22.3. 

Adam, 137, 138, 143, 144. 

Ali, 20. 

Ambrose, 137, 148. 

Ankutsa, 99. 

Ann, 142, 146. 

Anne, 146. 

Anne Maria. 140. 

Anthony, 223. 

Brii)i:et. 'Queen,' 129, 134, 13.5. 
147, 150. 

Catherine, 223. 

Charity, 1.33. 

Charlotta, \4(y and { f.n.). 

Charlotte, 142, 143, 145. 



INDEX OF VOLUME IX 



229 



Names, G. Christian or ioTe—corUintied. 
Cinderella, 152. 
constantine, 99. 
Cornelius, 18»j, 191, 194, 196, 207, 

208. 
David, 146 (f.n.). 
Diana, 145. 
DiANAH, 136. 

Dinah, 135. 
DoMiNico, 224. 

DOKOTHV, 149. 

DHsi, u;i. 

Dui.A, 99. 

Edward, 150. 

Klisiia (Liisha), 146. 

Klizahkth, 129, 1.S6, 142 {/.«.). 

Kmanuel, 223. 

Ksmkkalda, 151, llil. 

KvE, 146. 

Faith, 133. 

(Jeokce, 130, 131, 139, 162, 222, 

•224. 
Hannah, 142 (/.n.). 

TI\KKIET, 145. 

IIakkkitt, 142. 

Hati (Karu), 8, 9, 88, 89 (f.n.), 91. 

Hkitok, 142. 

Henry, 151. 

Ho IE, 133. 

ISAJIELL, 142 (f.n.). 

Ivan. 30. 

Jack, 152 (/".n.). 

Jan, -223. 

Jank. 142, 146, 150. 

Joe. 161. 

John, 137, 138, 139, 142, 145, 150. 

JoRi.s, 223. 

Joseth, 136, 145, 157. 

KadTlia, lt»4. 

Kadir. 90. 

LETiriA. 223. 

Lydia, 18t;, 20i». 

Madlyn, 131. 

Mairik, 151. 

Mansfield, 145. 

Mar.;arkt, 1_>9. 130. 131. 132 and 

(/.«.). 133. 135, US. •J22. 223. 
Margeret, 222. 
Margrietta, 223. 
Maria, 49, 146. 
Mary, 131. 
Mary Ann. 142, 146. 
Matthew, 151, 152. 
Milan, 98. 
Nancy, 152. 
Ned, 151. 
Nicola I, 99. 
Nicolas, 98. 
NiKCLiXA, 106, 107. 
NiLi, 142. 
NisKA, 92. 

OSMAN, 104, 105. 

PENTE^^NNY, 142, 143, 145. 
Peter, 149 and (f.n.). 
Philip, 160, 164. 
Phcenix, 147. 
PlETER, 224. 
Plato, 149. 
Radvl, 99. 



Names, G. Christian or fore — continued. 
Richard, 138 and {f.n.), 139. 
Riley, 156. 

RiSTEM, 28. 

Robert, 129, 131, 136, 137. 

Roman, 99. 

Ryley, 139. 

Sabraina, 146. 

Saiki, 152. 

Sali, 90. 

Samuel, 146. 

Sarah, 135, 149. 

Sherban, 99. 

Shooler, 149. 

Shuri (Yoki), 139. 

Sophia, 146, 1 '9. 

Spencer, 161. 

Sportcella, 157 (/.7t.). 

Sp5ti, 157 (/.n.). 

Stephen, 137, 139. 

Thomas, 142 i/.n.), 143, 145, 147. 

TiNKA, 58. 

ToTANA, 28, 35. 

Truffeni, 152 i/.n.). 

Tori, 107. 

'TcRUTs' (nickname), 162. 

Unity, 151. 

Uriah, 153. 

Vlac'ano, 27, 36, 106. 

Vristaki, 99. 

William, 131, 138 (/.n.), 142 (/.n.), 

150, 151, 160, 222, 223. 
Zachariah, 145, im aiid (f.n.). 
Names, Ci. Surnames — 

Allen, Chariotte, 142, 143, 145. 
Allen, Elizabeth, 142 (/.«.). 
Allen, Hannah, 142 (/.?«.). 
Allen, Isal>ell, 142 (f.n.). 
Allen, Thomas, 142 (f.n.). 
Allen, William, 142 {f.n.). 
Ayers, Sarah (Shooler), 149. 
Backer, Dominico, 224. 
Blytii, tinkers, 58. 
Bos, William, 151. 
Boss, Peter, 157 (/.n. ). 
Boss, Spoti, 157 (/.«.). 
Boss, Waini, 157 i/.n.). 
Bosses, 151. 

BosswEL gang, 157 (/.".). 
Bosvile, 'Captain,' 156. 
Bosvile's gang, 156. 
BoswELL, Abraham, 149. 
Boswell, Ambrose, 137. 
BoswELL (Boss), Chailotta, 146. 
Boswell, 'Queen' Dinah, 135. 
Boswell, Dianah, 136. 
Boswell = Lock, 151. 
Boswell gang, 147, 155, 156. 
Boswell, Phcenix, 147. 
Boswell, Ryley (Riley), 139, 156. 
Boswell, Sarah, 149. 
Boswell, Sophia, 149. 
Bowers (Bower), James, 142. 
BozwELL, Elizabeth, 129. 
Brown, Kadilia, 164. 
BucKLAND family, 156. 
Buckland, Hector, 142. 
BucKLAJTD, Ned, 151. 
Buckland (Fenner), Nili, 142. 



230 



INDEX OF VOLUME IX 



Names, G. Surnames — contimied^. 

Auckland, ' King ' Peter, 149 (f.n. ). 

Buckley, Dorothy, 149. 

BucKLKY, Peter, 149. 

Buckley, Plato, 149. 

Camerons, tinkers, 58. 

C HARLOT, Edward, 150. 

Charlot, Jane, 150. 

CiiARLUT, John, 150. 

Chilcott (Lee), Richard, 138 {f.n.), 

139. 
Collins, Elizabeth, 136. 
Cooi'EK, Ann, 146. 
Cooper, Anne, 14<». 
Cooper, Anne Maria, 146. 
Cooper, Cornelius, 186, 191, 194. 

196, 207, 208. 
Cooper, Elisha (Lusha), 146. 
Cooper, Eve, 146. 
Cooper, G. Jack, 152 and {f.n.). 
Cooper, Jane, 146. 
Cooper (Hicks). Lydia, 186, 209. 
Cooper, Nancy, 152. 
Cooper, Sabraina, 146. 
CositY, Mrs., 161. 
DouuLAs, tinker-s, 58. 
Draper, Spencer, 161. 
Du. MITER, Piet«r, 224. 
Farlant, Abraham, 22.S. 
Fenner. Sec Bucklaml. 
Finch, Matllyn, 131. 
Finch (Fytch), 'Queen' Margaret, 

129, 130. 131, 1.32 and (f.n.), 

133, 135. 148. 
Finch, William. 131. 
Gaskin, Dot*!. KJl. 
(iREEN. George (Turuts), 162. 
Hearn family, 151. 
Hern, Jane, 142. 
Hern, Mary Ann. 142. 
Hern, Rol>ert, 129. 
Heron. Saiki, 1.52. 
IspASiT, Sherban, 99. 
Jorisse, Abraham, 223. 
Lee, Adam, 1.37. 138, 143, 144. 
Lee, Charlotta, 146 (f.n.). 
Lee, Blind David, 146 (f.n.). 
Lice, Diana, 145. 
Lee family, 137. 
Lee, old George, 224. 
Lee, Harriott, 142. 
Lee, John, 137, 138. 139, 1.^0. 
Lee, Mansfield. 145. 
Lee, Mary Ann, 146. 
Lee, Richard, 138. 
Lee, Robert, 137. 
Lee, Samuel, 146. 
Lee, Sophia, 146. 
Lee, Stephen, 137, 139. 
Lee, Thomas, 143, 147. 
Lee, William, 1.50. 
Lee, Zachariah. 145. 146 and (f.n.). 
'Lincoln. Lady," 134, 150. 
Lock, Esmeralda, 151, 161. 
Lock = Boswell, 151. 
Lock, Joe, 161. 
Lock, Mairik, 151. 
Lock, Matthew. 151, 152. 
Locke, Henry, 151. 



Names, G. Surnames — continued. 

Locke, Unity, 151. 

Lovell family, 153, 154, 162. Set 
Smith family. 

Lovell, Harriet, 145. 

Lovell, John, 142, 145. 

Lovell, Joseph, 136, 145, 157. 

Lovell, Pentevinny, 142, 143, 145. 

Lovell, Robert, 136. 

Lovell, Thomas, 145. 

Lovell, Truffeni, 152 (f.n.). 

Lovell, Uriah, 153. 

Macmillan, tinkers, 58. 

MacI'hee, tinkers, 57, 58. 

Marshall, tinkers, 58. 

Mosroesse, Catherine, 223. 

Murray, Philip, tinker, 160, 164. 

Newlands, tinkers, 58. 

NicuLOFF. Ivan, 30. 

NoRRis. tinkers, 58. 

0.sM.\NoFF, Osiuan, 105. 

PooLK, Mary, 131. 

Poole, Robert, 131. 

PowEL. Mary, 131. 

Powell's gang, 131. 

Powell, (ieorge, 130. 131. 

I'owELL, William, 131. 

Reid, tinkers, 58. 

Skemp, Sarah, lliS. 

.Smith. Ambrose, 148. 

Smith family, 137, 151, 1.56. 

Smith, George, 139. 

Smith, William, 138 (f.n.). 

Stanley, William, 160. 

Stewart, tinkers, 58. 

ToWNSLEY, tinkers, 58. 

Valentyn, Anthony, 22.3. 

Valentyn, Emanuel, 223. 

Valentyn, Jan, 223. 

Valent\'N, .loris, 223. 

Valentyn, Margrietta, 223. 

Vallantyne, Margaret, 222, 223. 

Voclentine, Leticia, 22.3. 

VocLENTiNE, William, 223. 

VoLANTYNE, (Jeorge. 222. 

VoLANTYNE, Margaret, 222. 

VoLANTYNE, Willjelmus, 222. 

Walentin family, 223. 

Watson, tinkers, 58. 

White, tinkers, 58. 

Williamson, tinkers, 58. 

Wilson, tinkers, 58. 

WiLsoiN, Johnne, 222. 

Wood, Abraham. 56. 

Wood, Cinderella. 152. 

Wood familj-, 152. 

Young, tinkers, 58. 
Names, G. Tribal or Race — 

Ai<lia. 5, 53. 10.3. 

Bare-Katuni^nK*ire, 47. 

Burgudjis, 5. 45. 

( 'algidjis. 4. 1 1. 

Cygani. 167. 

Dawuldjis, 5, .53. 

Demirdjis, 4, 5, .53, 104. 

Dinikovlirs, 5, 6, 51. 

Djaparis. ^ee Zaparis. 

Djezvedjis, 5. 

Drindaris, 4. 10, 115. 



INDEX OF VOLUME IX 



231 



Names, G. Tribal or Race — continued. 

Egiptians, 222. 
(iitano, 167. 
Grebeniris, 5, 25, 30. 

Hasirdjis, 4, 53. 

Kalaidjis, Kalaidjides, 4, 9, 94. 

Kalburdjia, Kalburdjis, 4, 6, 82. 

Kashikdjis, 6. 

Kopan4ris, 6, 30. 

Korit4ris, 6, 49. 

Kosacis, 11. 

Kdtlenski Tsi'gani, 11. 

Lalere Sinte, 97. 

Meht^ris, 5, 53. 

Netots, 3. 

Pirpulia, 6, 44. 

Pletosi, 35. 

Roma, 13. 

RudAri.si, 6, 48. 

Sepetdjis, 4, 53. 

Suridgees, 224. 

Tarakd^is, 25. 

Turciti, H. 

Ursari, 47. 

I'stalar, 4. 

Vliichs, H, 7. 

Vla.si, 49. 

Yerlis, 4. 

ZAgundjis, 5, 13-22, 100. 

Zaparis (Djaparis), 3. 

Zavrakcia, Zavratides, Zavrakcis, 
5, 25, 47. 

Zidaris, 97. 
Names of people who were possibly Gs. — 

Allen, John, 142. 

Bower, Heniy, 142. 

HowERS, Arthur, 141, 142. 

HowKRS, Bill. 142. 

Bowers, Ephraim, 141. 

Bowers, Robert, 141. 

Bdcklev, 138 (/.n.). 

Finch, Charity, 133. 

Finch, Faith, 133. 

Finch, Hope, 133. 

FiKCH, Johannes, 133. 

Hearn, Mary, 138 (f.n.). 
\ HroHES, 138 (/.«.). 

Jones, 138 (f.n.). 

Lamb, B., 146. 

Lamb, Henry, 146. 

Lamb, Sarah, 146. 

Lock, John, 151. 

Lock, Matthew, 151. 

Mc3GRAVE, Christofer, 130. 

McsGRAVE, old Goody, 130. 

McsGRAVE, William, 130. 

MusGROVE, Anthony, 130. 

Pentold, John, 223. 

Sheen, 138 (f.n.). 

Smith, John, 149. 

Sprague (Spragg, Cragg, Craggs), 
Joseph (Benjamin), 141, 142. 

Valentine, Elizabeth, 223. 

Vallentyn, James, 223, 224. 

Wood, Jane, 150. 

Wood, Susannah, 150. 

Young, Elizabeth, 149. 

Young, James (2), 149. 
nandi, remark on, 89. 



nasaldv, remark on, 75 (f.n.). 
nav, note' on, 75. 
Netots, G. race-name, 3. 
Newspapers, Journals, Magazines, and 
Periodicals quoted or referred to — 
Annual Register, 134 (f.n.), 135 

{f.n.). 
Antiquary, 145 {f.n.). 
Blackwood, 56. 
Builder, 152 (f.n.). 
Champion, 132 (f.n.). 
Christian Guardian, 148 (f.n.), 151 

(f.n.), 155, 156 and (f.n.). 
Church of England Magazine, 151 

{f.n.). 
Gentleman's Magazine, 132 (f.n.), 

140 (f.n.). 
Illustrated London News, 111. 
John Bull, 146 (f.n.). 
J.G.L.S., N.S., 2, 3, 6, 13, 50, 56, 
57, 58, 80, 93, 130 (f.n. ), 136 (f.n. ), 
137 (f.n.), 142 (f.n.), 144 (f.n.), 
145 (f.n.), 147 (/.n.), 149 (f.n.), 
151 (f.n.), 154 (f.n.), 157 (f.n.), 
161 (f.n.), 163, 179, 223. 
J.G.L.S., O.S., 111, 129 (f.n.), 
132 (/.n.), 149 (f.n.), 151 (f.n.), 
160, 164. 
Leicester Journal, 141 (f.n.). 
London Chronicle, 134 (f.n.), 136, 
137 (f.n.), 138 (/.«.), 141 (f.n.), 
142(/.7i.). 
Mist's Weekly Journal, 131. 
Monthly Magazine, 145 (f.n.). 
Northampton Mercury, 56. 
Notes and Queries, 146 (f.n.). 
Oxford Journal, 134 (f.n.), 135, 
1.37 (f.n.), 146 (/.n.), 150 (f.n.), 
151 (f.n.). 
Oxford Times, 142 (f.n.). 
Reading Mercury, 141 (f.n.), 147 

{f.n.). 
Times, 141 (f.n.), 144 (f.n.), 146 

(f.n.), 151 (/.«.), 152 (/.n.). 
Weekly Register, 144 (f.n.). 
Worcester Herald, 142 (f.n.). 
Noise made by Gs., 21. 
Norwood, a G. haunt, 129-52. 
Nonfood Gs. and their Vocabulary, The. 

By E. 0. Winstedt, 129-65. 
Norwood, Rev. T. W., 115, 151. 
Notes and Queries : — 

BurrodSr Lavs from the Nevi Vesh, 

224. 
d and dii, 224. 
Gs. and Bear.?, 112. 
Roumany Chai or Gs., The, 111. 
Seven Jargons, The, 111-12. 
Shelta, 111. 
Spanish Romani, 64. 
Suridgees, 224. 
Valentines, The, 222-4. 
Number of tinkers in Scotland, 57. 

Occupations, G. — 

Ballad-singers, 94. 
Basket-makers, 4, 104. 
Bear-leaders, 35, 47, 97. 
Beggars, 14. 



232 



IVDEX OF VOLUME IX 



Occupations, O. — continued. 

Buffalo-rearers, G. 

Chair-bottomers, 156. 

Charwomen, 7. 

Cliimney-sweep, 141. 

Cliina-racnders, 1.56. 

Coffee-pot maker.'!, 5, 9. 

Comb-makers, 5, 22-37. 

Coppersmiths, 35, 115. 

Crook -makers, 46. 

Dancers, 36. 

Drummers. 5. 

Farm-labourers, 3.1. 

Fiddlers, 146, 156. 224. 

Fortune-tellers, l.SU, 142-3, 152. 

(limlet-niakers, 5, 45. 

Harvest- workers, 7, 13, 50, 156. 

Hop-f;athprer8, 156. 

Horse-dealers, 5, 6, 8, 19, 23, 41, 
51, 57, 137. 

Iforse-shoe makers, 5, 53. 

Horse-thieve.s, 3, 2.5-6. 

Innkeeper, 1.52. 

Iron-wtirkers, 4, 5, 53. 

Knife-jjrinders, 156. 

Mat-raakors, 7. 

Mi)nkey-traiiiers, 97. 

Miiwcrs, 1 1. 

I'ipe-players, 5. 

I'lirters, 7. 

Postman, 224. 

ru^'ilist, 1.52. 

SchoulnMstcr, 224. 

Sieve-makers, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 
50. 

Spoon-makers. 2, 6. 

Tamlxiurineplayers, 156. 

Thieves, 6. 23. .51. 

Tinkers, (i. 145, 146. 

Tinners. 4, 6, 7, 9, 10. 

Trouvrh- makers, 6, 49. 

Washerwomen, 7. 

Wnol -cleaners. 4. 11. 
O'DoNociiuK, F. : i^nialodiu of En(imi'*d 
/iriti^h Portraits in 'hi lirxtv>h 
AfuJieum, (ref. ) 132 (/.n. ). 
Offf, remark on. 70 i/.n.). 
Origin: of tinkers, 55; tradition of G., 

23. 
iJriimdidiHi ' spider,' K3. 

Pii/ti 'silver clasps.' 49. 

P.^PA)l.\Gl : Pnrallde Auj>driicke und 

Redensartdi itn liumiinitrhm, Alhunf- 

sischi^n, Xeutjriechijirhen und Bulgar- 

if>chen, (ref.) 68 -9. 
Parish Jiegislera of Birchington, (ref.) 

133 (/.n.). 
parwi, not<> on, 71 (/.n. ). 
PArpulia, G., tribal-name, 6, 44; dialect 

of, 102-3. 
Paspati, a., 3: Kliiden, {ref<.^ 7). !t2. 

93, 100. 
Passive voice in Romani. 98. 
paMcrnf 'apron.' 103. 
Patkasoff. K. p.. 115. 123. 
Peasants" animosity against (Js. , 28. 
Penxell, Joseph, 117. 
Pepys, S. : Dinry, (quot.) 129. 



Perkins, Sidney W., 115, 118. 
Petcle.vgro : Report on the O. tribes of 

X.E. liidgaria, 1-54, 65-109. 
PiiiLLiMORE, W. P. \V., Middlesex 

Parish Registers, (ref.) 223. 
pHiLLiis, Sir J., 145. 
Phonetics: Bright's, 172; Copsey's, 158; 

Huyland's, 153-4 : Sinclair's, 187. 
Phraseology, foreign, tulopted by 

Romani, 68-70. 
Pindar, Peter, (quot.) 147 (/.n.). 
Pipe-players, G., 5. . 
pif(J, note on, 75. 
PiSTHEL, R., 116; Prakrit Grammar, 

(ref.) 125. 
PiTTARD, Dr. Eugene, 116. 
Pleto^i, (;. tribal-name, 35. 
Pneumonia among tinkers, 59. 
PiKTtK-KE, *Dr. Richard: Travels, (ref.) 

133 (/.n.). 
Poles carried by RudAri, 49. 
Police : friendly to tinkers, 58 ; mid 

Gs., 145. 
Porter, Tom, gorgio traveller, 161. 
Port«r8, (J., 7. 
pdski, note on, 75. 
Postman, (}., 224. 
P<.TT, A. F., (ref8.)70, 71, l(i4. 
jtripel, dcriv. of, 70. 
Present tense in P4rpulia dialect. 102. 
Pride of colo\ir anu)tig (Js.. 36. 
I»RinKArx. Col. W. K.. lis. 
Prince, .J. 1). : English- Rommnny Jargon 

of the American Roads, (refs. ) 18«i, 

187 210. 
Prisons U9e<l by Gs. as postes restantea, 

21». 
Pronouns, Romani personal, compare<l 

with cognate forms in Indian tongues, 

120-8. 

PUCHMAYER, A. .1., (fef.) 71. 

Pugilist, <;., 152. 
piiJiii ' street.' 95. 
pursukd 'crumbs,' 70 (/.n. ). 

(Quarrels, Zigundji. 17, 18. 

gueens. <;., 129. 130, 131. 132 aruf ( /".n.), 

133, 134, 13.5, 147, 148. 150. 
QuEVKDo, Sefior Prof. D. S.. 118. 

R group of dialects, 67. 

R group of dialects, 67. 

r in Bulgarian Romani, 71, 100. 1 16. 

r sound in Romani, 71. 100. 

rai, remarks on, 36, 79. 

Raid, police, on (Js. . 29. 139. 

raimt'is ' lordship,' 98. 

Rankino, Dr. Fearon de I'Hoste, 115, 

117; Shelta, (note), 111; Roumany 

Chaior Gs., The, 111. 
REDiiorsK : A Turkish and English 

Lfxiron, (ref.) '224. 
Report nf the DepartmerUal Committee on 

Tinkers in Scotland, (rev.), 54-64. 
Re)Kirt on MSS. in various rolleciion>. 

(ref.) 131 (/.n.). 
Report on the G. tribes of X.E. Bulo'irii 

By Petulengro, 1-54, 65-109. 
resdv, remark on, 7». 



INDEX OF VOLUME IX 



233 



Residence in Bulgaria, A. See St. Clair. 

Review : Report of the Departmental 
Committee on Tinkers in Scotland, 
.54-64. 

Rice : TTie Parish Register of Horsham, 
(quot.) 222. 

rikon6, remark on, 75. 

Robbers, O., 137, 138, 139. 

Roberts, Samuel, 116; The Gs., (ref.) 
156 (/.n.). 

Roriia, G. tribal-name, 13. 

Romani not necessarily an unmixed 
languat;e when leaving India, 119. 

Romani word.s worth noting — 

nkhor, 71 (./".n. ), angYt.it, 75 ; aravdv, 
75; arr'ir, 70 {f.n.); arlla, 75; 
astdr, 104; aslf'r, 103: hai, 105; 
-h^M, 104 ; -herl, 87 ; hiandva, 102: 
hildrrah, 160; hock, 174; hori, 
106-7; hov, 70 (/.n.); hre.i, 96; 
hnhirisdjovav, 75 ; /)?fr, 71 (./*•«•) ; 
r(f, 190; ram, 79; raprdzi. 49; 
rhomiil, 75 (/.n.) ; nW*, 70 (/.7i.) ; 
deppsem'nqro, 176 ; derjdv, 75 ; 
diW, rfiWn, r/tV^m, 80, 100 ; dwfir- 
t//a, 176 ; dinngavdv, 75 ; dzeha, 
75 ; dfe/«'m, lOO'; dioro, 70 (/.n.), 
75 ; ek chipds, 79 ; furuvli, 71 ; 
f7ai, 176; f/o«^//, 70 (f.n.); graia 
rdi, 194 ; giidld, 79 ; hadjavdv, 91 ; 
hormingoree, 162; x^namlk, 70 
(/.n. ) ; "xin/^/, 79 ; xn^mi, 7 1 { /".n. ) ; 
Xaro, 76; \nrata8, 70 (/.n.) ; 
X«x«r, 76 ; x^tngisartiv, 70 ; X""^'. 

70 {f.n.)\ iilos, 95; ikisdra, 80; 
ingjariiv, ingjerdv, 79, 80 ; t'-'o//, 70 
(/.n. ); iskdire, 83; kaim^ngeros, 
195 ; jlv/X-a, 96 ; /tan-, 84 ; k'andoi, 

71 ; l-dHtroro, 178 ; kanzai'iri, 71 ; 
iti/ti7.«/. 79 ; /•iV*^ 79 ; korak, 70 
(/.n.) ; kokd, 96 ; /rcmi, 71 ifn.) ; 
kovd, 104 ; b'izo, 163 ; laddva, 
102 ; /'iv ^<< palal, 68 ; liperdv, 
71 ; li'idav, 79 ; manrd, 79 ; mdsov, 
199; -m€7i, 104; moomlingoree, 
163 ; miikso, 181 ; niM-s07J'»»', 70 
(./'.n. ); wiJi-wa, 164; naia, 108-9; 
nakadem, 99 ; nandi, 89 ; naJcUav, 
75 ( /"./i.) ; nar, 75 ; Of//, 70 (/.n.) ; 
oriimd'.dva, 83 ; p'//i'i, 49 ; pamo, 
71 (/".n.); pastemi, 103; ptVo, 
75 ; /xJa/ti, 75 ; prf^pel, 70 ; pw/'/i, 
95; pursukd, 70 (/.n.) ; rai, 36, 

79 ; rniWi.", 98 ; resdv, 75 ; 
rikoni'i, 75 ; rot-tch, 164 : rwX', 75, 
79, 102 ; rumusardv, 71 ; saleijgo, 
83 ; Wrf, 75 ; savord, 89 ; si, 79 ; 
singwela, 161 ; somnakdi, 75 ; 
*ii£(5, 75 ; «<7a, 184 ; tueid, 79 ; 
thdhjovav, 76 ; ^/iana, 16 ; thrlma, 
71, 79; trdmar, 70; fschamme- 
dini, 184 ; uy-hawiv, 80 ; uxljavdv, 

80 ; M/y«/v, 79 ; 7t:ar«'f, 75 ; va«, 70 
(/.n.); roy^, 70 (/.n.) ; tm^, 76, 
102 ; ydjufo, 210. 

rotsch 'spoon,' 164. 

Roumany Chai or Gs., The, (note). By 

D. F. de THoste Ranking, 111. 
rr sound, 72. 



Rud4ris, G. tribal-name, 6, 48. 
ruk, remark on, 75, 79, 102. 
Rumanian Gs. , 49 ; in Bulgaria, 5. 
Rumanian : influence on Comb-makers' 

dialect, 97 ; loan-words in Comfc- 

makers' dialect, 22 ; in Bulgarian-G. 

dialects, 66, 83 ; in Sieve-makers' 

dialect, 6. 
rumusardv, deriv. of, 71. 
Rush -carpet makers, G., 4. 
Russell, Alex., 115, 117; Bright' s 

Anglo-Romani Vocabulary, 165-85 ; 

Suridgees, (note), 224. 

sddo 'a cup,' 207. 

St. Clair, S. G. B. and Charles Brophy : 

A Residence in E dgaria, (ref.) 2. 
St. George's Day and Gs., 16. 
saleygo 'snail,' 83. 
sail'), remark on, 75. 
Sampson, Dr. John, 69 (f.n.), 70, 163, 

168 (f.n.), 170 (/.7j.), 174, 176, 177 

f/.n.), 207 ; Vale et ave ! 113-18. 
S «i NDERSON, Rev. R. N. , student of 

Romani, 111. 
-sar stem, remarks on, 72-3. 
Saras^n de la Cardhea, G. song, 64. 
savor6, note on, 89. 
Schoolmaster, G., 224. 
Scotland, G. Ijanished from, 222. 
Scott, Rev. A. B. on tinkers, 57, 63. 
Sepetdjis, G. tribal-name, 4, 53. 
Seven Jargon^, The, (note). By F. G. 

Ackerley, 111-12. 
Shaw, Fred, 113, 117. 
Shawcross, J. p. : History of Dagen- 

ham, (ref.) U2(f.n.). 
Shelta, (note). By D. F. de I'Hoste 

Ranking, 111. 
Shepherds' crooks, Gs. makers of, 6. 
.si, remark on, 79. 
Sieve-makers, G., 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 44, 

50. 
SiMSON, Walter, 175. 
Sinclair, A. T., 117; collector of 

American-Romani, 185, 186. 
singwela ' kettle,' 161. 
Soldiers, G., 51. 
Solly, N. N. : Memoirs of the Life of 

David Cox, (ref.) 143 (f.n.). 
somnakdi, remark on, 75. 
Smart, Bath and H. T. Crofton : Dia- 
lect of the English Gs., (refs.) 173-85; 

187-210. 
Smith, George, of Coalville, 146 (f.n.). 
Smith, Hubert, 151 ; Tent Life with 

English Gs. in Nonoay, (ref.) 132 

(f.n.). 
Spanish Romani, (note), 64. 
Spinelli, Signor, 116. 
Spoon-makers, G., 2, 6. 
Sr\eho, J. : his portrait of Margaret 

Finch, 132, 148. 
Stevens, J. : A Parochial History of 

St. Mary Bourne, (ref.) 148 (,f.n.). 
Studies in Romani Philology. By Alfred 

C. Woolner, 119-28. 
Suridgees, (note). By A. Russell, 224. 
SM30, remark on, 75. 



234 



IXDFX OF VOLUME IX 



Mwa 'tear,' 184. 
Symons, a., 117. 

Tambourine-players, G., 156. 

Tarakfl;>.is, (J. tribal-narae, 23. 

tasfi, remark on, 79. 

Tathes, M.. pi Elector of Romani, 04. 

Taylor, Tom, 111, llfi. 

Tentless Gs., 5, 11, 'A. 

Tents, elaborate G., 6 ; G., 44, 4,'), 4S ; 

Comb-makers', 30; English-G., 148; 

ZAgundji, 1.5, 16. 
Test-woifls, list of, for seven Biilgarian- 

G. dialects, 77-8. 
Tedtsch, Julius, 117. 
thdhjovav, remark on, 76. 
thnnn 'encampment,' 16. 
Tui-aLKKK, Arthur: Hi port oti the Q. 

ProhUm, (refs.) .S, 117: WOrterhuch, 

(ref.) 118, 184. 
Thieves, G., 6, 23, ni ; expert, 51-2; 

women, 5. 
Th..mi'son. T. \V.. II.S, 11.-). 117, 152. 
thrhii'i, deriv. of, 71, 79. 
Tickets, horse, 26. 
TiMHS, J. : Enrflif'h Eccentrics, (ref.) 

120 (/.n.). 
Tinkers, G., 6, 145, 156; of Scotland. 

.'■)4-64. 
Tinners, (i.. 4, 6. 7, 1», 10. 
Tra<le-clas8ification of Gs. , 3. 
Trial, V.., 142 3. 
tniniav, deriv. of, 70. 
Tniugh-makers. G., 6, 49. 
t)>ch'immeilini 'a slap on the face,' 184. 
Turciti, G. trilwl-name. 6. 
Turkish : a lingua franca for Moslem <}. 

tribes, 10 ; intluence on Romani 

phraseologj', 68 ; on Hulgarian-CJ. syn- 
tax, 84 ; loan-wortls, 83, 'J5. 

Ui'haiuiv, remark on, 80. 
uxlja^Hiv, remark on, 80. 
ITrkaN. Reinhold, 118. * 
uri-, note on, 71 (/•'••)• 
urjiiv, remark on, 79. 
Ursari, G. tribal-name, 47. 
iistalar. G. tribal-narae. 4. 
uiardv, note on, 75. 

-vn, sutlix for loan-wonls, 83. 

vachi 'night,' 184. 

Vnlt et ave ! By Dr. .1. Sampson, 113-18. 

ValriUine.8, The. (note). By E. O. VVin- 

stedt. 222-4. 
va.i 'on account of,' 70 (/.n.). 



re ' and,' note on, 105. 
Vlarhs, G. tribal-name, 6, 7. 
^^asi, G. tribal -name, 49. 
Vocabularies, Romani : American, 187- 

210; Bright's, 167-85; Copsey's, 157- 

65; Hoyland's. 153-7. 
vorjl, remark on, 70 (y'.n. ). 
VuN Sow A : Mnndnrt d. duv. Zig., (ref.) 

122. 
vwi ' Hax,' 76, 102. 

WArKERNAOEI,. J.. 116. 

Waine, <;.. l.SO-1 (/.n.). 

Wanderitifj Gipi>et/, Sir, am I, A. poem, 

. (quot.) 147-8 (/.n.). 

War and the (Js., the, 54. 

Washerwomen, G., 7. 

Way. a. K. (J. : Xo. 747, (ref.) 161. 

WEKiAND, Prof. (Justav: I4tei> Jahre«- 

herieht de» Irvlituttt fiir liumiini*rhf 

Sjfrarhf, {r€(.)*\H. 
Wei.i.stooo, Fred. 116. 
Whiter. Walter, 115. 
Wiener, Trof. U-o, 116. 
Wiu.iAMs, H. L., 117. 
WiNSTEDT. E. O.. 56. 113. 116, 117; 

Thf A'onroorf '7*. and thrir VocabiUnry. 

l29-<'.5 ; Thf V'llmtinfn, (notv). 222 4. 
IVfJttdnton rnrinh Rf<;ii>tfr, 142 (/.»i.). 
Wood, H. M. : The' Registers of Whit- 

'.Mm, (ref.) 130 (/.n.). 
W(MKlen-tmugh makers. (J., 6. 
Woodman, A. V. : The HcfjiMer of the 

I'nrith of \Vin(], (ref.) 149 (f.n.). 
\V(K)l-(leaner«, G., 4, 11. 
W(M)LNER, Prof. A. C, 116; Stvulie$ in 

Romnni PhUology, 119-'28. 
Wriomt, Joseph : English Dialect Die- 

ti(m'iry, (ref.) 207. 
WvNDiiAM, H. p. : The Diary of thr 

Intf Oeorge Buitb Dodington, (quot.) 

134 (/.n.). 

T/lj<ifo 'apron,' 210. 
Yatks. Miss I). E., 116. 
Yerlis, G. tribal-name, 4. 
YoxALL, Sir J. TI., 117. 

Z4gundji8, G. tribal-name, 5, 13-22; 

dialect of, 100. 
Zaparis (Djaparis), <i. race-name, 3. 
Zavnikria, Zavrak<'is, Zavracides, G. 

trilwl-name, 5, 25, 47. 
Zidaris, G. tribal-name, 97. 
2u»ii ' evening meal,' 15. 







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